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Bio & E/E Warm-Up: 8/26/10 FACT: Biology is the study of life. FACT: Earth science is the study of Earth s processes.?: Where did you go to middle school? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bio


1
Bio E/E Warm-Up 8/26/10
  • FACT Biology is the study of life.
  • FACT Earth science is the study of Earths
    processes.
  • ? Where did you go to middle school? What was
    the name of your science teacher last year?

2
Bio Warm-Up 8/27/10
  • FACT The cytoskeleton in a cell is like a
    humans skeletonit provides strength and
    structure.
  • ? What are the six steps of the scientific
    method? (PROBLEM, HYPOTHESIS, PROCEDURE,
    EXPERIMENT, RECORD DATA/OBSERVATIONS,
    RESULTS/CONCLUSION)

3
E/E Warm-Up 8/27/10
  • FACT The two most common gases in Earths
    atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen.
  • ? Which of the following terms are scientific
    (SI) ²?its of measurement?
  • METER, GALLON, LITER, MILE, KILOGRAM, POUND

4
Bio Warm-Up 8/30/10
  • FACT An enzyme is a protein that increases the
    rate of a chemical reaction and is involved in
    nearly all metabolic processes.
  • ? What is the difference between a qualitative
    observation and a quantitative observation?
    (QUAL. OB. DESCRIBES APPEARANCE AND
    PROPERTIESQUAN. OB. DESCRIBES HOW MUCH,
    MEASUREMENTS)

5
E/E Warm-Up 8/30/10
  • FACT The earths hydrosphere includes all of the
    water on the planet.
  • ? If I wanted to find the mass of an apple, what
    SI unit would I use? (GRAM)
  • ? If I wanted to find the weight of an apple,
    what SI unit would I use? (NEWTON)

6
Bio Warm-Up 8/31/10
  • FACT Viruses can reproduce only when they are
    inside a host cell.
  • ? In an experiment, what is a control? What is
    an independent variable?

7
E/E Warm-Up 1 8/31/10
  • FACT Earths layers (from the inside out)
    include the inner core, outer core, mantle,
    crust.
  • ? In an experiment, what is a control? What is
    an independent variable?

8
E/E Warm-Up 2 8/31/10
  • FACT Topographic maps display elevation changes
    on Earths surface.
  • ? A wooden block has a mass of 10g and a volume
    of 5cm3. What is the density?

9
Bio Warm-Up 9/1/10
  • FACT A mutation is a change in a DNA strand. A
    mutation is caused by a mutagen.
  • ? What is a biotic factor within an ecosystem?
    (SOMETHING ALIVE OR FORMERLY ALIVEANIMAL) An
    abiotic factor? (NOT ALIVE NEVER WAS) Give
    examples of each. (POLLUTANTS, ROCK, AIR, WATER,
    WEATHER)

10
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/1/10
  • FACT Cartographers use Global Positioning
    Systems (GPS) to create accurate maps.
  • ? A map scale displays 1cm30km. If
    Winston-Salem and Durham are 3cm apart on a N.C.
    map, how far apart are they in reality? (90km)

11
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/1/10
  • FACT Time zones must exist because the Earth
    spins once every 24 hours. Seasons exist because
    the Earth sits upon a tilted axis.
  • ? What is the westernmost city in NC on the map?
    (ASHEVILLE) Southernmost? (WILMINGTON)
    Easternmost? (KITTY HAWK)

12
Bio Warm-Up 9/2/10
  • FACT The major stages of plant reprod- uction
    include pollination, fertilization, dormancy,
    dispersal, germination.
  • ? What SI UNITS would be used to measure each
    of the following
  • 1) the mass of an apple
  • 2) the length of your desk
  • 3) the temperature of this classroom
  • 4) the volume of a bottle of lotion

13
E/E Warm-Up 9/2/10
  • FACT Molten rock beneath Earths surface is
    called magma. Above Earths surface, it is
    called lava.
  • ? 1) What would be the latitude-longitude
    coordinates of an island that was located EXACTLY
    where the equator and the prime meridian crossed
    each other?
  • 2) What does the word hemisphere mean?

14
E/E Notebook Check 1 9/2/10
  • 8/26, 8/27, 8/30, 8/31 1, 8/31 2, 9/1 1,
  • 9/1 2, 9/2
  • (8 total entries)

15
Bio Warm-Up 9/7/10
  • FACT mRNA molecules that are built in the cells
    nucleus carry the DNA message from the nucleus to
    the ribosomes.
  • ? Define competition. (TWO ORGANISMS GOING
    AGAINST EACH OTHER FOR RESOURCES) What are 3
    major reasons that animals compete? (FOOD/WATER,
    TERRITORY, MATES)

16
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/7/10
  • FACT Atlantic Ocean hurricanes usually form
    near west Africa as a result of heavy water
    evaporation, which forms huge clouds.
  • ? List 3 major interstates on which you can
    travel in North Carolina. (I-40, I-85, I-95,
    I-77)

17
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/7/10
  • FACT A biotic factor is a living thing, such as
    an oak tree. An abiotic factor is non-living,
    such as air or water.
  • ? Would a topographic map of Winston-Salem have
    a GREATER NUMBER or a LESSER NUMBER of contour
    lines than a topographic map of Boone? WHY?
    (BOONE IS MORE MOUNTAINOUS THAN W-S)

18
Bio Warm-Up 9/8/10
  • FACT The mitochondria are referred to as a
    cells powerhouse.
  • ? According to the climatogram (precipitation
    are bars and temperature is the line), is there a
    rainy season and a dry season in this biome?
    Is there a warm season and a cold season?

19
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/8/10
  • FACT The San Andreas Fault is a crack in the
    Earths crust in California. Movement of the
    crust along this fault causes earthquakes.
  • ? How do you represent a depression, hole, or
    lake on a topographic map?

20
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/8/10
  • FACT Caves usually form within limestone rock
    because limestone is very soft and can be eaten
    away quickly by water.

? What are the elevations of A, B, C, D?
21
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/9/10
  • FACT The Earths solar system is located in the
    Milky Way Galaxy.
  • ? What are the 6 major steps of the scientific
    method? (review) (QUESTION, HYPOTHESIS,
    EXPERIMENT, OBSERVATIONS, RESULTS, CONCLUSION)

22
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/9/10
  • FACT All regular atoms have an overall neutral
    chargethe number of electrons (-) is equal to
    the number of protons ().
  • ? Name 3 common elements (atoms) that make up
    items on Earth. (HYDROGEN, BORON, SODIUM,
    ALUMINUM)

23
Bio Warm-Up 9/13/10
  • FACT If pesticide were to be sprayed on plants,
    it would eventually negatively affect large
    animals more than small animals due to biological
    magnification since theyre eating more of the
    pesticide over time.
  • ? Why can there NOT be a sustainable ecosystem
    containing 250 individual organisms of each
    trophic level in the food web (250 corn plants,
    250 squirrels, and 250 hawks)? If there are 250
    corn plants, about how many squirrels can be
    sustained? (25) How many hawks? (2-3)

24
E/E Warm-Up 9/13/10
  • FACT Wood is a renewable resource. If used
    responsibly, trees can be grown and harvested
    without ever running out of supply.
  • ?

Atom Atomic Mass p n e-
Na Sodium 11 23 11 12 11
X 17 37 18 20 17
25
Bio Warm-Up 9/14/10
  • FACT Humans have 46 chromosomes per cell,
    arranged in 23 pairs. Pairs 1-22 are called
    autosomes, while pair 23 are the sex
    chromosomes.
  • ? List the 3 major symbiotic relationships that
    occur in nature.
  • Give an example of each.

26
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/14/10
  • FACT At one time in Earths history, all 7
    continents were joined into a giant
    supercontinent, called Pangaea.
  • ? Bookp. 74 1, 2, 6
  • Copy down each question and write the answer!

27
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/14/10
  • FACT Erosion is the movement of materials from
    one place to another by means of wind, water,
    ice, and gravity.
  • ? Provide one example of a
  • Mixture, Element, Solution, Compound

28
Bio Warm-Up 9/15/10
  • FACT DNA copies itself in the cells nucleus
    during a process called replication.
  • ? What is a niche? What is the niche of a tree
    frog in a typical North Carolina forest
    ecosystem?

29
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/15/10
  • FACT Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years
    old. We know this because scientists have dated
    the oldest rocks on Earth to be this old.
  • ? What types of foods do you eat that are
    acidic? (SODA, ORANGES, LEMONS, TOMATOES,
    VINEGAR, MILK) What type of health complication
    is caused by too much acid in the digestive
    system? (HEARTBURN / ACID REFLUX)

30
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/15/10
  • FACT Hurricane strength is measured on the
    Saffir-Simpson scale. Category 5 hurricanes have
    the strongest winds.
  • ? What are the 4 states of matter? Which state
    of matter rarely exists on Earth?

31
Bio Warm-Up 9/16/10
  • FACT Mitosis is the division of a cell nucleus.
    Cytokinesis is the division of the cell itself.
  • ? What is photosynthesis? What is cellular
    respiration? How are they related to one
    another? Briefly define each.

32
E/E Warm-Up 9/16/10
  • FACT Groundwater resides in underground areas
    known as zones of saturation.
  • ? List 5 specific kinds or names of rocks.

33
Bio Warm-Up 9/20/10
  • FACT DNA is a double-stranded, twisted molecule
    called a double helix. (It looks like a spiral
    staircase.)
  • ? Name at least 2 species of organisms on earth
    that can experience exponential population growth
    (never-ending, fast growth). (NOTHING)

34
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/20/10
  • FACT Igneous rocks are formed in and around
    volcanoes from cooled magma and lava.
  • ? Which mineral is harder chalk or gold?
    (GOLD) HOW CAN YOU TELL? (RUB THEM TOGETHERSEE
    WHICH ONE SCRATCHES THE OTHER)

35
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/20/10
  • FACT The bottom of the ocean is usually very
    deep and very flat. It is called the abyssal
    plain.
  • ? What is the difference between the COLOR and
    the STREAK of a mineral? (COLOR COLOR OF
    SURFACE OF MINERALSTREAK COLOR OF MINERAL WHEN
    SCRATCHED ONTO HARD SURFACE)

36
Bio Warm-Up 9/21/10
  • FACT In DNA, the nitrogen base Adenine always
    pairs with Thymine, while Cytosine always pairs
    with Guanine (A-T C-G).
  • ? In the U.S., the death rate is currently
    higher than the birth rate. Why, then, is the
    U.S. population still increasing? (THE
    IMMIGRATION RATE IS HIGHER THAN THE EMIGRATION
    RATE)

37
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/21/10
  • FACT Salinity is the measure of the amount of
    salt dissolved in water.
  • ? Why cant dinosaur fossils be found in
    igneous rock? THINK ABOUT IT!!! (IGNEOUS ROCKS
    ARE FORMED FROM MAGMA, WHICH WOULD DESTROY ANY
    FOSSILS)
  • ? Are there any active volcanoes in the U.S.
    today? If so, where are they? (YES, MT. ST.
    HELENS IN WASHINGTON, YELLOWSTONE CALDERA,
    HAWAII, ALASKA)

38
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/21/10
  • FACT A drought is an extended period of
    below-average precipitation. Winston-Salem is in
    danger of falling into a drought in the coming
    weeks.
  • ? Sediment (like sand) is fused into a
    sedimentary rock (like sandstone) during a
    process called LITHIFICATION.

39
Bio Warm-Up 9/22/10(Period 1 Only)
  • FACT The three major shapes of bacteria cells
    are cocci (sphere), bacilli (rod), spirilli
    (spiral)
  • ? Draw and label a brief diagram of the carbon
    cycle. Include the following
  • Pine tree wolf
  • CO2 (carbon dioxide)
  • C6H12O6 (glucose sugar)

40
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/22/10
  • FACT A floodplain is a flat area that extends
    from a riverbank. This area usually floods
    during times of high precipitation.
  • ? How could an igneous rock (such as granite)
    turn into a sedimentary rock?

41
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/22/10
  • FACT Stalactites are mineral deposits that hang
    from the ceiling of a cave. Stalagmites are
    mineral deposits that rise from a cave floor.
  • ? Scientists have found fossils of tropical
    plants buried in the ice in Antarctica (the South
    Pole). Explain how these fossils may have
    appeared here!!!

42
Bio Warm-Up 9/27/10(Periods 2, 5, 6 Only)
  • FACT The three major shapes of bacteria cells
    are cocci (sphere), bacilli (rod), spirilli
    (spiral)
  • ? Draw and label a brief diagram of the carbon
    cycle. Include the following
  • Pine tree wolf
  • CO2 (carbon dioxide)
  • C6H12O6 (glucose sugar)

43
E/E Warm-Up 9/27/10
  • FACT Barrier islands are long ridges of sand or
    sediment that are separated from the mainland.
    The Outer Banks of N.C. are barrier islands.
  • ? If sandstone is squeezed and heated, a(n)
    ______________ rock will likely form. If the
    sandstone is heated so much that it melts, a(n)
    _______________ rock will likely form.

44
Bio Warm-Up 9/28/10
  • FACT The major function of plant leaves is to
    trap sunlight for photosynthesis.
  • ? What is biodiversity? (MANY DIFFERENT
    ORGANISMS IN AN ECOSYSTEM)

45
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/28/10
  • FACT All of the land area whose water drains
    into a single stream is called the streams
    watershed.
  • ? Mount Everest is constantly getting TALLER.
    The distance between Africa and North America is
    constantly GETTING WIDER. This is all due to
    CONTINENTAL DRIFT.

46
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/28/10
  • FACT The Mesozoic Era is referred to as the
    age of the dinosaurs.
  • ? How can a volcano in Japan affect people
    living in Winston-Salem? Be complete! (ASH FROM
    THE VOLCANO CAN BLOCK OUT THE SUN, CAUSING
    WEATHER CHANGES)

47
Bio Warm-Up 9/29/10
  • FACT Taxonomy is the study of grouping and
    naming organisms based on their shared
    characteristics.
  • ? A dam breaks upstream of Salem Lake and the
    ferns that grow on the banks of the lake are
    wiped out. What type of limiting factor comes
    into play in this scenario? (DENSITY-INDEPENDENT
    FLOODING/HUMAN ACTIVITY)

48
E/E Warm-Up 1 9/29/10
  • FACT Soil is the loose covering of weathered
    rock and organic matter on Earths surface.
  • ? What causes continental drift? (SEAFLOOR
    SPREADING)

49
E/E Warm-Up 2 9/29/10
  • FACT Desertification is the process where
    useful farmland turns into desert, usually due to
    a drought.
  • ? To CONVERGE means to come together. To
    DIVERGE means to move apart.

50
Bio Warm-Up 9/30/10
  • FACT A vacuole is a storage tank in a cell,
    usually for food or water. Plant cells usually
    have larger vacuoles than animal cells.
  • ? List one invasive species that affects an
    ecosystem in the U.S. Briefly describe how this
    species was introduced and how this species
    impacts the ecosystem.

51
E/E Warm-Up 9/30/10
  • FACT Weather describes day-to-day events in the
    atmosphere. Climate describes long-range
    patterns involving temperature, precipitation,
    etc.
  • ? What type of plate boundary is most likely to
    cause earthquakes? Orogeny? Seafloor spreading?

52
Bio Warm-Up 10/4/10
  • FACT Sex cells are commonly referred to as
    gametes.
  • ? Write a scientifically-accurate sentence
    relating invasive species to biodiversity.
    (INVASIVE SPECIES DECREASE THE BIODIVERSITY OF AN
    ECOSYSTEM.)

53
E/E Warm-Up 1 10/4/10
  • FACT A wetland is an area that is covered with
    water for a large part of the year. Swamps,
    bogs, and marshes are all types of wetlands.
  • ? Which material has a higher viscositypancake
    syrup or water? Is high-viscosity lava or
    low-viscosity lava more dangerous to humans?
    (LOW-VISCOSITY LAVA IS MORE DANGEROUS B/C IT
    MOVES MORE QUICKLY.) WHY?

54
E/E Warm-Up 2 10/4/10
  • FACT An equinox occurs when the lengths of day
    and night are both equal12 hours each.
  • ? The RING of FIRE is the area surrounding
    the Pacific Ocean where volcanoes and earthquakes
    commonly occur.

55
Bio Warm-Up 10/5/10
  • FACT Mimicry is a structural adaptation that
    allows one species to resemble another species.
  • ? (review) Why do populations almost always
    initially grow exponentially, but then experience
    much slower growth after a period of time?
    (RESOURCES ARE HIGH AT FIRST, BUT THEN DECLINE)

56
E/E Warm-Up 1 10/5/10
  • FACT The longest number of hours of daylight in
    N.C. occurs on the summer solstice, while the
    longest number of hours of darkness in N.C.
    occurs on the winter solstice.
  • ? WHERE in the United States are earthquakes
    most common? (CALIFORNIA ALASKA) WHY????
    (EARTHQUAKES OCCUR ALONG PLATE BOUNDARIES) Do
    earthquakes commonly occur in North Carolina?
    (NO, B/C N.C. IS NOT LOCATED NEAR A PLATE
    BOUNDARY)

57
E/E Warm-Up 2 10/5/10
  • FACT A theory is an explanation based on many
    observations during repeated experiments.
  • ? What other natural disasters can be CAUSED by
    earthquakes? (TSUNAMI, VOLCANO, LANDSLIDE,
    AVALANCHE)

58
Bio Warm-Up 10/6/10
  • FACT Camouflage is a structural adaptation that
    allows an organism to blend in to the surrounding
    environment.
  • ? What does a triangular-shaped age structure
    diagram tell you about the future population
    growth of a country or area? (FUTURE POP. GROWTH
    WILL BE SIGNIFICANTLOTS OF YOUNG PPL)

59
E/E Warm-Up 1 10/6/10
  • FACT Cumulonimbus clouds are very tall clouds
    that are usually rich in moisture and can cause
    severe thunderstorms.
  • ? What type of fault is the San Andreas fault,
    which is responsible for the many severe
    earthquakes that occur in California?
    (STRIKE-SLIP)

60
E/E Warm-Up 2 10/6/10
  • FACT Desalination is a process of removing salt
    from ocean water in order to make it drinkable.
  • ? Why are earthquakes usually deadlier in
    places like Haiti or Turkey (as compared to
    places like the U.S. or Japan?) (POOR COUNTRIES
    CANNOT AFFORD TO BUILD BUILDING WITH QUALITY
    MATERIALS)

61
Bio Notebook Check 2 10/7/10
  • 9/13, 9/14, 9/15, 9/16, 9/20, 9/21, 9/27, 9/28,
    9/29, 9/30, 10/4, 10/5, 10/6
  • (13 total entries)

62
E/E Warm-Up 10/7/10
  • FACT A storm surge occurs when hurricane-force
    winds drive a mound of ocean water toward coastal
    areas, causing floods.
  • ? What happens to rock when it experiences
    forces (stress) that exceeds the stress limit of
    the rock? (BREAK)

63
Bio Warm-Up 10/11/10
  • FACT A pedigree is a family tree displaying the
    genetic information for a family.
  • ? What are the three most common chemical
    elements found in living things? (CARBON,
    HYDROGEN, OXYGEN)

64
E/E Warm-Up 1 10/11/10
  • FACT Wind is caused by the mixing of warm air
    with cold air in the atmosphere.
  • ? How old is the Earth? (4.6 billion years
    4600 million years) How long have human beings
    been in existence on Earth? (2 million years)

65
E/E Warm-Up 2 10/11/10
  • FACT The sun is composed mainly of hydrogen and
    helium.
  • ? What is the center of a cell called?
    (NUCLEUS) (It looked like a small dot in the
    middle of the cell when you looked at it under
    the microscope.)

66
Bio Warm-Up 10/12/10
  • FACT The plasma membrane of a cell is made of a
    phospholipid bilayer.
  • ? What type(s) of organic molecules include
    nitrogen? (PROTEINS NUCLEIC ACIDS) Are
    insoluble in water? (LIPIDS) Are made up of amino
    acids? (PROTEINS)

67
E/E Warm-Up 1 10/12/10
  • FACT Abiotic factors are items that are
    non-living that affect an ecosystemsoil type,
    amount of precipitation, temperature.
  • ? What is the Principle of Superposition?
    (OLDEST ROCKS ARE AT THE BOTTOM, YOUNGEST ROCKS
    ARE AT THE TOP)

68
E/E Warm-Up 2 10/12/10
  • FACT Biotic factors are items that are living
    that affect an ecosystemplants, animals,
    bacteria.
  • ? Which geologic time division is the longest?
    (EON) The shortest? (EPOCH)
  • (Period, Epoch, Era, Eon)

69
E/E Warm-Up 10/13/10
  • FACT Seamounts are underwater volcanoes that
    are more than 1 kilometer high. They rise up
    from the ocean floor.
  • ? The principle of CROSS-CUTTING RELATIONSHIPS
    states that magma or faults that have affected a
    rock formation are YOUNGER than the rocks that
    are affected.

70
E/E Warm-Up 1 10/14/10
  • FACT An acid has a pH of less than 7, a base
    has a pH of more than 7, and a neutral substance
    has a pH of exactly 7.
  • ? Rank the following ecosystems in the order of
    MOST to LEAST energy available. (TROPICAL FOREST,
    GRASSLAND, DESERT)
  • Desert, Tropical Forest, Grassland

71
E/E Warm-Up 2 10/14/10
  • FACT A plateau is a flat region of
    high-elevation.
  • ? Where on Earth do most scientists think human
    civilization originated? (AFRICA)

72
Bio Warm-Up 10/18/10
  • FACT Innate behaviors, such as instincts, are
    genetic behaviors with which animals are born.
    They do not have to be learned.
  • ? How does one calculate the total
    magnification of a specimen under a microscope?
    (MULTIPLY THE EYEPIECE MAG. BY THE OBJECTIVE MAG.
    10x X 43x 430x)

73
E/E Warm-Up 1 10/18/10
  • FACT A nebula is a cloud of dust and gasthe
    beginnings of a star!
  • ? Which era (Paleozoic, Mesozoic, or Cenozoic)
    exists at the current time? (CENOZOIC)

74
E/E Warm-Up 2 10/18/10
  • FACT Supercells are the most severe type of
    thunderstorm.
  • ? How many miners were rescued last week in
    Chile? (33) How many days had they been trapped
    underground? (68)

75
Geologic Time Poster
  • Precambrian (Ch. 22p. 577-593)
  • Bryton B., Thomas T., Grant E., Coy P., Raheem
    H., Sean C.
  • Paleozoic (Ch. 23p. 601-617)
  • Shamone L., Deborah B., Monte G-F., Daja G.,
    Laquanda I., Kantrell H.
  • Mesozoic (Ch. 24p. 625-634)
  • Paiga J., Chelsea M., Daniela V., Demario W.,
    Dequan W., Nalexia S.
  • Cenozoic (Ch. 24p. 635-641)
  • Garren L., Najaila M-J., German L., Juquan K.,
    Thomas M., Jordan P.

76
Bio Warm-Up 10/19/10
  • FACT Quantitative data involves numbers and
    measurements. Qualitative data uses verbal
    descriptions.
  • ? What two organelles are found in plant cells
    but NOT in animal cells? (CELL WALL
    CHLOROPLAST)

77
E/E Warm-Up 1 10/19/10
  • FACT The first step of mapmaking for a
    cartographer is placing horizontal and vertical
    grid lines on a piece of paper, which represent
    latitude and longitude.
  • ? Most scientists think that the JAW of early
    humans got smaller, which allowed their BRAIN to
    get larger and more advanced, thus making them
    smarter.

78
E/E Warm-Up 2 10/19/10
  • FACT Porosity is the measure of how many empty
    spaces (called pores) that are found in a rock.
  • ? Paleo means EARLY/OLD.
  • Meso means MIDDLE.
  • Ceno means RECENT.
  • Zoic means LIFE.

79
E/E Warm-Up 10/20/10
  • FACT The U.S. government has preserved natural
    resources through creation of national parks,
    national wildlife refuges, and national forests.
  • ? Discovering RUST (iron oxide) in
    billion-year-old rocks is important because it
    confirms the presence of OXYGEN in Earths early
    atmosphere.

80
Poster Work 10/21/10
  • 3rd period Work on posters using books
  • Be sure to have
  • Timeline (labeled)
  • Pictures (with captions)
  • Subtopic Questions/Answers
  • All other required information on Poster
    Checklist
  • 4th period Print out final pictures, finalize
    posters
  • IF DONE, work on your 1st quarter extra credit!!!

81
  • Column 1 (Missed) Question Number
  • Column 2 Content Topic
  • Scientific Method, Measurement Units,
    Latitude/Longitude, Topographic Maps, Chemistry,
    Rocks Minerals, Plate Tectonics/
    Volcano/Earthquakes/Mountains (PVEM), Earth
    History
  • Bottom of sheet
  • I did best with _____________.
  • I most need to work on ____________.
  • What is your goal for the final quarter in this
    class? What are you going to do differently (or
    continue to do well) in order to reach this goal?

82
E/E Warm-Up 1 10/28/10
  • FACT Decomposers, such as fungi and bacteria,
    break down organisms after those organisms have
    died.
  • ? How does continental (LAND) differ from
    maritime (WATER)? How does polar (COLD)
    differ from tropical (WARM)?

83
E/E Warm-Up 2 10/28/10
  • FACT Omnivores eat both meat AND plantsthey
    are a combination of carnivores AND herbivores!
  • ? METEOROLOGY is the study of the atmosphere
    and weather events.

84
Bio Warm-Up 11/1/10
  • FACT ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the
    main source of energy for living things. It is
    created within the mitochondria of cells.
  • ? What is the purpose of the plasma membrane of
    a cell? (CONTROLS WHAT GOES IN COMES OUT OF A
    CELL) What types of cells have a plasma membrane?
    (ALL CELLS)

85
E/E Warm-Up 11/1/10
  • FACT Global warming is causing coastal erosion
    to worsen. Ice is melting, which causes the sea
    level to rise, which causes more erosion.
  • ? Which type of weather map displays real-time
    pictures of clouds? (SATELLITE) Which type
    displays real-time precipitation activity?
    (RADAR)

86
Bio Membrane Lab Design
  • 1) Question
  • How does a hypertonic solution and a hypotonic
    solution affect a simulated cell?
  • 2) Hypothesis
  • 3) Procedure (DETAILED SPECIFIC)
  • Materials List (Cups, Distilled Water, Mass
    Balance)
  • Independent Variable
  • Controls
  • 4) Observations (for ALL tests)
  • 5) Data Table (1-2), Graph (1-2)
  • 6) Conclusion (in QA formatat least 5 ?s and
    answers)

87
Bio Warm-Up 11/2/10
  • FACT An angiosperm is a flowering plant, like a
    maple tree. A gymnosperm is a cone-bearing
    plant, like a longleaf pine tree.
  • ? In terms of osmosis (use ____-tonic, etc.,)
    explain why it is harmful to your cells to drink
    saltwater. (SALTWATER FORMS A HYPERTONIC
    SOLUTION AROUND THE CELLWATER LEAVES TO DISSOLVE
    THE SALTCELL SHRINKS)

88
E/E Warm-Up 1 11/2/10
  • FACT Tides are the periodic rise and fall of
    sea level. In North Carolina, there are usually
    two high tides and two low tides every day.
  • ? List the following in order from WEAKEST to
    STRONGEST
  • Category 1 Hurricane (2ND STRONGEST), Tropical
    Depression (WEAKEST), Category 5 Hurricane
    (STRONGEST), Tropical Storm (2ND WEAKE??

89
E/E Warm-Up 2 11/2/10
  • FACT Photovoltaic cells, which are included
    within solar panels, convert solar energy into
    electrical energy.
  • ? In North Carolina, what was the single
    biggest problem caused by Hurricanes Fran and
    Floyd? (FLOODING)

90
E/E Warm-Up 1 11/3/10
  • FACT The fastest recorded wind speed on Earth
    was 316 m.p.h., which was recorded during an F5
    tornado in Oklahoma.
  • ? Why can hail (frozen water) fall during a
    thunderstorm on a 90-degree summer day? (HAIL
    FORMS HIGH UP IN THE ATMOSPHERE WHERE IT IS MUCH
    COLDER)

91
E/E Warm-Up 2 11/3/10
  • FACT The U.S. produces more pollution than any
    country in the world. China and India, however,
    may overtake the U.S. soon.
  • ? What are the 3 stages of a thunderstorm?
    (CUMULUS, MATURE, DISSIPATION)

92
Bio Warm-Up 1 11/4/10
  • FACT Translation is the process of reading DNA
    in order to build proteins, one amino acid at a
    time. This occurs in the ribosomes.
  • ? What different colors make up visible
    sunlight? (RED, ORANGE, YELLOW, GREEN, BLUE,
    INDIGO, VIOLET)

93
Bio Warm-Up 2 11/4/10
  • FACT Chlorophyll absorbs all colors except
    green. Therefore, green light is reflected from
    plants.
  • ? List the three types of passive transport
    (OSMOSIS, DIFFUSION, FACILITATED DIFFUSION) and
    the three types of active transport. (ACTIVE
    TRANSPORT, ENDOCYTOSIS, EXOCYTOSIS)

94
E/E Warm-Up 11/4/10
  • FACT Igneous rocks made up of dark minerals are
    mafic, while igneous rocks made up of light
    minerals are felsic.
  • ? The temperature in downtown Winston-Salem may
    be warmer than the temperature in Walkertown.
    This is because cities are HEAT ISLANDS they are
    warmer than their surroundings.

95
Bio Warm-Up 11/8/10
  • FACT An allele is the version of a gene that
    you receive from a parent. Most alleles are
    either recessive or dominant.
  • ? Write out the photosynthesis chemical
    equation and the cellular respiration chemical
    equation. How are they related?

96
E/E Warm-Up 11/8/10
  • FACT Geothermal energy is energy produced by
    Earths naturally occurring steam and hot water.
  • ? Why is the coast of North Carolina more
    susceptible to sea level rise than the coast of
    St. Lucia (or similar Caribbean islands?)
    (N.C.s COAST IS FLAT, WHILE ST. LUCIAS COAST IS
    MOUNTAINOUS)

97
E/E Warm-Up 1 11/9/10
  • FACT When the forces acting on a rock exceed
    the elastic limit, the rock breaks, sometimes
    causing an earthquake.
  • ? What is a tributary?

98
E/E Warm-Up 2 11/9/10
  • FACT Seneca guns are extremely loud booms
    heard, usually along coastal areas. The cause of
    these sounds is unexplained.
  • ? List at least 5 major rivers within N.C.

99
Bio Warm-Up 11/10/10
  • FACT An adaptation is the development of a
    structure or behavior that allows an organism to
    better survive in the environment.
  • ? How is photosynthesis related to ATP?
    (PHOTOSYNTHESIS USES LIGHT ENERGY TO MAKE
    FOOD.THEN, FOOD IS USED IN CELLULAR RESPIRATION
    TO MAKE ATP)

100
E/E Warm-Up 11/10/10
  • FACT An adaptation is the development of a
    structure or behavior that allows an organism to
    better survive in the environment.
  • ? How does a sinkhole form? Why would a
    sinkhole be more likely to form during a
    rainstorm?

101
Bio Warm-Up 11/12/10
  • FACT The three major families of arthropods are
    insects, spiders, and crustaceans.
  • ? Which specific part of the ATP molecule holds
    the most energy? (THE CHEMICAL BOND BETWEEN THE
    2ND 3RD PHOSPHATE)

102
E/E Warm-Up 11/12/10
  • FACT The Eastern Continental Divide runs along
    the ridge of the Appalachian Mountains. Rain
    falling east of the divide flows into the
    Atlantic Ocean, while rain falling west of the
    divide flows into the Mississippi River.
  • ? The Western Continental Divide runs along the
    ridge of the ROCKY Mountains.

103
Bio Warm-Up 11/15/10
  • FACT DNA must be coiled tightly in order to fit
    inside a cells nucleus. Coiled DNA resides in
    chromosomes.
  • ? Why do our muscles burn after a strenuous
    workout? Be specific! (LACTIC ACID IS PRODUCED
    WITHIN FERMENTATION)

104
E/E Warm-Up 1 11/15/10
  • FACT A longshore current is a current flowing
    parallel to shore, commonly occurring in beach
    areas.
  • ? What are humans doing on our beaches to
    increase the problems related to coastal erosion?
    (WALKING ON THE DUNES, BUILDING ON THE SHORELINE)

105
E/E Warm-Up 2 11/15/10
  • FACT A chemical bond is a force that holds
    atoms together within a compound.
  • ? The layer of the ocean in-between the surface
    layer and the bottom layer is called the
    THERMOCLINE.

106
Bio Warm-Up 11/16/10
  • FACT A cell that contains two copies of each
    required chromosome is diploid. A cell that
    contains only one copy of each required
    chromosome is haploid.
  • ? What is the major difference between DNA and
    RNA? (think about the origin of the name of each
    molecule)

107
Bio Warm-Up 11/22/10
  • FACT Courtship behavior is the behavior that
    males and females of a species carry out before
    mating.
  • ? Identify the following processes
  • DNA?mRNA (TRANSCRIPTION)
  • DNA?DNA (REPLICATION)
  • mRNA?Protein (TRANSLATION)

108
Bio Warm-Up 11/23/10
  • FACT Recombinant DNA is made by connecting, or
    recombining, DNA from different sources.
  • ? A DNA sequence is GGGCTAACT
  • CCCGAUUGA
  • What is the mRNA sequence?
  • What is the amino acid sequence?
  • (p. 292) (PROLINE, ASPARTATE, STOP)

109
E/E Warm-Up 1 11/23/10
  • FACT Primates are mammals with opposable thumbs
    and advanced eyesight.
  • ? A tornado sweeps through a field of deer,
    killing them. Is this a density-independent or
    density-dependent limiting factor? WHY? (D.I.,
    BECAUSE A NATURAL DISASTER AFFECTS ALL AREAS
    REGARDLESS OF POPULATION DENSITY)

110
E/E Warm-Up 2 11/23/10
  • FACT A cell is the basic unit of life. The
    nucleus is the center of a cell. DNA is
    contained within the nucleus.
  • ? What type of organism can experience
    exponential (J-shape) growth without ever slowing
    or stopping? (NOTHING!B/C EVERY POPULATION
    REACHES A CARRYING CAPACITY AT SOME POINT)

111
Bio Warm-Up 11/29/10
  • FACT Polygenic characteristics are influenced
    by multiple genes instead of a single gene.
    Height and skin color are examples.
  • ? What amino acid is coded for by the tRNA
    molecule carrying the anticodon CCC? (GLYCINE)

112
E/E Warm-Up 1 11/29/10
  • FACT A vacuole is a storage tank within a cell.
    It usually stores water, and vacuoles are
    usually bigger in plants than animals.
  • ? Why do vacuoles have to be bigger in plants
    than in animals? (ANIMALS CAN MOVE TO GET WATER
    WHEN THEYRE THIRSTY, WHILE PLANTS ARE STATIONARY
    SO THEY MUST STORE MORE WATER)

113
E/E Warm-Up 2 11/29/10
  • FACT The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the
    cellit turns food you eat into energy!
  • ? What are 3 things that you can do to make
    more efficient use of energy? (Refer to your
    notes from Tuesday!)
  • USE FLUORESCENT LIGHT BULBS
  • RECYCLE
  • USE SOLAR PANELS

114
Bio Warm-Up 11/30/10
  • FACT Usually, genes have two alleles. Blood
    type, however, is determined by multiple alleles
    (more than two.) These alleles can allow the
    expression of Type A, Type B, Type AB, or Type O
    blood!
  • ? The steps of a DNA double helix are made of
    nitrogen bases. What are the side rails of DNA
    made of? (DEOXYRIBOSE SUGAR PHOSPHATE)

115
E/E Warm-Up 1 11/30/10
  • FACT The cell membrane is the skin of a cell.
    It lets some things in but keeps others out.
  • ? In a recent year, what happened to nearly
    25,000 women in India that refused to submit to
    their husbands and/or did not produce a baby boy?
    (ABUSED AND/OR BURNED)

116
E/E Warm-Up 2 11/30/10
  • FACT The chloroplast of a cell converts the
    suns energy into food. Chloroplasts only exist
    in plant cells.
  • ? Where in the world are you likely to find a
    population consisting of many young people and
    very few middle-aged people? WHY could this be
    happening to that population? (AFRICA, B/C
    DISEASEHIVIS KILLING MANY PEOPLE)

117
E/E Warm-Up 12/1/10
  • FACT A mutation is a change in the DNA of a
    living thing. Mutations can cause disease, they
    can be beneficial, or they can be silent.
  • ? In China, COAL is primarily used to heat
    homes because it is easily accessible and very
    inexpensive.

118
Bio November Notebook Check
  • November
  • 1, 2, 4(1), 4(2), 8, 10, 12, 15, 16, 22, 23,
    29, 30
  • (13 entries)

119
Bio Warm-Up 12/6/10
  • FACT Mitosis results in two diploid copies of a
    diploid cell. Meiosis results in four haploid
    copies of a diploid cell.
  • ? (p. 299) Why is sickled hemoglobin a problem
    for the human body? (PREVENTS PROPER BLOOD
    FLOWCAUSES SEVERE PAIN/DEATH)
  • What type of mutation produces sickled
    hemoglobin? (POINT MUTATION)

120
E/E Warm-Up 12/6/10
  • FACT There are 5 major classification
    categories of life on Earth Bacteria, Protists,
    Fungi, Plants, and Animals.
  • ? List all planets within our solar system in
    order from closest to farthest away from the sun.
    (MERCURY, VENUS, EARTH, MARS, JUPITER, SATURN,
    URANUS, NEPTUNE, PLUTO)

121
Bio Warm-Up 12/7/10
  • FACT Interphase is the period of rest, cell
    growth, and DNA/organelle replication that occurs
    in-between cycles of mitosis.
  • ? What is the difference between a sister
    chromatid and a centromere? (SISTER CHROMATIDS
    ARE 2 EXACT COPIES OF A CHROMOSOME, WHICH ARE
    ATTACHED TO EACH OTHER BY A CENTROMERE)

122
E/E Warm-Up 12/7/10
  • FACT Mitosis is the division of one cell into
    two identical daughter cells.
  • ? How can an invasive plant like kudzu decrease
    the biodiversity of an ecosystem? (KUDZU GROWS
    OVER AND KILLS ALL OF THE NATIVE PLANTS)

123
Bio Warm-Up 12/8/10
  • FACT Certain genetic diseases are referred to
    as sex-linked (or X-linked) disorders because
    they are caused by DNA defects found on the X
    chromosome. Examples include colorblindness and
    hemophilia.
  • ? What two organelles can be overwhelmed when
    a cell becomes too big? (NUCLEUS PLASMA
    MEMBRANE)

124
E/E Warm-Up 12/8/10
  • FACT Genetic disorders are caused by mutations
    within DNA that are passed on from parents to
    their children. There are no cures for most
    genetic disorders.
  • Cystic fibrosis, Hemophilia
  • ? What is Earths moon made of? (SAME MATERIAL
    AS THE EARTH)

125
Astronomy Project
  • Topic 1 (The Moon)
  • P. 753-767
  • Bryton B.
  • Sean C.
  • Monte F.
  • Daja G.
  • Raheem H.
  • Topic 2 (Terrestrial Planets)
  • P. 780-785
  • Deborah B.
  • Demario W.
  • Kantrell H.
  • LaQuanda I.
  • Paiga J.

126
Astronomy Project
  • Topic 3 (Gas Giant Planets)
  • P. 786-792
  • Juquan K.
  • German L.
  • Shamone L.
  • Chelsea M.
  • Garren L.
  • Topic 4 (Sun Stars)
  • P. 805-825
  • Thomas M.
  • Najaila M.
  • Jordan P.
  • Coy P.
  • Nalexia S.

127
Astronomy Project
  • Topic 5 (Galaxies Universe)
  • P. 833-851
  • Thomas T.
  • Daniela V.
  • Dequan W.
  • Grant E.

128
Bio Warm-Up 12/9/10
  • FACT The Earth is approximately 4.6 billlion
    (4600 million) years old. Humans have been in
    existence on Earth for approximately 1.5 million
    years.
  • ? CENTRIOLES are like the reels of the cell.
  • SPINDLE FIBERS are like the fishing line of the
    cell.

129
E/E Warm-Up 12/9/10
  • FACT Animals are born with innate behaviors,
    like instinct. Animals must be taught learned
    behaviors, like language.
  • ? What planet within our solar system (other
    than Earth) has the highest probability of having
    life? WHY? (MARS EVIDENCE OF WATER)

130
Index Card 12/15/10
  • 1) Name
  • 2) Post-graduation plans (college, military,
    technical school, etc.)
  • 3) If 2 is college, list 5 schools to which
    youd want to apply right now.
  • 4) ??t of in-school and out-of-school sports,
    clubs, community service.
  • 5) Which class are you struggling the most with
    right now?
  • 6) College major and/or career ideas (at least 3)
  • 7) Where do you see yourself living at age 30?

131
Bio Warm-Up 1/3/11
  • FACT When a plant grows toward light, it is
    exhibiting phototropism.
  • ? A source cell in the female ovary undergoes
    the process of MEIOSIS in order to become HAPLOID
    instead of diploid. Now, the resulting cells are
    ready for SEXUAL reproduction.

132
E/E Warm-Up 1 1/3/11
  • FACT When a plant grows toward light, it is
    displaying phototropism.
  • ? In DNA, A always matches with T and C always
    matches with G.

133
E/E Warm-Up 2 1/3/11
  • FACT DNA is coiled into chromosomes, which
    reside in the nucleus of our cells. Human cells
    normally each have 46 chromosomes.
  • ? DNA is made up of two strands bonded
    together. Therefore, it is commonly called a
    DOUBLE helix.

134
Bio Warm-Up 1/5/11
  • FACT Restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA at
    specific locations. They could be used in the
    future for gene transplants.
  • ? Complete the table on the following slide

135

Mitosis Meiosis
of cell divisions in 1 cycle 1 2
of cells at end of process 2 4
Chromosomes (dip or hap?) DIP HAP
Purpose BODY CELLS SEX CELLS
Phase names I,P,M,A,T,C I,P1,M1,A1,T1,P2,M2,A2,T2,C
136
E/E Warm-Up 1 1/5/11
  • FACT From lowest to highest, the layers of
    Earths atmosphere are the troposphere,
    stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere,
    exosphere.
  • ? What two cell organelles are ONLY found in
    plant cells? (CELL WALL AND CHLOROPLAST)

137
E/E Warm-Up 2 1/5/11
  • FACT Extrusive igneous rocks are formed from
    lava, while intrusive igneous rocks are formed
    from magma.
  • ? If a cell under a microscope is square in
    shape and contains a large storage tank, is it
    a plant cell or an animal cell? (PLANT)
  • gtWhat is the name of the storage tank?
    (VACUOLE)

138
E/E Warm-Up 1/6/11
  • FACT Earthquakes originate at a fault, which is
    a crack at which movement occurs. This
    origination point is called the focus.
  • ? List the 3 major types of rock on Earth and
    briefly describe how each forms.
  • IGNEOUS FROM FROM LAVA MAGMA
  • SEDIMENTARY SEDIMENT UNDERGOES LITHIFICATION
  • METAMORPHIC HEAT PRESSURE

139
Bio Warm-Up 1/7/11
  • FACT Isolation must occur in order for one
    species to ever evolve into two separate species.
    Isolation is most commonly geographical.
  • ? (review) What are the 3 most common chemical
    elements in the human body? (HYDROGEN, OXYGEN,
    CARBON)

140
E/E Warm-Up 1/7/11
  • FACT A cold front is represented on a map by a
    line with blue triangles, while a warm front is
    represented by a line with red semi-circles.
  • ? The approximate coordinates for N.C. are 35o
    N, 84o W
  • Which number is latitude? (35)
  • Which is longitude? (84)
  • What important info is missing from this data?
    (DIRECTIONS)

141
Bio Warm-Up 1/14/11
  • FACT A nucleotide is the building block of DNA
    RNA. It is composed of 1 nitrogen base (A, C,
    G, T/U), 1 sugar, 1 phosphate.
  • ? (review) Two plants are placed in two
    different roomsone with a fluorescent light and
    one with complete darkness. What is the
    independent variable? (THE LIGHT) What is the
    dependent variable? (PLANT GROWTH)

142
(No Transcript)
143
  • Invasive species (kudzu, etc.)
  • Limiting factors (disease, crowding, natural
    disasters, etc.)
  • Age structure diagrams
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Pop. Vs. Comm. Vs. Ecosystem

144
Bio Midterm Review ?s
  • NC14 2 NC22 2, 3, 4
  • NC15 1, 2, 5 NC23 1
  • NC16 3, 4 NC24 1, 4
  • NC17 2, 3 NC27 1, 2, 3, 4
  • NC18 1, 3, 4, 5 NC30 2, 3
  • NC19 1, 3, 4 NC31 2, 4
  • NC20 1, 2, 3, 4
  • NC21 1, 2, 3

145
E/E Warm-Up 1 2/2/11
  • FACT Earth science is the study of Earths
    processes.
  • ? Where did you go to middle school?
    (JEFFERSON) What was the name of your science
    teacher last year?

146
E/E Warm-Up 2 2/2/11
  • FACT Geology, Astronomy, Oceanography, and
    Meteorology are four major categories of Earth
    Science.
  • ? What is the web address for Mr. Mercers
    website? www.wsfcs.k12.nc.us/Domain/861
  • List 2 items that can be found on the website.
    (CLASS NOTES, WEB LINKS, WARM-UPS)

147
Bio Warm-Up 2/1/11
  • FACT A genotype describes the genetic
    characteristics of an organism, while a phenotype
    describes the physical characteristics.
  • ? What is a pedigree? (GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION
    OF GENETIC INHERITANCE)

148
Bio Warm-Up 2/2/11
  • FACT A person receiving two different alleles
    from their parents are heterozygous for that
    gene.
  • ? A person receiving two of the same alleles
    from their parents are HOMOZYGOUS for that gene.

149
E/E Warm-Up 1 2/3/11
  • FACT The two most common gases in Earths
    atmosphere are nitrogen and oxygen.
  • ? Which of the following terms are scientific
    (SI) units of measurement?
  • METER, LITER, KILOGRAM

150
E/E Warm-Up 2 2/3/11
  • FACT The earths hydrosphere includes all of the
    water on the planet.
  • ? If I wanted to find the mass of an apple, what
    SI unit would I use? (KILOGRAMS OR GRAMS)
  • ? If I wanted to find the weight of an apple,
    what SI unit would I use? (NEWTON)

151
Bio Warm-Up 2/3/11
  • FACT Gregor Mendel is considered the father of
    genetics.
  • ? A) HH 1) Phenotype (B)
  • B) Curly Hair 2) Genotype (A, C, D)
  • C) Hh 3) Homozygous (A, D)
  • D) hh 4) Heterozygous (C)
  • (THERE MAY BE MORE THAN ONE CORRECT MATCH PER
    TERM)

152
Bio Warm-Up 2/4/11
  • FACT Heredity is the passing of characteristics
    from one generation to the next.
  • ? When a pure green-seeded plant is crossed
    with a pure yellow-seeded plant, all of the
    offspring have yellow seeds. What is the
    genotypic ratio and the phenotypic ratio of the
    offspring of two yellow-seeded plants that are
    both heterozygous for the seed color gene?

153
E/E Warm-Up 1 2/4/11
  • FACT Earths layers (from the inside out)
    include the inner core, outer core, mantle,
    crust.
  • ? In an experiment, what is a control? (WHAT
    STAYS THE SAME IN AN EXPT.) What is an
    independent variable? (THE ONE THING THAT YOU
    CHANGE IN AN EXPT.)

154
E/E Warm-Up 2 2/4/11
  • FACT Topographic maps display elevation changes
    on Earths surface.
  • ? A wooden block has a mass of 10g and a volume
    of 5cm3. What is the density?
  • (2 g/cm3)

155
Bio Warm-Up 2/7/11
  • FACT A chart picturing all chromosome pairs in
    a human cell is called a karyotype.

156
Bio Warm-Up 2/7/11
  • ? Sickle cell anemia is considered to be a
    genetic disorder characterized by incomplete
    dominance. Lets use the letters NN for someone
    without sickle-cell, NA for someone heterozygous
    for sickle-cell, and AA for someone fully
    affected by sickle-cell. What is the genotypic
    ratio for the offspring of a person heterozygous
    for sickle-cell mating with a person that has
    sickle-cell disease?

157
E/E Warm-Up 1 2/7/11
  • FACT Cartographers use Global Positioning
    Systems (GPS) to create accurate maps.
  • ? A map scale displays 1cm30km. If
    Winston-Salem and Durham are 3cm apart on a N.C.
    map, how far apart are they in reality? (90km)

158
E/E Warm-Up 2 2/7/11
  • FACT Time zones must exist because the Earth
    spins once every 24 hours. Seasons exist because
    the Earth sits upon a tilted axis.
  • ? What is the westernmost city in NC on the map?
    Southernmost? Easternmost?

159
Bio Warm-Up 2/8/11
  • FACT The environment can have a major effect on
    the expression of genes. An arctic fox has
    white fur color genes, yet is only white during
    cold weather.
  • Colorblindness is a sex-linked (a.k.a. X-linked)
    trait. This means that the defective gene
    leading to colorblindness is located on the X
    chromosome. Why, then, are MALES usually the
    gender affected by colorblindness instead of
    FEMALES, even though the defective gene is
    located on the X (female) chromosome? (MALES
    ONLY HAVE ONE X, WHILE FEMALES HAVE A BACKUP X)

160
E/E Warm-Up 1 2/8/11
  • FACT Molten rock beneath Earths surface is
    called magma. Above Earths surface, it is
    called lava.
  • ? 1) What would be the latitude-longitude
    coordinates of an island that was located EXACTLY
    where the equator and the prime meridian crossed
    each other? (Oo, Oo)
  • 2) What does the word hemisphere mean? (HALF
    OF A CIRCLE)

161
E/E Warm-Up 2 2/8/11
  • FACT Atlantic Ocean hurricanes usually form
    near west Africa as a result of heavy water
    evaporation, which forms huge clouds.
  • ? List 3 major interstates on which you can
    travel in North Carolina. (I-85, I-40, I-77)

162
E/E Warm-Up 2/9/11
  • FACT A biotic factor is a living thing, such as
    an oak tree. An abiotic factor is non-living,
    such as air or water.
  • ? Would a topographic map of Winston-Salem have
    a GREATER NUMBER or a LESSER NUMBER of contour
    lines than a topographic map of Boone? WHY?
    (BOONE HAS MORE LINES, B/C ITS IN THE MOUNTAINS)

163
Bio Warm-Up 2/10/11
  • FACT The Human Genome Project mapped the entire
    DNA sequence on all 46 human chromosomes. (This
    is very valuable for future genetic research!)
  • ? Are most genetic diseases dominant or
    recessive? Why does this make sense?
    (RECESSIVE, B/C MOST GENETIC DISEASES ARE VERY
    RARE)

164
E/E Warm-Up 2/10/11
  • FACT The San Andreas Fault is a crack in the
    Earths crust in California. Movement of the
    crust along this fault causes earthquakes.
  • ? How do you represent a depression, hole, or
    lake on a topographic map?

165
Bio Warm-Up 2/14/11
  • FACT Polygenic inheritance occurs when more
    than one gene controls a trait, such as skin
    color or height. Phenotypic ratios are usually
    represented by a bell curve.
  • ? Yesterday Sarah, who has type O blood, had a
    child named Brianna. Brianna also has type O
    blood. Approximately 9 months ago, Sarah was a
    bit promiscuous and does not know if Austin (type
    A blood) or Matt (type AB blood) is the father.
    Using Punnett Squares, complete a paternity test
    to determine who is Briannas father.

166
E/E Warm-Up 1 2/14/11
  • FACT Caves usually form in limestone rock
    because limestone is very soft and can be eaten
    away quickly by water.
  • ? What are the elevations of A-0, B-10, C-15,
    D-20?

167
E/E Warm-Up 2 2/14/11
  • FACT The Earths solar system is located in the
    Milky Way Galaxy.
  • ? What are the 6 major steps of the scientific
    method? (review)
  • QUESTION, HYPOTHESIS, EXPERIMENT, OBSERVATION,
    RESULTS, CONCLUSION

168
E/E Warm-Up 2/15/11
  • FACT All regular atoms have an overall neutral
    charge the number of electrons (-) is equal to
    the number of protons ().
  • ? Name 3 common elements (atoms) that make up
    items on Earth. (use p. 917 to remind you!)
    (OXYGEN, NITROGEN, COPPER, CALCIUM, CARBON)

169
E/E Warm-Up 1 2/16/11
  • FACT Wood is a renewable resource. If used
    responsibly, trees can be grown and harvested
    without ever running out of supply.
  • ?

Atom Atomic Mass p n e-
Na 11 23 11 12 11
X 18 38 18 20 18
170
E/E Warm-Up 2 2/16/11
  • FACT Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years
    old. We know this because scientists have dated
    the oldest rocks on Earth to be this old.
  • ? What types of foods do you eat that are
    acidic? (HOT SAUCE, PICKLES, LEMON)What type of
    health complication is caused by too much acid in
    the digestive system? (HEARTBURN)

171
Bio Warm-Up 2/16/11
  • FACT Huntingtons Disease is an example of a
    dominant genetic disorder, while Cystic Fibrosis
    is an example of a recessive genetic disorder.
  • ? Johnny has hemophilia. His sister does not
    have hemophilia. Neither of his parents have
    hemophilia. Draw a (small) pedigree WITH
    GENOTYPES labeled for all four family members.

172
E/E Notebook Check 2/17/11
  • 2/2 1, 2/2 2, 2/3 1, 2/3 2,
  • 2/4 1, 2/4 2, 2/7 1, 2/7 2,
  • 2/8 1, 2/8 2, 2/9, 2/10, 2/14 1,
  • 2/14 2, 2/15, 2/16 1, 2/16 2
  • (17 total entries)

173
Bio Warm-Up 2/17/11
  • FACT Evolution occurs when the allele frequency
    of a gene changes. (When the frequency of T
    increases and t decreases, the population gets
    taller.)
  • ? 1) Cystic Fibrosis-C A) Incomplete Dom.
  • 2) Huntingtons-B B) Autosomal
    Dominant
  • 3) Hemophilia-D C) Autosomal Recessive
  • 4) Sickle Cell-A D) X-linked

174
Bio Warm-Up 2/18/11
  • FACT Reflex action is an innate behavior.
    Language is a complex learned behavior.
  • ? Does this pedigree show an x-linked,
    autosomal dominant, or autosomal recessive trait?
    How do you know?

175
E/E Warm-Up 2/18/11
  • FACT Igneous rocks are formed in and around
    volcanoes from cooled magma and lava.
  • ? Which mineral is harder chalk or gold?
    (GOLD) HOW CAN YOU TELL? (RUB THEM
    TOGETHERCHALK WILL BE SCRATCHED)

176
Bio Warm-Up 2/21/11
  • FACT Fermentation occurs in an anaerobic
    environment as an alternative to cellular
    respiration.
  • ? What is the difference between a POLYGENIC
    trait (A TRAIT CONTROLLED BY MORE THAN ONE GENE)
    and a trait characterized as having MULTIPLE
    ALLELES (A TRAIT CONTROLLED BY MORE THAN TWO
    ALLELES)?

177
E/E Warm-Up 2/21/11
  • FACT Hurricane strength is measured on the
    Saffir-Simpson scale. Category 5 hurricanes have
    the strongest winds.
  • ? What are the 4 states of matter? (SOLID,
    LIQUID, GAS, PLASMA) Which state of matter rarely
    exists on Earth? (PLASMA)

178
Bio Warm-Up 2/22/11
  • FACT A clone is a genetically-identical copy of
    an organism or gene.
  • ? 1) What are some examples of inbreeding being
    used to benefit human beings? (DOGS, COWS,
    HORSES, CHICKENS, RACING CAMELS, RABBITS) Why is
    this harmful to the organisms involved?
  • 2) What are some examples of genetically-altered
    organisms? (TOMATOES, CORN, SOYBEANS, WHEAT) (at
    least 3)

179
E/E Warm-Up 1 2/22/11
  • FACT The bottom of the ocean is usually very
    deep and very flat. It is called the abyssal
    plain.
  • ? What is the difference between the COLOR and
    the STREAK of a mineral? (COLOR OUTSIDE, STREAK
    POWDERED FORM)

180
E/E Warm-Up 2 2/22/11
  • FACT Groundwater resides in underground areas
    known as zones of saturation.
  • ? List 5 specific kinds or names of rocks.
  • (GRANITE, MARBLE, SLATE, LIMESTONE, SANDSTONE)

181
Bio Warm-Up 2/23/11
  • FACT Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a
    method of replicating DNA very quickly so that it
    can be used for genetic tests.
  • ? 1) RESTRICTION ENZYMES cut DNA at certain,
    specific locations.
  • 2) TRANSGENIC organisms contain genes from a
    completely different species of organism.

182
E/E Warm-Up 1 2/23/11
  • FACT Salinity is the measure of the amount of
    salt dissolved in water.
  • ? Why cant dinosaur fossils be found in
    igneous rock? THINK ABOUT IT!!! (IGNEOUS ROCK
    IS MADE OUT OF LAVA, SO ANY BONES WOULD HAVE BEEN
    DESTROYED)

183
E/E Warm-Up 2 2/23/11
  • FACT A drought is an extended period of
    below-average precipitation. Winston-Salem is in
    danger of falling into a drought in the coming
    weeks.
  • ? Are there any active volcanoes in the U.S.
    today? (YES) If so, where are they? (HAWAII,
    ALASKA, OREGON, WASHINGTON)

184
Bio Notebook Check 2/24/11
  • 2/1, 2/2, 2/3, 2/4, 2/7, 2/8, 2/10, 2/14, 2/16,
    2/17, 2/18, 2/21, 2/22, 2/23
  • (14 total entries)

185
E/E EOQ-1 Review
  • Choose 1 chapter that we have covered so
    farChapter 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5!!!
  • Write on ONE sheet of paper
  • List 3 main ideas from your chapter.
  • List and define 5 IMPORTANT vocabulary words from
    your chapter.
  • Copy (or create your own) diagram or chart
    representing your chapter.

186
E/E Warm-Up 1 2/25/11
  • FACT A floodplain is a flat area that extends
    from a riverbank. This area usually floods
    during times of high precipitation.
  • ? How could an igneous rock (such as granite)
    turn into a sedimentary rock? (WEATHERING)
  • ? Sediment (like sand) is fused into a
    sedimentary rock (like sandstone) during a
    process called LITHIFICATION.

187
E/E Warm-Up 2 2/25/11
  • FACT Barrier islands are long ridges of sand or
    sediment that are separated from the mainland.
    The Outer Banks of N.C. are barrier islands.
  • ? If sandstone is squeezed and heated, a(n)
    METAMORPHIC rock will likely form. If the
    sandstone is heated so much that it melts, a(n)
    IGNEOUS rock will likely form.

Slide 188
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