How Are Printed Circuit Boards Manufactured - Miracle Electronics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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How Are Printed Circuit Boards Manufactured - Miracle Electronics


Manufacturing PCBs is an intricate process that requires utmost care and attention. However, when you leave the task in hands of professionals, who have the right expertise, tools, and machinery, there is nothing to worry about! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How Are Printed Circuit Boards Manufactured - Miracle Electronics

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are self-contained
modules of interconnected electronic components
found in a variety of electronic devices. The
circuits are formed by a thin layer of
conducting material deposited or printed on the
surface of an insulating board that is called
the substrate after which a number of tiny
electronic components are placed on the surface
and soldered to the interconnecting circuits.
  • PCBs could be single-sided, double-sided, or
    multi-layered. Clearly as the names suggest,
    single-sided boards have components on one side
    of the substrate double-sided boards have
    components on both sides of the substrate and
    multi- layered boards have a substrate made up
    of layers of printed circuits separated by
    layers of insulation. With these basics known,
    now let us get into the details of how a Printed
    Circuit Board is manufactured.
  • First of all, the environment in which the PCB is
    to be manufactured should be cleaned thoroughly
    such that there is no contamination of any kind,
    and the air and components can be kept safe.
  • Next, the substrate is prepared by unwinding
    woven glass fiber from a roll
  • and feeding it through a process station, where
    it is impregnated with epoxy resin. This is then
    passed through rollers that roll the material to
    the desired thickness, while removing excess
    amounts of resin. This substrate is then passed
    through an oven to be semi-cured, after which is
    cut into large panels. These panels are stacked
    in layers, with alternating layers of

  • adhesive-backed copper foil inserted in between,
    which are then placed in a press that subjects
    them to high temperatures and pressures for hours
    together to fully cure the resin and make a
    tight bond.
  • Once the substrates are manufactured, several
    panels are stacked and
  • pinned together to keep them from moving. They
    are then placed in a CNC machine where holes are
    drilled, and then de-burred to remove any excess
    material clinging to the edges of the holes.
    These holes are then plated with copper.
  • Next, a printed circuit pattern is created on the
    substrate. For this, the
  • surface is degreased, after which the panels pass
    through a vacuum chamber, where a positive
    photoresist material is pressed firmly onto the
    surface. After this, the printed circuit pattern
    mask is laid on top of the photoresist, and the
    panels are exposed to intense UV light. The mask
    is then removed and the surface of the panels is
    sprayed with alkaline developer, and then
    electroplated with copper. Next, another
    protective coating is placed on top to prevent
    the copper from oxidizing. The photoresist is
    then stripped off and the boards are sprayed with
    an acid solution.
  • Contact fingers are then attached to the edge of
    the substrate to connect with the printed
    circuit, but they are masked off from the rest of
    the board and then plated with tin-lead, nickel,
    and gold. To prevent oxidization, the panels are
    passed through a reflow oven or hot oil bath that
    causes the tin- lead to melt into a shiny
    surface. Each panel is then sealed with epoxy and
  • the panels are cut into individual boards.
  • Finally, all the tiny electronic components are
    placed on the board with the help of several
    machines. With the surface mount technology, the
    board passes through an automatic solder paster,
    which places solder paste at each component
    contact point. Then, the components are placed
    where they need to be with the help of a chip
    shooter or robotic placer, or may be placed
    manually if they are big enough. All these
    components are then soldered to the circuits.
    Finally, all the residue is cleaned with water or
    solvents, as appropriate, to make the PCB ready
    to use.
  • Miracle Electronics is a leading manufacturer of
    the finest quality PCB assembly from Germany
    that provides end-to-end turnkey solutions using
    not only surface mount technologies, but also
    plated-through-holes technologies if required.
    All the procedures are standardized, making all
    the products of the highest quality!
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