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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards

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Title: Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards


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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Introduction
  • The most vital element in electronic circuits and
    equipment's is the Printed Circuit Board (PCB).
    It is also possible to build an electronic
    circuit with bread boards and zero boards, but
    the method is a low level and less efficient one
    wherein the designing circuit is prone to damage
    and the designing involves a complex process of
    placing the components of the circuit.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
What is a Printed Circuit Board?
  • Electronic circuits in engineering and industry
    are normally manufactured by using printed
    circuit boards (PCBs).
  • These boards are made up of special materials.
  • That do not conduct electricity such as fiber and
    glass.
  • The circuits are designed on the boards with
    copper tracks.
  • Instead of wires for the conduction of
    electricity between the electronic components.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
What is a Printed Circuit Board?
  • The electronic components are fixed in their
    respective positions.
  • By drilling holes on the board, placing the
    components.
  • Then soldering them in appropriate positions so
    that the copper tracks and components together
    form a circuit.
  • It offer quick functioning, access, control,
    monitoring and precise and exact results when
    compared to other wiring methods based devices.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
What is a Printed Circuit Board?
  • The printed circuit boards used in all electronic
    products such as
  • Automotives
  • Wireless Devices
  • Robotic applications

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
The below figure shows how the circuit is
arranged on a PCB with copper layer.
555 Timer PCB Circuit
555 Timer Printed Circuit Board
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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Designing Process of a PCB
  • There are numerous ways available for designing
    PCBs.
  • Circuit board design can be manufactured as bulk
    using several machines in PCB fabrication
    industries Including .
  • Drilling
  • Punching
  • Plating

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Designing Process of a PCB
  • Final fabrication processes that are performed
    through highly automated machines.
  • Laser drilling with CNC machines
  • Automatic plating machines
  • Strip etching machines
  • Use of optical inspection equipments, flying
    probe testers for electrical testing of printed
    circuit board process result in high-quality PCBs
    (with a greater production yield).

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step1 Design the PCB Circuit With a Software
  • Draw the schematic circuit diagram with the PCB
    layout software.
  • Using CAD software, Eagle and Multisim software. 
  •  This type of PCB design software contains a
    library of components that can be used to build
    the circuit.
  • It allows your to change the circuit designs
    position ,modification according to your
    convenience and requirement.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step1 Design the PCB Circuit With a Software
  • We have selected Eagle software to design the
    circuit and its procedure is as follows
  • Open the Eagle circuit board design software.
  • A window with a menu bar appears.
  • Click on the file menu.
  • Select new design from the drop-down menu.
  • Click on the library menu.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step1 Design the PCB Circuit With a Software
  • Select pick devices/symbol from the drop-down
    menu.
  • Select a relevant comment by double clicking on
    it.
  • so that the component appears on the window.
  • Add all the components and draw the circuit with
    proper connections as shown in the figure.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step1 Design the PCB Circuit With a Software
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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step1 Design the PCB Circuit With a Software
  • Enter the rating of each component according to
    the requirement.
  • Go to Command Toolbar and click Text editor
    varriages, click on the Varriages, and then close
    the window.
  • Next, a black screen appears which is of the
    layout or the film diagram of the circuit as
    shown in the below figure, and save this as an
    image format.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step2 Film generation
  • The film is generated from the finalized circuit
    board diagram of the PCB layout software which is
    send to the manufacturing unit where the negative
    image or mask is printed out on a plastic sheet.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step3 Select Raw Material
  • The bulk of the printed circuit board is made
    with an unbreakable glass or fiberglass.
  • Having copper foil bonded unto one or both the
    sides of the board.
  • The PCBs made from unbreakable paper phenolic
    with a bonded copper foil.
  • These are less expensive and are often used in
    household electrical devices.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step3 Select Raw Material
  • Mostly 0.059 industry standard thick, copper clad
    laminate, either single or double sided board is
    required.
  • Panels may be sheared to contain May boards of
    different sizes.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step4 Preparing Drill Holes
  • Machines and carbide drills are used to put holes
    on the printed circuit board.
  • There are two types of machines available to
    drill the PCBs.
  • They include hand machines and CNC machines.
  • The hand machines require human intervention or
    effort to drill the holes.
  • CNC machines are computer-based machines.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step4 Preparing Drill Holes
  • It work-based on the machine timetables or
    programs that run both automatic as well as
    manually.
  • The drilled pattern is stored in the computer
    like drill bit sizes, number of holes per panel,
    drilled stack, drilled time per load, etc.
  • The PCB boards are placed into the CNC machine.
  • The holes are drilled according to the determined
    pattern to place printed circuit board components.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step4 Preparing Drill Holes
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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step5 Apply Image
  • The printed circuit layout can be printed in
    different ways on PCBs like.
  • Manual pen.
  • Dry transfers.
  • Pen plotters and printers.
  • The laser printers are a better way to print the
    layouts on printed circuit boards.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step5 Apply Image
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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step5 Apply Image
  • The following steps are used to print the PCB
    layout through a laser printer
  • Take a clean and neat copper paper and place it
    on the laser printer.
  • Next, store the designed layout film in the
    computer.
  • A laser printer prints the designed circuit
    layout on a copper paper whenever it gets a print
    command from the computer.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step6 Stripping and Etching
  • Stripping and Etching process involves removing
    the unwired copper on the PCBs.
  • Using different types of chemicals like ferric
    chloride, ammonium per-sulphate, etc.
  • Make the solvent by mixing 1 of sodium hydroxide
    and 10 grams of sodium hydroxide pellets to one
    litre of water.
  • Mix the composition until everything is dissolved.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step6 Stripping and Etching
  • The PCB is put on a chemical bowl and cleaned up
    with a brush.
  • During this process, if the PCB is still greasy,
    due to applied sunflower or seed oil, the
    developing process may take about 1 minute.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step7 Testing
  • After finishing the manufacturing process of the
    Printed Circuit Board.
  • The Board undergoes a testing process to check
    whether the PCB is working properly.
  • Nowadays many automatic testing equipments are
    available for the high volume testing of the
    PCBs.
  • The two different types of testing equipment
    available today .

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Step7 Testing
  • That test your circuit boards include ATG test
    machines that are flying probe.
  • Fixtureless testers and in addition to a
    universal grid testing capability as well.

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Designing Process Of Printed Circuit Boards
Conclusion
  • The invention of the PCB that supports physical
    electronic components and their wiring through
    the surface-mounted copper tracks is really
    remarkable. Printed circuit boards, PCBs, form an
    essential part of any electronics equipment these
    days. The PCB design and layout forms an integral
    part of the design of the whole product, and it
    can be the key to the success of the product
    meeting its performance requirements in many
    instances.

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