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Title: ASPECTS OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MOST RELEVANT TO AFRICAS DEVELOPMENT WITH REFERENCE TO NIGER


1
ASPECTS OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MOST
RELEVANT TO AFRICAS DEVELOPMENT WITH REFERENCE
TO NIGERIAS SPACE PROGRAMME ByDr. J. O.
AkinyedeNational Space Research and Development
Agency (NASRDA) Abuja, NigeriaPaper presented
AtThe First African Leadership Conference on
SpaceScience and Technology for Sustainable
Development23rd 25th November, 2005Ladi
Kwali Hall, Sheraton Hotels Towers,Abuja,
Nigeria
2
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Definition of National Space Policy and
    Programmes
  • National Space Programme Implementation
  • Short Term Programmes
  • Micro-satellites for Earth observation
    Technology Acquisition Nigeriasat-1 Project
  • African Resource and Environmental
    Management Satellite /NigeriaSat-2 Project
  • Communication satellite acquisition
    NigComsat-1 Project
  • Establishment of Multi-source Ground
    Receiving Station
  • Space Application Support For Sustainable
    Development
  • Use and Application of Global Navigation
    Satellite System (GNSS)
  • Earth Observation for Weather Forecasting
  • Search and Rescue Satellite Programme

3
PRESENTATION OUTLINE Contd.
  • National Space Programme Implementation (Contd.)
  • Long Term Space Mission Programmes
  • Objectives of The Space Mission
  • Development of Allied/Supporting Industries
  • Launch of Indigenous Satellite
  • Development of National Geospatial Data
    Infrastructure
  • Building Capability in Space Geodesy and
    Geodynamics for Disaster Early Warning
  • Public Awareness and Capacity Building in Space
    Science and Technology
  • Bilateral and International Cooperation
  • Funding Options for National Space Programmes
  • Conclusion/Recommendations

4
1. INTRODUCTION
  • Children of the World, including African
    children, spoke at
  • the 2002 WSSD in Johannesburg
  • That
  • The future belongs to them
  • And that
  • We should ensure that they
    will inherit a world free of the
  • indignity and indecency
    occasioned by poverty,
  • environmental degradation, and
    patterns of unsustainable
  • production, consumption and
    development

5
INTRODUCTION (Contd.)
CHALLENGES FACING AFRICA
  • Preservation of Fundamental Life Support Systems
  • Air, Water and Food or Agricultural resources
  • Wholesome Environment, Shelter, and Access to
    Health Education
  • Some key natural disasters facing Africa
  • - Coastal and River Flooding and Erosion
  • - Uncoordinated Irrigation Schemes
  • - Harmatan and Sand Storms
  • - Droughts, Desertification Deforestation
  • - Land Degradation
  • - Gully Erosion
  • - Forest fire
  • We should therefore embark on initiatives
  • and develop agenda to address these problems

6
INTRODUCTION Contd.
  • Responsibilities Resting on Africa
  • Advance Strengthen Pillars of Sustainable
    Development economic development, social
    development and environmental protection
  • Advancements should be at local, national
    regional levels and linkage with global community
  • Decisions on targets based on timetables and
    partnerships with strong regional integration

7
INTRODUCTION Contd.
  • Responsibilities Resting on Africa
  • Speedily increase access to such basic
    requirements as clean water, sanitation, adequate
    shelter, energy, health care, food security and
    the protection of biodiversity.
  • Integrate measures to prevent/combat and also
    reduce risk of disasters
  • Collaborate and assist towards gaining access to
    financial resources, benefit from the opening of
    markets, ensure capacity-building in science and
    technology and use modern technology to bring
    about sustainable development.

8
INTRODUCTION Contd.
  • Space Technology has revolutionized the course of
    socio-economic development in many societies of
    the world
  • Satellites are the new eyes to see the world!
  • Will help Improve Food, Drinking water, and the
    Air we breathe
  • Promises aid in averting
  • Flooding
  • Famine
  • Fire etc
  • May be used to find
  • New Natural resources
  • Lost cities

9
Space Technology as Pre-requisite for Meeting
The Challenges
  • Earth observation satellites for remote sensing
    of the Earth
  • and weather forecast
  • Communication satellites provide ICT backbone
  • Global Navigation Satellite System for time,
    position and altitude determination
  • Search and rescue satellites for air and marine
    transportation disaster management
  • Satellites for scientific research and
    discoveries
  • These can help in
  • implementation of the recommendations arising
    from WSSD, UNISPACE III, NEPADs initiatives,
    Millennium Development Goals, Hyogo Framework of
    Action, etc,
  • determining initiatives and monitoring the
    indicators of sustainable development

10
  • Application Areas of Space Technology
  • resource (air, water, agriculture, soil,
    forestry, minerals, etc) development and
    management
  • health-care delivery
  • defence and security
  • communication
  • tourism
  • demography
  • transportation
  • environmental and disaster management
  • etc.

11
2. DEFINITION OF NATIONAL SPACE POLICY AND
PROGRAMMES
  • Space Technology continues to dictate pace of
    development and military strength of a nation and
    reflects the comprehensive power of a nation
  • A major driving force behind economies and
    securities of nations like USA, China and India
  • Imperative for Africa to embrace Space science
    and technology
  • Africa needs to develop well articulated policy
    to maximize benefits of space science and
    technology

12
NIGERIAN SPACE POLICY Policy Statements
Nigeria shall vigorously pursue the attainment
of space capabilities as an essential tool for
its socio-economic development and the
enhancement of the quality of life of its people.
The Nation shall achieve this through research ,
rigorous education, engineering development,
design and manufacture of appropriate hardware
and software in space technology, including
transport and payloads, such as satellite ,
telescopes and antennas for scientific research
and applications.   Government shall also foster
Bi-lateral and international cooperation in all
aspects of Space Science and Technology to ensure
that Nigerian Scientists and Engineers benefit
from global developments in the space enterprise.
13
NIGERIAN SPACE POLICY Vision to venture into
space dates back 1971 NASRDA ESTABLISHED IN
1999 Space Policy and Programme Approved in
2001 National Space Council chaired by Mr.
President. Technical Advisory
Committee International Cooperation Committee
14
  • NIGERIAN SPACE POLICY
  • Programme Implementation Strategy
  • NASRDA Development Centres
  • Centre for Basic Space Science and Astronomy,
    Nsukka
  • Centre for Remote Sensing, Jos
  • Centre for Satellite Technology Development ,
    Abuja
  • Centre for Geodesy and Geodynamics, Toro
  • Centre for Space Transport and Propulsion, Epe
  • Centre for Space Science and Technology
    Education, Ile-ife
  • Establishment of other relevant Agencies such as
    National Meteorological Agencies (NIMET),
    National Emergency Management Agencies (NEMA),
    etc.

15
3. NATIONAL SPACE PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION
  • The vision of Nigeria and Africa is to attain
    competence and capabilities in relevant areas of
    space science and technology that would impact on
    sustainable socio-economic development and
    improve the quality of life of Nigerians and
    Africans, and to make Africa pro-active and also
    compete in space exploration.
  • Therefore, the preparation of the national space
    policy and a 30 years space mission by Nigerian
    experts is in the right direction.

16
NATIONAL SPACE PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)
  • 3.1. Short Term Programmes
  • Objectives
  • Access to real-time and affordable Earth
    Observation data, (meteorology and remote
    sensing), for weather forecast, resources
    inventory and environmental and disaster
    management, through either direct purchase of
    images from existing satellites or the
    development of (a) Earth observation satellite
    and (b) low cost ground receiving station.
  • Access to affordable satellite communication
    back-bone, such as the on-going NigcomSat-1
    project and Rascom, and infrastructure to meet
    the need for ICT - based investment/business
    opportunities and socio-economic development.

17
NATIONAL SPACE PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)
  • Short Term Programmes
  • Acquire indigenous capability for the above
    through appropriate on-the-job training or
    hands-on-tool experience and know-how-technology
    transfer and capacity building and education.
  • Acquire capacity to process satellite images and
    utilize space-derived data and GIS technology for
    socio-economic development.
  • Meet core challenges of NEPAD in the areas of
    desertification and disaster management, food
    security, health, infrastructure, land use,
    safety and security, and water resources
    management and other national priorities.

18
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
3.11. NIGERIASAT-1 PROJECT
  • Technical Features
  • NigeriaSat-1 is an Earth-Observation
    micro-satellite
  • Orbit - Circular, 686km altitude, sun-synchronous
    orbit
  • 600km swath width,
  • 3-band multi-spectral,
  • Pushbroom scanning
  • Weight -100kg spacecraft
  • Life Span designed for 5 years (minimum)
  • Imaging payload
  • 32m GSD (ground sampling distance / resolution)
  • 0.52-0.62 (Green), 0.63-0.69 (Red), 0.76-0.9
    (NIR)
  • On-board data storage
  • 2 x 0.5Gbyte SSDR to support imaging activities
  • Store and Forward communications
  • 3.7 m parabolic dish ground station
  • Launched into orbit on 27TH September, 2003

19
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
NIGERIASAT-1 PROJECT
TECHNICAL CONFIGURATION
20
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
NIGERIASAT-1 PROJECT
  • NigeriaSat-1 Part of Disaster Monitoring
    Constellation (DMC) Satellites
  • Disaster Monitoring Constellation is an
    International collaboration between 5 countries
  • Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom, and
    China
  • To address the need for daily revisit and global
    coverage using EO (Earth Observation) satellites
    to monitor natural disasters
  • The five satellite owners have established a
    DMCII Consortium to derive maximum mutual
    benefits through exchange of their DMC satellites
    resources daily for monitoring of disasters and
    other dynamic phenomena.
  • NigeriaSat-1 has the advantages of Frequent
    revisits and being locally available and free of
    foreign exchange transaction problems
  • Has been providing services which have greatly
    improved the response time to aid -environmental
    monitoring and the management and mitigation of
    disasters wherever and whenever they occur.

21
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
NIGERIASAT-1 PROJECT
  • NigeriaSat-1 Project Implementation
  • NigeriaSat-1 Data validation
  • Research Projects on Resource Inventory,
    Environmental Management and Monitoring, Urban
    Sprawl, Tourism and Transportation
  • Over 100 Nigeriasat-1 image requests for various
    research and developmental programmes met
  • Data provision for management of disasters
    globally e.g. Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina
    disasters in South East Asia and New Orleans, USA
    respectively

22
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
NIGERIASAT-1 PROJECT
  • Nigeria Data Policy will be made more accessible
    and robust for African User Community through
  • NEPAD Policy for African regional integration
    and cooperation
  • Joint Ventures, including training programmes
  • Contribution of 5 of DMC data to global
    management of disasters
  • Collaboration of Nigeria and Algeria with other
    African countries will facilitate access to the
    services of the International Charter Space and
    Major Disaster in the event of any disaster the
    DMC joined the Charter on 15th Nov, 2005.

23
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
3.12. AFRICAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT SATELLITES(ARM)/NIGERIASAT-2 PROJECT
  • Project Objectives
  • A joint satellite programme proposed by South
    Africa and supported by, Nigeria, Algeria and
    Kenya and still open to any other interested
    country in Africa
  • It would form the cornerstone of the African
    Resource Management (ARM) Constellation
    satellites, to make African user community have
    access to real-time, unrestricted and affordable
    satellite data, thereby ensuring effective
    resource and environmental management in Africa.
  • The countries involved would collaborate in
    building capacity to support and transfer space
    technology, building forth on the existing
    indigenous knowledge
  • Participating counties to agree on modality for
    the building and launching of the satellites and
    coordination of the constellation
  • High-resolution payload with a 2.5 meters
    resolution in panchromatic mode and a 5m
    resolution in 6 multi-spectral bands.
  • Operate in constellation and will be accessed
    through the integration of the individual
    low-cost ground stations.

24
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
AFRICAN RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
SATELLITES (ARM)/NIGERIASAT-2 PROJECT
  • Benefits to Nigeria and Africa
  • Infrastructure Mapping, Water Resources
    Development Management
  • Agriculture and Land Use yield prediction,
    precision farming
  • Non-renewable energy resource exploration
  • Renewable natural resources protection
  • Wide life habitat management
  • Health Hazard Monitoring/vector disease mapping
  • Disaster Mitigation and Management

25
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
3.13. NIGCOMSAT-1 PROJECT
  • Project Objective
  • To enhance increase in telecommunication growth
    rate to an annual minimum of 13.5 such that 10
    of the rural communities is served in the short
    term, 30 in medium term and 60 in the long
    term.
  • To enhance the affordability of communication
    services
  • To provide a critical ICT infrastructure needed
    to leapfrog Africa into the Information age.
  • To enhance the capabilities of Nigerian
    engineers and scientist in the design,
    manufacture, operation and maintenance of
    communication satellites through strategic
    partnership with technical partners.
  • To provide a platform for operation of a public
    services telecommunication networks in Africa
    providing linkages to educational institutions,
    regional organizations, and government in Africa,
    to facilitate developmental activities.
  • To provide the backbone for tele-education and
    telemedicine thereby conserving and optimizing
    expenditure on duplication of infrastructure
    while bringing this services to the rural
    communities.

26
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
NIGCOMSAT-1 PROJECT (Contd.)
  • The government of Nigeria has signed a contract
    with China Great Wall Industrial Corporation for
    the implementation of a Nigerian Communication
    Satellite (NigcomSat-1) project.
  • The project is intended to provide the bandwidth
    requirement to address the various aspects of
    communication needs of Nigeria and Africa.
  • The satellite will operate in C, Ku, Ka and L
    bands with 40 trasponsiders and Africa , part of
    Middle East and Europe as foot prints.
  • It will be launched in the first quarter of 2007.

27
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
3.14. Establishment of Multi-source Ground
Receiving Stations
  • THE NEED
  • Increasing number of operating remote sensing,
    particularly from low-high resolution satellites,
    and the increasing need for satellite data to
    develop and manage resources and environment
  • Increase in demand for regular and real-time
    data for weather forecast and climate change
    prediction
  • The establishment of low-cost facilities to
    receive, process and archive data from remote
    sensing and meteorological satellites would
    provide a more accessible and economic
    alternative to the building and launching of
    micro-satellites by the less-privileged
    countries.

28
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Establishment of A Multi-source Ground Receiving
Station
  • Will ensure sustainable data reception from an
    array of satellites in space, e.g. AVHRR, the
    GOES satellites, RadarSat, AlSat-1 and
    NigeriaSat-1, etc, depending on the purpose and
    use of the data.
  • Availability of Low-cost software packages which
    can turn out IBM PC into a ground station for
    down loading data from GOES and METEOSAT. e. g.
    NIMET has established automatic weather station
    in many parts of Nigeria for weather data
    reception and services
  • Proposal to make the ARM satellite accessible to
    many African countries is being discussed which
    include the design of low cost facilities for
    data access and optimum interactive ground
    stations

29
Some of the Current and Future Tools for
Understanding the Earth and its Life Support
Systems
30
Technical specifications of some satellites
31
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
3.15. Space Application Support for Sustainable
Development (SASSD)
  • Sustainable Development is hinged on access to
  • real-time and reliable Earth observation data
  • voice and other information from satellite
    communication
  • Information will be available in different
    formats e.g.
  • Thematic maps
  • Digital image maps
  • Databases
  • Television and radio broadcasting
  • Telephone data communication
  • Internet backbone
  • TWO MAJOR AREAS ARE CONSIDERED
  • - Geo-information acquisition for planning
    decision-making
  • - Information communication for human development
    and poverty alleviation

32
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Space Application Support for Sustainable
Development (SASSD)
  • Geo-information Acquisition for Planning and
    Decision-making
  • Based on quality and accurate information on
    natural resources, atmospheric observations,
    anthropogenic and human elements that threaten
    the life support systems of planet earth.
  • Source of such reliable geo-information is space
    technology
  • To meet geo-information needs in many sectors of
    the economy, such as infrastructural development,
    water resources, agriculture and land use,
    energy, health and environmental and disaster
    management.

33
RS AND GIS SOLUTION TO GEO-INFORMATION
ACQUISITION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Source of data acquisition for a GIS
  • Digitizing from paper maps
  • Scanning
  • Traditional surveying techniques
  • Paper records field notes
  • Photogrammetry
  • Satellites e. g. Remote sensing,
  • GPS and others

34
  • Space Technology as a Major Source of Geo-
  • information Acquisition
  • Space acquired data now widely available
  • in both low and high resolution formats
  • Used globally to address sustainable
  • development problems
  • Production of relevant maps and databases on the
    state of every aspect of our life support
    systems.
  • GIS a major tool

35
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Space Application Support for Sustainable
Development (SASSD)
APPLICATION EXAMPLES
Unplanned/Uncontrolled Land uses and Urban
Development e.g. Lagos, 1962-2000
36
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Space Application Support for Sustainable
Development (SASSD)
APPLICATION EXAMPLES (Contd.)
Rainfall Measurement from Satellite Data
June
July
August
MeteoSat-TIR estimate of rainfall in West Africa
from June August 1997
37
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Space Application Support for Sustainable
Development (SASSD)
APPLICATION EXAMPLES (Contd.)
Environmental Management and Monitoring of Wild
Life Habitat
38
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Space Application Support for Sustainable
Development (SASSD)
APPLICATION EXAMPLES (Contd.)
Effluents from Domestic and Industrial Wastes
with impact on Marine Ecosystem
39
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Space Application Support for Sustainable
Development (SASSD)
APPLICATION EXAMPLES (Contd.)
Oil Spill Monitoring - NigeriaA Case Study off
the Nigerian Coastline
40
NigeriaSat-1/Landsat Data Applications Potentials
41
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Space Application Support for Sustainable
Development (SASSD)
  • Information Communication for Human Development
    and Poverty Alleviation
  • Provision of the necessary Information
    Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructures
  • Africa, with 12 of the total world population,
    has less than 2 of the worlds telephone lines
  • Tariffs on communication is highest in Africa
    than any other continent of the world
  • Improvements on rural telephony

42
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Space Application Support for Sustainable
Development (SASSD)
  • Justification for the Provision of ICT
    Infrastructure in Africa
  • Eliminate the capital flow of about 445
    million/year paid by African countries for
    international telephone traffic
  • To improve tele-density which is below 1 as
    per ITUs WorldTel initiative
  • Enhancement of Democracy and Good Governance
  • Enhancement of Education and Health
    Tele-medicine, Tele-education

43
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Space Application Support for Sustainable
Development (SASSD)
  • Elements of the Application of the Nigerian
    Communication Satellite in Nigeria and Africa
  • To provide a platform for the operation of
    public services telecommunication networks in
    Africa, with linkages to educational
    institutions, regional organizations, and
    government in Africa, to facilitate developmental
    activities.
  • To provide enabling environment for African ICT
    business industry to have a fair share of the
    World telecommunication market currently
    projected to hit 110 billion dollars by the year
    2010.
  • To provide a platform for community and regional
    integration through social and cultural
    dissemination, promoting peace and stability in
    the Africa region.

44
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
  • 3.16. Use and Application of Global Navigation
    Satellite System
  • (GNSS)
  • GNSS is a positioning and timing system-based
    space technology
  • One of the most promising space application
    tools
  • EXISTING/UPCOMINGS SYSTEMS
  • USAs 24 Global Positioning Satellite (GPS)
    System
  • Russias 24 Global Navigation Satellite System
    (GLONASS)
  • European Unions GALLILEO to be launched in 2008
  • Nigerian Communication Satellite, Nigcomsat-1
    with two navigation payloads (for augmentations)

45
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Use and Application of Global Navigation
Satellite System (GNSS)
  • GNSS APPLICATION AREAS
  • Aviation,
  • Disaster management,
  • Environmental monitoring,
  • Survey and Geomatics,
  • Precision Agriculture,
  • Civil and Defence Surveillance,
  • Disease Vector Mapping,
  • Transportation,
  • Site Specific/Location-related project.

46
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
3.17. Earth Observation for Weather Forecast and
Related Phenomena
  • Metrological Satellites are essential for
    better
  • understanding of the
  • Atmosphere, Ozone Depletion, Global Warming
  • Atmospheric and Water Pollution, Floods,
    Droughts
  • Land Degradation, Management of Natural
    Resources
  • Freshwater availability, Agricultural services
  • Hazardous wastes disposal and disaster
    management
  • Improved Weather and Rainfall Prediction
  • Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership
    (IGOS-P)
  • World Weather Watch Global Observing System
    (WWW-GOS)
  • Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW)
  • World Hydrological Cycle Observing System
    (WHYCOS)
  • Global Climate Observing System (GCOS)
  • Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS)

47
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Earth Observation for Weather Forecast and
Related Phenomena (2)
  • Implications of Meteorological and Earth
    Observations
  • Systems to Sustainable Development (Obasi,
    19..)
  • Provision of increasingly beneficial weather,
    water, climate and
  • related environmental services to the public
  • Delivery of accurate and reliable data and
    warnings of severe
  • events related to weather, water, climate and
    natural
  • environment
  • Enhanced relationship between Meteorological
    factors and the
  • quality of agricultural output
  • Management of Freshwater resources
  • Servicing the aviation and Marine Navigation
  • Managing safe communities in urban areas as well
    as Marine
  • ecosystems to redress pollution and loss of
    biodiversity

48
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
Earth Observation for Weather Forecast and
Related Phenomena (3)
  • Examples of Global initiatives for Africa
  • GOOS to establish Regional Ocean Observing and
    Forecasting
  • System for Africa (ROOFS Africa) a UNESCO
    Cross-cutting
  • project.
  • Meteosat Second Generation (MSG.1) to beam down
    sharp images of
  • the changing weather in Africa, WITH
    ASSOCIATED PROGRAMMES
  • What should Africa Do?
  • Awareness Campaign on the usefulness of weather
    observations
  • and environmental data services
  • Establishment of National Meteorological
    Services Agency in each country
  • Linkage and Cooperation with the Integrated
    Global Observing
  • Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P) and other
    related initiatives
  • Establishment of Ground Receiving Stations for
    weather data acquisition

49
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
3.18. Search and Rescue Satellite Programme
  • Application of Satellite Technology in the
    aviation and marine transportation sector
  • For prompt location and rescue of victims of air
    and marine transportation disasters
  • Comprises of dedicated number of Satellites
    equipped with GPS and Communications devices

50
Short Term Programmes (Contd.)
COSPAS-SARSAT Programme
  • Appropriate beacons carried on ships and
    aircrafts send signals to satellites during
    emergency or distress alerts
  • Network of Mission Control Centres are located
    around the world for distributing the alert
    distress data with respect to the location of
    accident
  • The Abuja Search and Rescue satellite mission
    control centre is managed by National Emergency
    Management Agency (NEMA)

51
NATIONAL SPACE PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION (Contd.)
3.2. Long Term Space Mission and Programmes
  • Road Map for Nigerias Space Mission
  • Geared towards indigenous competence and the
    realization of Nigerias Space Technology Vision
    to be a master of the technology and key player
    in the field
  • Consolidate on achievements of the short-term
    programmes through previous technology
    acquisition
  • Attain competence in all areas of Space
    Technology

52
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
  • 3.21. Policy Definition and Objectives of the
    Space Mission
  • Definition of policy with clear-cut
    objectives
  • To produce a Nigerian manufactured satellite in
    Nigeria by Nigerians
  • To produce a launch vehicle made in Nigeria by
    Nigerians
  • To Launch a Nigerian-manufactured satellite from
    a launch site in Nigeria
  • To produce the first and subsequent Nigerian
    Astronauts
  • To be part of the global efforts in utilizing
    the space environment for micro-gravity
    experiment for the benefit of humanity.

53
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
  • Requirements For Implementation
  • Political Will
  • Sustainable Funding
  • Institutional Framework
  • Relevant Infrastructure
  • Satellite Education at all levels,
  • Capacity Building,
  • Allied Industries
  • Bilateral and International Collaborations

54
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
  • 3.22. Development of Allied/Supporting Industries
  • National Space Programme can be sustained if
    local allied/supporting industries are available
  • Provision of raw materials and components that
    are crucial for manufacturing, research and
    developments.
  • Examples of required Industries
  • battery manufacturing
  • aluminum smelting
  • software development
  • micro-electronics development
  • steel rolling mills development
  • petrochemicals
  • machine tools

55
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
  • Areas Of Collaboration In Achieving Set
    Objectives
  • Space Agencies and Industries In Africa and
    other Agencies or countries such as
  • National Aeronautic and Space Administration
    (NASA)
  • Russian Space Agency (RSA)
  • European Space Agency (ESA)
  • Canadian Space Agency (CSA)
  • Japanese Space Agency (JAXA)
  • NASA jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)
  • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
  • China Great Wall Industries Corporation
  • etc.

56
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
  • 3.23. Launch of Indigenous Satellite in Nigeria
    Using Indigenous Launch Vehicle
  • Embedded in Space transport and propulsion
    programmes
  • Procurement of components
  • Assembly of components
  • Manufacture of components and equipment
  • Professional and Technical Services
  • Purchase and design of rocket models
  • Development of Flight Safety technology

57
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
  • Launch of Indigenous Satellite in Nigeria Using
    Indigenous Launch Vehicle
  • Requirements
  • Infrastructure Development e.g. Laboratories,
    Control Rooms, Launch Pads etc.
  • Inventory of existing materials and resources
  • Capacity building and human resources
    development
  • Collaboration with relevant international
    community

58
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
3.24. Development Of National Geospatial Data
Infrastructure
THE UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR
AFRICA (UNECA), THROUGH CODI, CONSIDERS THE
DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL SPATIAL DATA
INFRASTRUCTURE (NSDI) MANDATORY FOR ALL AFRICAN
COUNTRIES. NSDI Technology is THE TECHNOLOGY,
POLICIES, STANDARDS, AND INSTITUTIONAL
ARRANGEMENTS NECESSARY TO ACQUIRE, PROCESS,
STORE, DISTRIBUTE, AND IMPROVE THE UTILIZATION OF
GEOSPATIAL DATA FROM MANY DIFFERENT SOURCES AND
FOR A WIDE GROUP OF POTENTIAL USERS (GROOT,
1998)
59
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
Development Of National Geospatial Data
Infrastructure
  • Potential Benefits
  • The knowledge and understanding of the quantum
    and spread of our natural resources to enable
    their sustainable exploitation and allocation, as
    well as our environment and socio-economic
    development opportunities
  • The optimization of the productive level of our
    human and natural resources
  • Enhance our communication capacity and place our
    country at comparative advantage to attract
    foreign investment
  • Direct development to meet maximum needs at
    lowest environmental cost
  • Greater transparency and accountability at the
    national level as well as spatial aspects of
    governance
  • Capacity for emergency response to famine, food
    scarcity, poverty and disease outbreaks

60
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
Development of National Geospatial Data
Infrastructure (NGDI) STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK
LEGAL ISSUES
61
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
Development Of National Geospatial Data
Infrastructure
  • ADMONITION
  • FOR AFRICA TO BENEFIT FROM THE GDI INITIATIVES,
    AND IF GEOSPATIAL DATA ARE TO BE PROPERLY
    INVENTORIZED, CATALOGUED, DOCUMENTED,
    STANDARDIZED, UPDATED AND SHARED WITHOUT
    RESTRICTIONS INDEFINITELY, IT BOILS DOWN TO
  • POLITICAL WILL!
  • POLITICAL WILL!!
  • POLITICAL WILL!!!
  • DEVELOPMENT OF A GDI SHOULD BE A VOLUNTARY AND
    MUST HAVE A LONG-TERM VISION
  • THERE IS NO GUARANTEE THAT THE TECHNOLOGY IS
    GOING TO BENEFIT SOCIETY UNLESS THERE IS A
    POLITICAL WILL AT THE HIGHEST ECHELON OF
    GOVERNMENTS FULLY COMMITTED TO
  • TAKE THE INITIATIVE AS ITS OWN AND INVOLVE ITS
    CITIZEN
  • INVEST MONEY (PARTIALLY OR FULLY)
  • ENACT POLICY/LEGISLATION/ETC. TO ENFORCE GDI
    ACTIVITIES
  • SHARE GI DATA

62
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
3.25. Building Capability in Space Geodesy and
Geodynamics for Disaster Early Warning
  • Nigeria established the Centre for Geodesy and
    Geodynamics to meet sustainable development
    challenges, particularly in the areas of disaster
    early warning and management
  • The programmes of the Centre include
  • Surveying and Mapping
  • Natural and Man-made Hazard Monitoring and
    Management
  • Crustal Deformation Monitoring
  • Coastal Subsidence Research/Monitoring
  • floods
  • Global Mean Sea Level monitoring.

63
Long Term Space Mission and Programme (Contd.)
Building Capability in Space Geodesy and
Geodynamics for Disaster Early Warning
  • Requisite Facilities and Fundamentals for the
    implementation of the Centres programmes
    include
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR)
  • Very Long Baseline Inter-ferrometry (VLBI)
  • Participation in other relevant global
    monitoring systems
  • Capacity to utilize monitoring systems and
    collaboration with South Africa
  • Suitable site selected for the establishment of
    the Centre observatory in Nigeria

64
4. PUBLIC AWARENESS AND CAPACITY BUILDING IN
SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  • Awareness Creation is necessary at all levels of
    Education
  • Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Institutions,
    with appropriate motivations for both students
    and teachers
  • Education Ministry to develop appropriate
    Curricula and interest in Basic Space Sciences
    Satellite Technology
  • Strengthen Mathematics and Science subjects in
    Secondary Schools
  • Strengthen African Regional Centre for Space
    Sciences and Technology Education and Centre for
    Basic Space Science
  • Provide planetarium for public awareness
  • Sensitize private sector for participation,
    particularly in the communication industry

65
5. BILATERAL AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
  • COMMITTEE ON PEACEFUL USES OF OUTER SPACE
    (COPUOS) AND ITS LEGAL AND SCIENTIFIC AND
    TECHNICAL SUBCOMMITTEE WERE ESTABLISHED IN 1958
    AND 1964 RESPECTIVELY TO PROMOTE INTERNATIONAL
    COOPERATION IN SPACE ACTIVITIES
  • NIGERIA BECAME A MEMBER IN 1977. Presently there
    are 14 AFRICAN COUNTRIES
  • DR ADIGUN ADE ABIODUN AN AFRICAN IS THE
    CURRENT CHAIRMAN
  • COPUOS PLAYS VITAL ROLES IN THE ORGANISATION OF
    UNS GLOBAL
  • CONFERENCES ON THE EXPLORATION AND PEACEFUL
    USES OF OUTER SPACE
  • UNISPACE III 1997 SPACE BENEFITS FOR
    HUMANITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST
  • CENTURY
  • VIENNA DECLARATION 33 SPECIFIC
    ACTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS ON
  • SPACE AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
  • 11 ACTION TEAMS SET UP TO IMPLEMENT THE
    RECOMMENDATIONS
  • SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION TO MAXIMIZE ITS
    BENEFITS REQUIRES THE COMMITMENT OF ALL
    STAKEHOLDERS AND POLICY MAKERS IN AFRICA

66
6. FUNDING OPTIONS FOR THE NATIONAL SPACE
PROGRAMMES
  • Sustainable Funding is the bedrock for
    successful implementation of Space programmes
  • Governments in Africa should take the lead in
    investing in Space Science and Technology
  • Encouragements should be given to Private Sector
    participation without compromising national
    security
  • Sources of funding
  • Budgetary Allocation e.g. NASRDA is advocating
    for 0.2 of statutory budgetary allocation from
    oil gas revenue annually
  • Taxes collected from some private sector
    companies
  • Other developmental funds e.g. Petroleum
    Development Trust Fund, in Nigeria
  • Encourage financial and moral support from the
    private sector and general public

67
7. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Space Technology remains the driving force
    behind most developed and developing economies
    it reflects the comprehensive power of a nation
    in terms of defence and security and sustainable
    socio-economic development
  • Africa should no longer sit at the mercy of
    selling or donor Agencies to consume space
    products Africa should be willing to participate
    as an active player and service provider in the
    space enterprise, and through NEPAD provide the
    platform for scientific excellence in space
    science and technology to be globally competitive
    and contribute to the development of the
    continent
  • Africa is encouraged to work towards competence
    and self-reliance in all aspects of the space
    programme, particularly in the areas of
    satellites technology acquisition and
    applications in the short term and space science
    and technology education, research and
    development in the long term. The ARM initiative
    is viewed as a product towards this development
  • Achieving these Objectives
  • Challenges before African Scientists and
    Engineers
  • Africas scientists and engineers are called
    upon to rise to the challenges of developing and
    applying the invaluable space technology to
    tackle the problems of sustainable food
    production, flood disaster, environmental
    degradation and the impact of desertification and
    deforestation on biodiversity, food and livestock
    production.

68
CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Achieving Our Objectives Contd.
  • Relevance of well defined policies and programmes
    as road maps
  • Adequate attention and commitment should be given
    to the
  • development and implementation of policies on
    science and
  • technology, particularly space science and
    technology and geo-
  • information that have become indispensable
    tools in any
  • sustainable development effort.

69
CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Achieving Our Objectives Contd.
  • Mass awareness and enlightening programmes at
    various levels
  • Political
  • There is need for mass education and awareness
    programmes on the part of the political
    leadership and decision-makers at all levels of
    government on the role of space science and
    technology in the development process. Sufficient
    political will and support must be given to the
    space programmes in each country by the African
    leaders
  • University/Polytechnic
  • Greater efforts and commitment should be made
    towards capacity building by developing curricula
    in the basic space sciences and strengthening the
    relevant institutions of higher learning and
    Centres of excellence at both national and
    regional levels to support training, education,
    research and development efforts especially those
    dealing with sustainable development and
  • management of natural resources and
    environment.

70
CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Achieving Our Objectives Contd.
  • Mass awareness and enlightening programmes at
    various levels
  • Secondary School
  • At the secondary school level, students
    should be educated in various atmospheric-and
    space-related activities such as balloons,
    rocketry and debates on space and society.
  • General Public
  • There should be greater awareness in the form
    of campaigns, public lectures, conferences and
    workshops on the concept of sustainable
    development, with particular focus on
    equitability of production and consumption
    and environmental protection, taking into account
    the unique roles and application of space
    technology.

71
CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Achieving Our Objectives Contd.
  • Relevance of SDI development in Africa and
    active participation in COPUOS activities and
    its related programmes
  • Each country in Africa, as a matter of priority
    and urgency, should respond to the call of
    UNECA to make Africa a sustainable information
    society by 2010 by establishing the necessary
    infrastructures such as NSDI and building
    capacity for all aspects of GI production,
    management and sharing, especially those related
    to affordable and reliable space-derived data
  • African member states of COPUOS are called upon
    to play more active roles in the activities of
    the Committee to restore the confidence of the
    international community and their believe in the
    benefits derivable from space technology, and
    the fact that Africas renaissance and ability
    to realize the Vienna, WSSD and Millennium
    Declaration goals will best be achieved through
    the knowledge and implementation of the
    space-related activities, particularly UNISPACE
    III recommendations consequently there
  • should be synergy between African regional
    efforts, such as NEPAD, and the UN Programmes of
    space application and other international
    initiatives such as the international Charter
    space and major disasters and TIGER initiative
    for water resources management in Africa.

72
CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Achieving Our Objectives Contd.
  • Linkage with relevant global initiatives such
    as IGOS-P, ROOFS-Afria and PUMA private sector
    participation, especially in commercialisation of
    spin-offs and benefits
  • Appropriate institutions and infrastructures
    should be put in place to link up with the
    various programmes of the Earth observation
    systems, such as the Integrated Global Observing
    Strategy (IGOS) and other related programmes, in
    view of their implications for food security and
    water, ecosystems, environmental and disaster
    management.
  • Each country should develop and pursue its own
    programme within the limit of national resources,
    with priority and adequate funding of
    infrastructural and skilled man-power
    development however more emphasis should be
    given to regional collaboration and integration.
  • There is need for cooperation and partnership
    between relevant national institutions and
    private sectors, especially industries, on
    space-related projects including the translation
    of spin-off benefits to viable commercial products

73
Thank You
We Shall Meet Again!
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