Hyperparathyroidism: Symptoms, causes and treatment (1) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Hyperparathyroidism: Symptoms, causes and treatment (1)


Hyperparathyroidism is a medical condition where overactivity of one or more of the body's four parathyroid glands leads to excess of parathyroid hormone in the bloodstream. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hyperparathyroidism: Symptoms, causes and treatment (1)

  • Hyperparathyroidism is a medical condition where
    overactivity of one or more of the body's four
    parathyroid glands leads to excess of parathyroid
    hormone in the bloodstream. The parathyroid
    glands are responsible for parathyroid
    hormonewhich maintains a proper balance of
    calcium in the bloodstream and in tissues that
    depend on calcium for proper functioning. There
    are two types of hyperparathyroidism, primary and
    secondary. In primary hyperparathyroidism, an
    enlargement of one or more of the parathyroid
    glands leads to excess production of the hormone,
    resulting in increased levels of calcium in the
    blood, which can cause several health conditions.
    Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs as a result
    of another disease that primarily causes low
    levels of calcium in the body.

Causes of hyperparathyroidism
  • Hyperparathyroidism is the result of increase in
    production of parathyroid hormone. The disorder
    may occur because of a problem with the
    parathyroid glands themselves or because of an
    underlying medical condition that affects the
    glands' function. Primary hyperparathyroidismWh
    en there is a problem with one of the four
    parathyroid glands, it leads to primary
  • A benign growth on a gland is the most common
  • Enlargement of two or more parathyroid glands
    accounts for most other cases
  • A malignant tumor is an uncommon cause of primary

Causes of hyperparathyroidism
  • Secondary hyperparathyroidismSecondary
    hyperparathyroidism occurs due to another health
    condition that lessens calcium levels. Therefore,
    your parathyroid glands work overtime to
    compensate for the loss of calcium. Reasons
    behind secondary hyperparathyroidism include 
  • When your body is unable to absorb the calcium
    from your diet, it may lead to calcium
  • Your bodys calcium levels may drop when
    you dont get enough vitamin Dbecause of less
    exposure to sunlight.
  • When your kidneys malfunction, they may not be
    able to use vitamin D properly. Hence, it leads
    to drop in calcium levels.

  • Hyperparathyroidism is usually diagnosed before
    any symptoms of the disorder are visible. When
    symptoms appear, they're the result of
    dysfunction in other organs or tissues because of
    high calcium levels in the blood and urine or
    very less calcium in bones. Symptoms of
    hyperparathyroidism may be so gentle or severe
    that they don't seem at all related to
    parathyroid function. Some of the common symptoms
  • Fragile bones that easily fracture
  • Kidney stones
  • Excessive urination
  • Abdominal pain
  • Tiring easily or weakness

  • Depression or forgetfulness
  • Bone and joint pain
  • Frequent complaints of illness with no apparent
  • Nausea, vomiting or loss of appetite

  • Surgery Surgery is the most common form of
    treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism and has
    a high success rate. A surgeon will remove only
    those glands that have a tumor. If all four
    glands are affected, a surgeon will likely remove
    only three glands and a portion of the fourth,
    leaving some functioning parathyroid tissue.
  • Calcimimetic medicine It is a drug that imitates
    calcium circulating in the blood. The drug
    prompts the parathyroid glands into releasing
    less parathyroid hormone. Some doctors prescribe
    Calcimimetics when surgery has given a negative
  • Hormone replacement therapy For women who have
    signs of osteoporosis or who have undergone
    menopause, hormone replacement therapy is the
    perfect option. But this treatment doesn't
    address the main problem associated with the
    parathyroid glands.

  • Bisphosphonates Bisphosphonates also prevent the
    loss of calcium from bones and may reduce
    osteoporosis caused by hyperparathyroidism.It's
    important to get an accurate diagnosis and
    suitable treatment for hyperparathyroidism
    because if left unattended, it can lead to
    serious complications.

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