How to detect & diagnose congenital heart disease in children - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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How to detect & diagnose congenital heart disease in children


Congenital means “Existing at the birth” Congenital Heart Disease in Children is caused when a child is born with irregular heart structure or defects in the heart. Many Best Cardiologist in Hyderabad and around the world proved that this disease is caused only in infants and children. This ppt explains you the root cause of the congenital heart disease (CHD) or defects with the flaws in it. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How to detect & diagnose congenital heart disease in children

How to detect diagnose Congenital Heart Disease
in Children?
  • Congenital means Existing at the birth
    Congenital Heart Disease in Children is caused
    when a child is born with irregular heart
    structure or defects in the heart. Best
    Cardiologist in Hyderabad says that it is mainly
    caused in children from the birth.
  • According to best cardiologist in Kukatpally
    Hyderabad, people in general refer congenital
    heart disease in the prospective of a disease.
    But in reality it is not a disease, it is a
    defect or abnormality caused because of heart

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Do you know?
  • Every year 1.35 million babies are born with
    congenital heart disease every year.
  • 25 of Kids within the age of 2 years may need to
    undergo surgery.
  • 1-3 of children develop Atrioventricular (AV)
    block due to CHD surgery.

How heart defects grow in children or infant
  • When a woman is pregnant, during the period of
    first 6 months heart takes shape and starts
  • The blood vessels present in the heart also
    starts growing.
  • This is the root time of causing heart defects in
    various heart parts.

Categories of Congenital Heart Disease in
Congenital Heart Defects in Children
  • Cyanotic
  • Fallots tetralogy.
  • Transposition of the great arteries.
  • Tricuspid atresia A complete absence of the
    tricuspid valve, an ASD must be present to
    maintain blood flow.
  • Total anomalous pulmonary venous return all four
    pulmonary veins are malposition and make
    anomalous connections to the systemic venous

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  • Persistent truncus arteriosus.
  • Hypoplastic left heart the left side of the
    heart is severely underdeveloped.
  • Pulmonary atresia the pulmonary valve is
    completely closed and the only source of
    pulmonary blood flow is a PDA.
  • Ebsteins anomaly.

Types of congenital heart defects
  • Few children are born with simple and normal
    problems and few are born with the serious and
    complex problem. The below listed problems are
    generally seen in Congenital Heart Defects in
    Children respectively said by the best
    cardiologist in Hyderabad India.
  • Holes in heart Holes can form either in between
    the heart walls or blood vessels in the heart.
    These holes allow oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor
    blood to flow through the heart and other body
    parts. The blood mixture which is passed through
    all the body parts contains very less amount of
    oxygen and leads to blue skin color.

  • Blood flow blockage This happens when blood
    vessels or heart valves are narrow and this leads
    to harder blood pumping into the heart. In this
    there are two types
  • Pulmonary stenosis This occurs when blood flows
    from the right ventricle to the lungs in the
    valve through the artery is too narrow for the
    proper functionality.
  • Aortic stenosis This occurs when aortic valve
    allows blood flow from the left ventricle to the
    full body is too narrow to flow the blood which
    makes heart to function very hardly ultimately
    makes the heart thicker and enlarges the heart.

  • Abnormal blood vessels This happens when blood
    vessels are not formed correctly which helps in
    blood flow in the heart.
  • Transposition of the great arteries It is the
    condition caused due to the abnormal blood
    vessels. It occurs when pulmonary artery and the
    aorta are positioned on the wrong side of the
  • Coarctation of the aorta It causes due to the
    high blood pressure. It occurs when blood vessel
    which supplies blood to the heart is too narrow
    to flow.
  • Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection It
    is a defect occurs when blood vessels from the
    lungs are linked to wrong positioned in the

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  • Abnormalities in heart valve These abnormalities
    include closing of heart valves which stops blood
  • Immature development of heart Some parts of the
    heart fail to develop because of this defect.
  • Combinational defects Many infants or children
    are born with several defects. Tetralogy of
    Fallot is a combination of four defects namely a
    hole in the wall between the hearts ventricles,
    a narrowed passage between the right ventricle
    and pulmonary artery, a shift in the connection
    of the aorta to the heart, and thickened muscle
    in the right ventricle.

Risk Factors of congenital heart disease in
  • According to the best Interventional
    cardiologist in Hyderabad, there are various risk
    factors which cause congenital heart defects and
    few are the root causes. Some of the major and
    important risk factors are listed below.

  • Diabetes A pregnant mother with diabetes will
    create CHD in their baby or the adult with
    congenital heart defects will have severe effects
    of diabetes. 

  • Rubella A German measles, rubella is a virus
    which if spread in the body leads to congenital
    heart defects in the infants.

  • Medications Consuming more number of medications
    either in a pregnant woman or adult person will
    increases the risk of CHD.

  • Smoking Person with smoking habits during the
    pregnancy increases the chance of CHD among new
    born babies. As smoking damages the babys body
    and heart with the chemicals present in it.

  • Heredity Few new born babies are affected with
    congenital heart disease due to the heredity
    among their family members.

  • Alcohol Alcohol consumption among parents
    without any limits affects widely on kids,
    infants, and babies.

Other Complications
  • The risk of infective endocarditis.
  • Failure to thrives
  • Difficulty in joining the games and sports among
  • Causes polycythaemia due to cyanosis a
    haemoglobin increases more than 20g/dL and
    results in blood difficulty.

Symptoms of Congenital Heart Defects Symptoms
  • Complex Congenital heart defects These problems
    starts either from the time of birth or after few
    months of birth. The main signs and symptoms
    include the following.
  • Blue skin color or Pale grey color.
  • Rapid breathing without any pause.
  • Burn nostrils.
  • Swelling in the legs, abdomen, around eyes.
  • Poor gain weight.

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  • Normal Congenital heart defects These sorts of
    diseases may not be treated in early childhood.
    They can be treated when a child has grown up.
    The signs may not have any noticeable problems.
    If they can be identified in older age below may
    be included.
  • Breathing problems during exercise or activity.
  • Rapid tiredness.
  • Swelling in hands, ankles and feet.

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General Signs of congenital heart disease in
  • Heart murmur
  • Abnormal heart sounds
  • Fast breathing
  • Poor feeding
  • Very less Weight gain
  • Excessive sweating

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Tests for Congenital heart disease
  • Cardiac catheterization It is used to know the
    detailed view on childs heart. In this test, a
    thin and flexible tube is inserted into childs
    heart and through blood vessels.
  • Chest X-Ray It is used to check heart size as
    whether it is enlarged or not. It is processed by
    taking a simple x-ray of the heart.
  • Echocardiogram It is used to diagnose the
    congenital defect after an infant is born.
    Ultrasound is performed to check heart motion and
    sounds along with the identification of the
    abnormalities of kids heart.

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  • Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) It is used to record
    the electrical activity of the heart. It helps in
    diagnosis of the heart rhythm is any problem is
    formed. Waves are printed through the Electrodes
    which are placed on babys chest are connected to
    the computer and printer.
  • Fetal Echocardiogram It helps in detecting any
    sort of heart defect when the child is in
    mothers womb i.e., before the child born defects
    can be identified.
  • Pulse oximetry It measures the oxygen content
    present in the childs blood. Through sensor
    oxygen content can be identified and recorded.
    The less amount of oxygen can lead to heart

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Treatments for Congenital Heart Defects in
Children and small babies
  • Procedures using catheterization
  • Open-heart surgery
  • Heart transplant
  • Medications
  • Lifelong monitoring and treatment
  • Exercise restrictions
  • Infection prevention

  • Many congenital heart defects are not
    preventable. But here are few tips which help in
    preventing it.
  • Avoid drugs and alcohol consumption during
    pregnancy which may prevent congenital disease.
    Avoid rubella syndrome by taking vaccination to
    prevent congenital disease in children and
  • Avoid contact with organic solvents such as the
    chemicals used in dry cleaning, paint thinners,
    nail polish remover, etc.

  • Keep yourself away from viral infections during
    pregnancy time especially infections related to
    upper respiratory tract.
  • Congenital heart anomalies can be diagnosed
    during pregnancy before delivery time through
    antenatal scan.
  • During pregnancy period every woman should intake
    400micrograms of folic acid every day.

Growth Development tips for the Congenital Heart
Defects in Children
  • Nutrition needs Nutritional issues effects more
    to CHD developed kids compared to normal child.
    Few of the issues may include
  • The heart pumping should be much faster to meet
    the kids needs.
  • More stress on the kids mind and body due to CHD.
  • Lack of oxygen levels in the body.
  • Rapid tiredness in the kid.
  • Due to very less oxygen kid may not observe
    nutrients as per normal kids.

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  • Pubescence Growth Many advanced treatments are
    found by many scientists around the world. They
    might be cured but the issues related to this CHD
    may be serious and affect a kids life as they
    grow up. The issues may include below
  • Confidence of being independent
  • Choosing collage and career
  • Getting into marriage
  • Having an own family
  • Pregnancy difficulties
  • Health and Life insurance disapprovals
  • Travelling around by their own
  • Relocation whenever there is a need

  • Development forethoughts The following reasons
    include the development issues in every kid
    affected by the congenital heart disease
  • Lack of energy in the kid will lead to an
    immature growth of body parts such as brain,
    muscles, bones and nerve system.
  • Continuous illness and frequent hospitalization
    will make a kid more depressed.
  • Genetic problems related to heart defects and
    diseases will reduce kids development according
    to the age.

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  • Keep Active Keep kids and children active
    through the daily routines and make them happy
    mentally and physically.
  • Activities such as exercise, walking, dancing or
    other activities which include physical
  • Best cardiologist in Apollo Hyderabad doctors
    suggests at least a kid should involve in half an
    hour exercise which can split and performed with
    multiple intervals.
  • Consult doctors before you start any sort of
    exercise to the kids as few children body may not
    support for much more physical activity.

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  • Sleep When children sleep peacefully then only
    they will be active.
  • The amount of sleep a kid should get depends upon
    the age.
  • But minimum 8-9 hours sleep is recommended by
    the doctors to any human.
  • Never exceed the limit of watching TV or using
    computer in the night times.

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Foods and other factors for the congenital heart
disease in new born and kids
  • It is recommended to follow proper diet and food
    for the CHD affected kids. This will make them
    positively grow in every aspect. Few foods and
    minerals are provided below. 
  • Remember always to either feed or eat any sort of
    food in limited quantity and prefer only organic
    nature-friendly and healthy food.

  • Dairy products
  • Add more content of high-calories milk in childs
    food. Breastfeeding is prioritized and
  • Add low-fat cheese and other dairy products.

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  • High Calories foods
  • High calories foods and snacks are more preferred
    as they provide good number of supplements to the

  • Fruits
  • Fruit juices
  • Any types of fruits are suitable for the kids
    affected with congenital heart disease.
  • Add plenty of fruit juices every day. Do not use
    any extra or added sugars in the juice.

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  • Proteins
  • Protein rich content is very good for health and
    increases the potential energy in the body.
  • Protein foods such as meat, fish, poultry, nuts,
    beans have high amount of proteins and other

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Foods to be avoided
  • Stop providing a high content of sugar products.
  • Avoid cool drinks.
  • Stop feeding junk foods.
  • Never allow your child to eat fast foods or
    saturated foods.
  • Avoid high-fat content foods.
  • Always prefer organic and healthy foods.

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Diet Tips for the children heart defects in
  • Use less content of sodium or salt in the food
  • Avoid excess amount of sugar
  • Never keep your kids stomach empty.
  • Feed child for every little time gap.
  • Use whole grains instead of refined grains

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  • Use low-fat or non-fat products
  • Always maintain a balanced diet.
  • Use vegetable oil instead of refined oil.
  • Eat more amounts of fish and other protein-
  • rich food.
  • Encourage organic and home food.

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Side effects of congenital heart disease in
  • The kid may look thinner, younger compared to
    normal kids of same age.
  • Childs height and weight may be very less than
    the other children of same age.
  • The development process will be very slow than
    other healthy kids.
  • Special training for daily routines such as
    toilet, sitting, walking, etc. may require for
    the CHD affected kids.
  • No content of proteins, minerals, vitamins and
    other nutritional food even after the high amount
    of nutrition consumption.

Challenges faced because of Congenital Heart
disease in children by the parents
  • Learning more specialized parenting skills to
    handle the kid.
  • Becoming expert and self-learner to know in
    detail about kids condition.
  • Problem solving capabilities faced every day.
  • More concern and increase in safety of the child.
  • Handling and struggling for the financial
  • Making time and maintaining a proper schedule for
    the regular medical check-ups of the child.

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