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Nationalism in India


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Title: Nationalism in India

Development of Indian Nationalism and Independence
Defining Nationalism and Causes of Nationalism in
Nationalism the loyalty to a group with whom
one shares a common history, culture, and/or
Nationalism is
1the desire to achieve political independence,
especially by a country under foreign control or
by a people with a separate identity and culture
but no state of their own 2proud loyalty and
devotion to a nation 3excessive or fanatical
devotion to a nation and its interests, often
associated with a belief that one country is
superior to all others.
Causes of Indian Nationalism
  1. Discontent with British rule
  2. India unified
  3. Leadership
  4. Common language
  5. New print culture
  6. Nationalist orgs.

Political Nationalism
  • Desire for ? political freedoms
  • suffrage
  • ? Indians in government
  • independence

Cultural Nationalism
  • Development of Indian cultural identity
  • Rewrite histories
  • Hinduism
  • math/sciences
  • art

  • By 1763 Britain had driven its chief European
    rival, France, from India and Britain expanded .
  • The British conquest was facilitated by India's
    backwardness and disunity.
  • 1.      Military Inferiority.
  • The Indians could not cope with the superior
    British military knowledge, training, and
  • 2.      Many Languages.
  • The people of India were divided linguistically
    among more than a dozen main languages and over
    200 dialects.
  • Their many tongues reflected geographic and
    cultural separation.
  • 3.      Religious Divisions.
  • Majority religion was Hindu, 20 of the nation
    was Muslim
  • Hindu and Muslims constantly were fighting each

  • 4   Economic Control. Britain profited greatly
    from India, called the "brightest jewel of the
    British Empire."
  • -   British manufacturers and workers depended
    upon India to purchase their textiles and
  • 5.  Social Control. The British had little
    respect for the native Indian culture,
    particularly the barbaric practices of
  • slavery,
  • suttee or sati(the Hindu custom of burning the
    widow on the funeral pyre of her deceased
    husband), and
  • female infanticide (killing unwanted baby girls).

Beginnings of Indian Nationalism
  • Nationalism in India began in the 1800s.
  • Indians did not like being under British colonial
    rule because
  • They were treated badly
  • British got the best jobs
  • British got the best education
  • Indian craftsmen were not
  • allowed to run traditional
  • businesses because they
  • would compete with
  • British businesses.

First Indian Nationalists
  • Were upper class
  • Were English educated
  • Many of them from urban areas like Bombay,
    Madras, and Calcutta
  • Some were trained in British law
  • Some were members of the civil service
  • Many preferred reform to revolution

Beginnings of Indian Nationalism
  • The new Indian middle classes slowly grew tired
    of the injustice of British rule
  • The new nationalists wrote in both English and
    their regional languages and turned to aspects of
    Indian tradition, especially Hinduism, as a
    rallying ground for national pride
  • Ignored or overlooked Muslim leaders

Indian Nationalism
  • During the years of British rule, a class of
    western-educated Indians emerged who dreamed of
    ending imperial rule

In 1835, Thomas Macaulay articulated the goals of
British colonial imperialism most succinctly "We
must do our best to form a class who may be
interpreters between us and the millions whom we
govern, a class of persons Indian in blood and
colour, but English in taste, in opinions, words
and intellect." 
Preserving Indian Culture
Acts to Preserve Indian Culture
  • Indian teachers, writers, and journalists wanted
    to preserve their own culture.
  • In the early 1800s, when the British established
    a college in Calcutta, a publishing house was
    opened too.
  • It published Western books, but also books on
    Indias ancient language of Sanskrit and
    dictionaries and grammar books for many of the
    Indian languages.
  • This spread to other regions of India and led to
    writers searching for the Indian identity in
    modern novels and poetry.
  • Indians began writing historical romances and
    epics and usually in their own regional language.

Example of Preserving Culture Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
  • Most illustrious Indian author---great writer and
  • Was a social reformer, spiritual leader,
    educator, philosopher, and international
    spokesperson on morality
  • His lifes mission was to promote pride in Indian
    culture in the face of British domination
  • He wrote a widely popular novel in which he
    portrayed the love-hate relationship of Indians
    towards Britain.
  • Reflected how Indian people struggled with
    defining their identity as they admired and
    imitated the British, but lost some of their
    Indian traditions
  • Wanted world peace and a union of the East and

  • Strove to have a balance between Western
    influence and ancient customs
  • He was respected and followed by both British
    colonizers and Indians for his work
  • Friend of Gandhi
  • Preferred to stay out of politics

Rabindranath Tagore
  • It is my conviction that my countrymen will
    truly gain their India by fighting against the
    education that teaches them that a country is
    greater than the ideals of humanity.

  • Bigotry tries to keep truth safe in its hand
    with a grip that kills it.

Preserving Indian Culture Another Example
---Nationalist Newspapers
Nationalist Newspapers
  • Printed in various regional Indian languages
  • Common medium used to arouse mass support for the
    nationalist causes
  • The newspapers reached the lower middle
    class---tens of thousands of Indians who did not
    know English
  • Examples
  • Kesari or The Lion Newspaper---journalist Tilak
    used innuendo to convey negative feelings about
    the British without writing anything directly
  • Swadeshamitram or The Friend of Our
    Nation---editor organized literary meetings to
    discuss poetry and politics

Ram Mohun Roy and Indian Nationalism
Combined Western and Indian Ideas
  • Ram Mohun Roy combined both views and because of
    his influence, he is often hailed as the founder
    of Indian nationalism

This statue of Raja Rammohun Roy stands outside
Bristol Cathedral.
The Rise of Indian Nationalism
  • Groups in India found British rule deeply
  • Indian elites and middle classes lacked
  • Indians had little power to influence decisions
    at higher levels of government

Initial requests of the Congress to British were
modest, such as more positions for Indians in the
ICS, and better representation on government
Nationalism Surfaces in India
  • Calls for Reforms
  • In 1800s, Ram Mohun Roy leads modernization
  • Many Indians adopt western ways and call for
    social reforms
  • Indians resent being second-class citizens in
    their own country.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Sought to counter the criticisms of Hinduism made
    by the British missionaries
  • Founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1828 as a new
    religion with Christian-style services.
  • Encouraged Indians to be egalitarians----to move
    away from the caste system and accept that all
    people are equal
  • Encouraged Indians to do more social services for
    the poor and to reject the belief that their
    suffering was okay due to karma and dharma

Ram Mohun Roy (1772-1833)
  • well-educated Indian who began a campaign to
    modernize India
  • he was opposed to Indias caste system (social
    class system that ties a person to the social
    class they are into for life based on Hindu
  • opposed to child marriages and widow suicides
  • believed these practices needed to be changed if
    India wanted to be free from rule by outsiders

Ram Mohun Roy (1772-1833)
  • other Indian writers picked up on Roys ideas and
    called for changes
  • Indian resented being second-class citizens in
    their own country
  • Indians were paid 20 times less than British
  • Indians could not hold top jobs in government

Impact of Ram Roy Independence Organizations
  • Muslim League
  • Comprised of Middle Class professionals and
    lawyers educated in England
  • Members Muslim
  • Wanted independence for India and creation of 2
    countries India and Pakistan
  • Indian National Congress
  • Comprised of Middle Class professionals and
    lawyers educated in England
  • Majority of members Hindu
  • Wanted greater self-government for Indians in

Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress (INC)
  • Due to the slow pace of British reform in India,
    many of the nationalists became convinced that
    relying on British good will was a lost cause
  • 1885---a small group of Indians met in Bombay and
    formed the Indian National Congress
  • It did not immediately call for independence, but
    for a share in the governing process

Indian National Congress
  • Had problems due to religious differences between
    Muslims and Hindus members
  • INC sought independence for all Indians
    regardless of class or religions
  • But its leaders were Hindus and not Muslims
  • INC reflected more Hindu concerns

Indian National Congress 1885
  • Made up of Hindus called for self-government
  • upset that Britain segregated Bengal (Indian
    city) into Muslim section and Hindu section in
  • INC led acts of violence against British in
  • 1911 Britain changed the order of segregation

The Indian National Congress
  • 1885 ? The Indian National Congress
    was founded in Bombay.
  • swaraj ? independence. the goal of the

Indian National Congress
  • Goals Democracy, Local Self-Rule, Prevent mass
    peasant uprising (like China) by keeping power
    centered on middle class leaders.

Example for Indian National Congress Gandhi and
Jawaharlal Nehru
Mohandas Gandhi
  • Studied law in England, practiced in South Africa
  • Joined the INC before WWI
  • Became leader of the INC because he was better
    able to relate to the problems of the common
  • Believed in the idea of non-violent resistance

  • Joined the INC in 1930s
  • New kind of Indian politician---upper class and
  • Differed from Gandhi who was more religious and
    traditional, while Nehru was secular, Western,
    and modern

  • Jawaharlal Nehru. Also a high-caste Hindu
    educated in Britain,
  • - Nehru was a practical political leader with
    socialist leanings.
  • -  He accepted Gandhi's ideas of passive
    resistance and aiding untouchables, but he
    rejected Gandhi's proposal for hand production.
  • -  Instead, Nehru urged industrialization to
    develop India's economy and raise living

Muslim League
The Muslim League
  • 1905 ? partition of Bengal based on
    religions and languages.
  • 1906 ? creation of the Muslim

Muslim League
  • Strongest support came from Muslims who were
    frightened of Hindu domination
  • But many Muslims were also members of the Indian
    National Congress too
  • Initially the Muslim League focused on protesting
    Muslim rights and promoting understanding between
    the different religious groups
  • There was no notion of creating a separate state
    for Muslims until the 1920s when the religious
    differences developed

Muslim League 1906
  • Made up of Muslims
  • also called for self-government
  • also participated in acts of violence against
    British in India
  • also upset about segregation of Bengal in1905

The Muslim League Forms
  • Goals
  • Protect the interests, liberties and rights of
  • Promote an understanding between the Muslim
    community and other Indians - discourage
  • Educating the Muslim and Indian community at
    large on the actions of the government

Indian Nationalism Grows
  • Indian National Congress (Hindus)/Muslim League
    (Muslims) Found Common Ground
  • Both worked together towards Indian Independence

Example Mohammed Ali Jinnah and Muslim League
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  • Leader of the Muslim League who pushed for a
    separate country for Muslim Indians.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  • A. Middle Class lawyer educated in Britain
  • B. First supported Hindu-Muslim Unity called
    Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity
  • C. Proposed Lucknow Pact

Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  • D. Disagreement with Gandhi led to Muslim-
    Congress split
  • E. Jinnah began to fear Hindu domination of
    Congress A Hindu Raj
  • F. Began to support the idea for an independent
    Muslim homeland, Pakistan or land of the pure.

Mohammed Ali Jinnah
  • was an Indian politician who successfully
    campaigned for an independent Pakistan and became
    its first leader.
  • He is known as 'Quaid-I Azam' or 'Great Leader
  • He joined the Indian National Congress, but left
    to fight for an independent Pakistan for the
    newly formed Muslim League.
  • Jinnah had always believed that Hindu-Muslim
    unity was possible, but reluctantly came to the
    view that partition was necessary to safeguard
    the rights of Indian Muslims.
  • Jinnah became the first governor general of
    Pakistan, but died of tuberculosis on 11
    September 1948
  • .

Muhammed Ali Jinnah
  • Became leader of the Muslim League
  • Put forward his 14 Points in 1929 to try to make
    a compromise with the INC
  • Some of the points were
  • Muslim representation should not be less than 1/3
    in the legislative branch
  • Representation of minorities should have separate
  • The Constitution should provide safeguards
  • Protect the Muslim culture
  • But the INC rejected these points and pushed for
    his exile

Impact of the Government of India Act
  • Widened the gulf between the INC and the Muslim
  • In 1938, Jinnah met with Gandhi, Nehru, and other
    leaders of the INC and insisted that the INC
    recognize the Muslim League as the sole party of
    Indias Muslims
  • Gandhi and the INC refused and the split between
    the two groups became permanent

Role of Gandhi
This political cartoon shows Gandhi putting all
of his focus on India while creating chaos in
Message to the Masses
  • According to Gandhi, what are his three goals to
    win independence from Great Britain?

1. Hindu-Muslim Unity
2. Must end untouchability
3. Must defy the British Not through violence
Influences on Gandhi
  • ______________ nonviolence reverence for all
  • CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE refusal to obey unjust laws

Gandhis Influences
  • Hindu religion and Jainism ahimsa
  • Christs teaching to love ones enemy
  • Henry David Thoreaus philosophy of civil

Fusion of Hindu Traditions and Western Thought
  • Followed Hindu religious
  • practices (no meat) and
  • beliefs (Polytheistic)
  • Wore traditional Hindu
  • clothes ________

Fusion of Hindu Traditions and Western Thought
  • _______________ _______________
  • Fought for rights for
  • untouchables
  • Fought for womens rights

Mahatma Gandhi
  • His strategy to gain Indias freedom was
    SATYAGRAHA or truth force---the application of
    righteous and moral force in politics
  • What we now call Civil Disobedience
  • It required non-violence based on Hindu
    principles and the belief in the ultimate
    goodness of the soul
  • Requires a core group of self-sacrificing and
    disciplined activists
  • To be successful, it must have widespread
    publicity that generates national concern and
    international pressure for change

Gandhis Ideas and Methods
  • Satyagraha protesting without using violence in
    order to win the enemy over

  • As part of Satyagraha, a Sanskrit term translated
    as insistence upon truth, Gandhi promoted civil
    disobedience campaigns and organized a strike
    among Indian miners.
  • The term "satyagraha" was coined and developed by
    Mahatma Gandhi.
  • He deployed satyagraha in the Indian independence
    movement and also during his earlier struggles
    in South Africa for Indian rights.
  • Satyagraha theory influenced Nelson Mandela's
    struggle in South Africa under apartheid, Martin
    Luther King, Jr.'s campaigns during the civil
    rights movement in the United States, and many
    other social justice and similar movements.
  • Someone who practices satyagraha is a satyagrahi.

Gandhi and Nonviolence
  • Gandhi named this power satyagraha (reality
    force or holding onto truth).
  • Gandhi made use of every nonviolent technique
  • These techniques included marches, hunger
    strikes, and demonstrations.

Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
  • Gandhi preached/practiced Civil Disobedience
  • deliberate and public refusal to obey any unjust
  • rebellion without violence
  • 1920 Indian National Congress officially adopts
    Gandhis policy as a means to push for

  • Nonviolence is the first article of my faith.
    It is also the last article of my creed.

Instructions to Satyagrahis
  • Harbor no anger, but suffer the anger of the
    opponent. Do not return assaults
  • Do not submit to an order given in anger
  • Refrain from insults and swearing
  • Protect the opponents from insult or attack, even
    at the risk of life
  • If taken prisoner, behave in an exemplary manner
  • Obey the orders of the satyagraha leaders

Steps in a Satyagraha Campaign
  • Negotiation and arbitration
  • Preparation of the group for direct action
  • Agitation
  • Issuing an ultimatum
  • Economic boycott and forms of strike
  • Non-cooperation
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Usurping the functions of the government
  • Parallel Government

Civil Disobedience
  • Passive resistance is a method of securing
    rights by personal suffering it is the reverse
    of resistance by arms.For instance, the
    Government of the day has passed a law which is
    applicable to me. I do not like it. If by using
    violence I force the Government to repeal the
    law, I am employing what may be termed
    body-force. If I do not obey the law and accept
    the penalty for its breach, I use soul-force. It
    involves sacrifice of self.

Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
  • Gandhis Plan for Civil Disobedience
  • Refuse to buy British goods
  • Refuse to attend British schools
  • Refuse to pay British taxes
  • Refuse to vote in elections
  • Indians weave their own
  • cloth (to put British textile factories
  • out of business)

Impact of Rowlatt Acts and Amritsar Massacre on
Growing Unrest from the British Empire
  • Indian nationalists demand freedom in 1919,
    hoping their cooperation from WWI would grant
    them freedom
  • G.B. responded by limiting their freedom of
    press, furthermore General Dyer banned their
    rights to public gatherings after 5 British
    officials were killed

Unrest continued
  • April 13th, 1919 the Amritsar Massacre
  • 10,000 Indians gather for protest in northwestern
    India, General Dyer and his troops open fire
  • 379 dead, 1100 wounded
  • The incident increased violence from both sides
    and led to the distrust of G.B.

Amritsar Massacre 1919
  • Peaceful demonstration against British
  • Resulted in over 300 deaths
  • Convinced Gandhi that cooperation with the
    British was impossible

Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948)
  • Amritsar Massacre set the stage for Mohandas
    Gandhi to become leader of the Indian
    Independence Movement

Other Issues Gandhi Fought For
Gandhis Appeal to Masses
  • He gained appeal by drawing on the rich heritage
    of India
  • He gave up western ways and encouraged
    traditional Indian industries such as spinning
  • Gandhi dressed simply in white garments much like
    the Indias poor people
  • He stressed morals and ways of life such as
    virtue, self-discipline, fasting, and being a
    vegetarian which are all values of devout Hindus
  • Mahatma or Great Soul became his name
  • The Mahatma wanted reforms for the lower castes
    and political power for Muslims

Equality for Caste and Women
  • Gandhi fought to improve conditions for women and
    untouchables in India

Equality for Women
  • At this time, ideas on womens participation in
    the nationalist movement grew out of commonly
    held cultural beliefs on the nature of Indian
    women as essentially self-sacrificing and thus
    ideally suited to non-violent protest.
  • Emphasizing these feminine qualities and their
    role as mothers, specifically as mothers of the
    nation, empowered women to find places in the
    public arena of protest.
  • Gandhi and other nationalist leaders believed
    women were specifically well-suited to spread a
    message of non-violence and to bear the hardships
    of protest.
  • The emphasis on the essential nature of the
    Indian woman created a new place for women in
    public life, a new self-view, where women could
    become agents of change in public spaces.

Hindu Women as Freedom Fighters
  • Sarojini Naidu, the Nightingale of India?
  • Broke social taboos, had an intercaste marriage
  • Gifted poetess and author, wrote a 4000 line
    Persian play when she was 14 yrs
  • Injected humor in Indias freedom movement
    (called Gandhiji a mickey mouse and Nehru a
    handsome prince)
  • Many other Hindu women fought for freedom, eg.
    Sucheta Kriplani, Kasturba Gandhi

Gandhi on Roles of Women
  • I have suggested...that woman is the incarnation
    of ahimsa. Ahimsa means infinite love, which
    again means infinite capacity for suffering. Who
    but woman, the mother of man, shows this capacity
    in the largest measure? She shows it as she
    carries the infant and feeds it during nine
    months and derives joy in the suffering
    involved...Let her transfer that love to the
    whole of humanity...And she will occupy her proud
    position by the side of man as his mother, maker
    and silent leader. It is given her to teach the
    art of peace to the warring world thirsting for
    that nectar. She can become the leader in
    satyagraha which does not require the stout heart
    that comes from suffering and faith.

Gandhi and Ending Caste System
Gandhi and Ending the Caste System
  • Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi
  • Mahatma was from the Vaishya varna.
  • Published magazines and advocated for the
  • Other leaders that tried to end the caste system
  • Buddha
  • Nehru

  • 1934-Collecting money for Harijan Fund at

  • 1934 - With Harijan Children

  • 1940 - At a Harijan Marriage in Sevagram

  • 1944 - Collecting Money for Harijan Fund in Pune

  • In 1933 Gandhi went on a fast for 21 days to
    draw attention to the treatment of the very
    poorest people in India, who he called The
    Children of God.

Hindu-Muslim Unity and Gandhi
Hindu-Muslim Unity
  • Indian first, Muslim or Hindu second
  • Gandhi often fasted to end Hindu-Muslim conflict

  • No country has ever risen without being
    purified through the fire of suffering. Mother
    suffers so her child may live. The condition of
    wheat-growing is that the grain shall perish.
    Life comes out of death. Will India rise out of
    her slavery without fulfilling this eternal law
    of purification?
  • --Mahatma Gandhi

1920-1922 First Satyagraha in India
Gandhis First Satyagraha
  • 1919, Amritsar Massacre
  • 1920, Gandhis first satyagraha. Designed to
    make the British rule in India non-functional
    through a complete non-violent boycott
  • Many were jailed by the British
  • Cancelled due to violence

Civil Disobedience
  • 1922 Indian rioters attacked a police station and
    set officers on fire!
  • Many British businesses went out of business in
  • British arrested Indians who protested and

British Reaction 1922
  • As time passed they realized the threat that
    Gandhi posed.
  • In March 1922 Gandhi was arrested and charged
    with sedition ( encouraging others to disobey the
  • The case against Gandhi was clear cut. He
    himself had written about non-co-operation and
    the law.
  • Non-co-operation aims at the overthrow of the
    government and is legally seditious (Gandhi,
    Young India 1922 )
  • Gandhi pleaded guilty. The trial gave Gandhi the
    opportunity to publicize his views.
  • In sentencing Gandhi, the judge admitted that he
    was a special case.
  • Nevertheless, Gandhi was sentenced to six years
    prison! He did not serve the whole sentence.
  • After two years he fell ill with appendicitis
    was operated upon- and was later released.
  • The British did not wish Gandhi to die while he
    was in prison.
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