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Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

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Vessels in the heart become blocked. Stroke - Impeded blood supply to a part of the brain. ... cancer in estrogen-responsive sites. Detection and Treatment. 53 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer


1
Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer
  • Chapter 12

2
Introduction
  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause
    of death in the U.S.
  • One American dies from CVD every 33 seconds
  • Nearly half of all Americans will die from CVD
  • CVD is the leading cause of death for both men
    and women
  • 45 of all heart attacks occur in people under
    the age of 65
  • Most of CVD risk is lifestyle-related

3
The Cardiovascular System
  • Pulmonary circulation
  • Blood to and from the lungs.
  • Systemic circulation
  • Left side of the heart pumps blood through the
    rest of the body.

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Cardiovascular System
  • Heart, blood vessels, hormones, enzymes and
    wastes.
  • Four chambers (size of a fist).
  • Upper chambers (Atriums).
  • Lower chambers (Ventricles).
  • Vena cava
  • Pulmonary Artery and Vein.
  • Aorta.
  • Coronary Arteries.

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Cardiovascular System
  • Systole and Diastole.
  • action of the heart is controlled by an
    electrical signal which originates in the right
    atrium.
  • Veins carry blood back to the heart.
  • Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
  • Capillaries

9
Risk Factors
  • Major Risk factors
  • Contributing Risk Factors
  • Six Major Risk Factors that can be changed.
  • Tobacco use.
  • Physical inactivity.
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure.
  • Diabetes
  • High levels of cholesterol.
  • LDLs and HDLs

10
Tobacco Use
  • Smokers have 2-3 times higher risk of heart
    attack
  • Reduces HDLs
  • CO displaces O2
  • Causes platelets to become sticky and increases
    blood thickness

11
High Blood Pressure
  • Too much pressure against arterial walls
  • Heart has to work harder, weakens, enlarges,
    arteries scar and harden

12
High Blood Pressure
  • Tachycardias.
  • 100 or more beats per minute.
  • Compromises the ability of the heart to pump
    effectively.
  • Ventricles can not completely fill.

13
Low Blood Pressure
  • Bradychardia
  • 60 or less beats per minute
  • Poor circulation of the blood
  • Lack of 02 throughout to body and brain

14
Cholesterol
  • Clogs the arteries
  • Increased risk of CVD
  • LDLs - less than 120 dl/mg
  • HDLs - greater than 60 dl/mg
  • Total cholesterol should be below 200 dl/mg
  • Levels over 240 indicates high risk of CVD

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Physical Inactivity
  • Exercise reduces risk by
  • Lowering LDLs
  • Controlling Blood pressure
  • Increasing HDLs
  • Maintaining weight
  • Helps prevent or controls Diabetes

17
Other Contributing Factors
  • Obesity
  • More than 30 above recommended weight.
  • Increase strain on the heart.
  • Diabetes
  • Having doubles the risk of CVD.

18
Body Weight
  • More than 30
  • High cholesterol levels
  • High blood pressure
  • Excessive strain on the heart
  • Fat collected in the torso more dangerous

19
Contributing Risk Factors That Can Be Changed
  • High Triglyceride Levels
  • Psychological factors
  • Chronic hostility and anger
  • Suppressing psychological disorders
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Social factors
  • Social isolation
  • Low socioeconomic status

20
Elevated Triglycerides
  • Combines with LDLs
  • Causes lowered HDLs
  • Linked with Obesity
  • Linked with Diabetes
  • Reliable predictor of CVD
  • Best means of Reduction Exercise weight loss,
    and dietary changes

21
Factors Not Controllable
  • Heredity - CVD has genetic component high
    cholesterol levels, blood clotting and obesity
  • Age - Over the age of 65
  • Sex - Men have higher risk earlier in life
  • Ethnicity - African Americans have higher risk of
    hypertension Hispanics greater risk of HBP and
    Angina Asians Lower rates of CVD

22
Possible Risk Factors Currently Being Studied
  • Homocysteine
  • Lipoprotein(a)
  • LDL Particle size.
  • Infectious agents
  • Inflammation and C-Reactive Protein
  • Fibriongen
  • Blood Viscosity and Iron
  • Uric Acid
  • Syndrome X

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Major Forms of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Hypertension - may cause damage even before it is
    ever detected.
  • Atherosclerosis - narrowed by fatty deposits.
    Starts during childhood fat.
  • Heart Attack - Coronary thrombosis, coronary
    occlusion or myocardial infarction. Vessels in
    the heart become blocked.
  • Stroke - Impeded blood supply to a part of the
    brain.
  • Congestive Heart Failure - Blood backs up in the
    veins leading to the heart, causing fluid
    retention in various body parts.

25
Major Forms of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Angina Pectoris - Chest pain heart doesnt get
    enough O2. (Kehrs sign.).
  • Arrhythmias - Abnormal Heartbeat - Disruption of
    the electrical system - can lead to sudden death.

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Helping a Heart Attack Victim
  • Most die within 2 hours from time of first
    symptoms.
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

28
Detecting and Treating Heart Disease
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Angiogram
  • Balloon Angioplasty
  • Coronary Bypass Surgery

29
Stroke or Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Thrombotic stroke clot forms in a cerebral artery
  • Embolic Stroke - wandering blood clot
  • Hemorrhagic stroke- blood vessel ruptures in the
    brain
  • Aneurysm

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The Effects of a Stroke
  • 600,000 Americans per year
  • One-third die within a year
  • Those who survive have some lasting disability.

32
Stroke Warning Signs
  • Sudden numbness or weakness of face, arm, leg or
    one side of the body
  • Loss of Speech or difficulty speaking
  • Dimming or loss of vision in one eye
  • Unexplained dizziness in relation to other
    symptoms

33
Detecting and Treating Stroke
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
  • Computed tomography (CT)
  • Rehabilitation
  • Physical therapy
  • Speech and Language therapy
  • Occupational therapy

34
Congestive Heart Failure
  • Number of conditions
  • Pulmonary edema - Fluid accumulates in the lungs.
  • Heart can not maintain regular pumping rate
    fluid backs up.
  • Controlled by Reducing cardiac load, eliminating
    excess fluid, restriction of salt and drug
    therapy.

35
Heart Disease in ChildrenCongenital Heart Disease
  • Most common are holes between the ventricles.
  • Congenital narrowing of the aorta.
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease - Streptococcal
    infections causes damage to the heart muscle and
    valves.
  • Strep throat needs to be treated, primary cause
    if not treated.
  • Heart Valve Disorders
  • Mitral valve prolapse

36
Protecting Yourself Against CVD
  • Total Fats less than 30
  • Low Saturated Fats
  • Increased Dietary Fiber
  • Moderation of Alcohol
  • No smoking
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E, folic acid,
    vitamin B-6 B-12,soy protein, and total
    calories.

37
Protecting Yourself
  • Moderate physical activity
  • Blood pressure monitored twice a year
  • Control Cholesterol levels
  • Effective means of controlling stress

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DASH
  • Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
  • DASH DIET

40
Leading Causes of Cancer
  • Risk Factor
  • Tobacco
  • Diet and obesity
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Family history of cancer
  • Occupational factors
  • Viruses
  • Alcohol
  • Environmental pollution

41
What is Cancer?
  • Definition an abnormal and uncontrollable growth
    of cells or tissue that can lead to death.
  • Tumor a mass of tissue that serves no purpose.
  • Malignant tumor (Neoplasm) cancerous, can invade
    surrounding tissues.
  • Benign tumor mass of cells enclosed in a
    membrane that prevents their penetration of other
    tissues.

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How Cancer Spreads
  • Metastasis Primary tumor
  • Definition the spreading of cancer cells, occurs
    because cancer cells do not stick to each other
    as strongly as normal cells.
  • Cells break away from primary tumor and invade
    surrounding tissues or travel through the blood
    and lymphatic system.
  • Secondary tumor or metastases

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Types of Cancer
  • Malignant Tumors
  • Classified according to the types of cells.
  • Initially retain some of the original properties
    of the host cell.
  • Carcinomas - most common - start from the
    epithelial tissue that cover body surfaces.
    Linings, tubes, cavities and secretion glands.

46
Malignant Tumors
  • Sarcomas arise in connective and fibrous
    tissues. Bone, muscle, cartilage and membranes
    covering muscle or fat.
  • Lymphomas Cancers of the lymph nodes.
  • Leukemia cancer of the blood-forming cells in
    bone marrow.

47
The Incidence of Cancer
  • 1.3 million Americans are diagnosed yearly
  • More than half will be cued.
  • About 40 will die as a result of cancer.
  • 1 in 2 men and 1 in 3 women will be develop
    cancer during their lifetime.

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49
Common Cancers
  • Lung Cancer Most common cancer.
  • Risk Factors
  • Tobacco smoking contributes to 87.
  • Combined with environmental carcinogens multiply
    by 10.
  • Detection and Treatment (Difficult to detect)
  • Symptoms are not detected until cancer has
    reached the invasive stage.
  • Persistent cough, chest pain, or recurring
    bronchitis.
  • Diagnosis - chest x-ray or sputum examination -
    fiber-optic bronchosectomy.

50
Common Cancers
  • Lung Cancer treatment
  • Difficult to treat.
  • Surgery- removal of involved cells.
  • Typically- cancer cells have already spread.
  • Very resistant to chemotherapy.

51
Common Cancers
  • Colon and Rectal- second most prevalent cancer.
  • Risk Factors
  • Directly linked to diet and genetic
    predisposition.
  • Mostly occurs after 50 yr. of age.Diet low in fat
    and High in fiber - best defense.
  • Up to 1/3 of the population is genetically prone.
  • Detection and Treatment

52
Common Cancers
  • Breast Cancer - Second most common cancer in
    women 19 American women will have it during her
    lifetime.
  • Risk Factors
  • Most common in women over 50
  • 5 year survival rate is 79
  • Disease of Civilization
  • Common causes Genetic predisposition High fat,
    High calorie diet and Sedentary lifestyle,
    Alcohol use, early onset of menstruation, First
    child after 30 and obesity
  • Estrogen -cancer in estrogen-responsive sites
  • Detection and Treatment

53
Common Cancers
  • Breast Cancer -.
  • Three part program for early detection.
  • Monthly breast self-exam for all women over 20.
  • Clinical breast exam by a physician every 3 yr.
  • Mammography- Every 1-2 years 40-50 yr. old.
  • Over 50 every year.
  • New Strategies for Treatment and Prevention

54
Common Cancers
  • Prostate Cancer - Most common cancer in men.
    Third leading cause of cancer deaths in men
  • Risk Factors - Age, diet, lifestyle and genetic
    predisposition
  • Early detection is key. PSA Blood test
  • Treatment - surgical removal of the prostate and
    radiation

55
Common Cancers
  • Female Reproductive Tract Uterus, Cervix or
    Ovaries.
  • Cervical cancer - sexually transmitted.
  • 80 stems from infection by the papillomavirus -
    transmitted by unprotected sex.
  • PAP Test
  • Cervical cancer most common in women in their
    20s and 30s.
  • Factors sexual intercourse before 18, multiple
    sex partners, cigarette smoking and low
    socioeconomic status.

56
Common Cancers
  • Uterine, or Endometrial
  • Occurs after 55
  • Determined by Pelvic Exam
  • Treatment is surgery
  • Ovarian Cancer Difficult to detect and
    diagnosis, No warning signs
  • Family history or genetic factors
  • Determined by Pelvic Exam
  • Treatment is surgery radiation

57
Common Cancers
  • Skin Cancer Most common form
  • Easily detected and highly curable
  • Exposure to ultraviolet rays during childhood
  • Common cause - sunburns and suntans
  • Types
  • Basal and Squamous
  • Melanoma - more dangerous form
  • Prevention
  • Detection and Treatment

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Common Cancers
  • Oral Cancer
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Brain Cancer

60
Common Cancers
  • Leukemia
  • Cancers of the blood forming tissues
  • Abnormal production of immature white blood
    cells rapidly growing cells displace red blood
    cell precursors
  • Immature WBCs cannot fight off infections
  • Risk factors are unknown

61
Common Cancers
  • Lymphoma
  • Arising from the lymph cells
  • Hodgkins disease
  • Non-Hodgkins disease
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Malignant plasma cells produce tumors in the bone
    marrow.
  • Leads to anemia, excessive bleeding and decreased
    resistance to infection

62
The Cause of Cancer
  • The Role of DNA
  • Each cells has 23 pairs of chromosomes
  • Each controls the way a cell will work
  • A gene
  • DNA Mutations and Cancer
  • Changes the way the cells function
  • Mutagens
  • Oncogenes
  • Tumor suppressor genes
  • Hereditary Risks

63
Links to Cancer
  • Foods
  • Both carcinogens and compounds that provide
    protection
  • Dietary Fat and Meat (Saturated Fats)
  • Alcohol
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Fruits and Vegetables
  • Anticarcinogens
  • Carotenoids
  • Antioxidants versus Free radicals
  • Phytochemicals
  • Sulforaphane

64
Foods That Contain Cancer-Preventing Substances
  • Broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Carrots
  • Red peppers
  • Tomato
  • Sweet potato
  • Collard greens
  • Green Tea
  • Kale
  • Spinach
  • Apricot
  • Cantaloupe
  • Grapefruit
  • Orange
  • Papaya
  • Peach
  • Plum
  • Watermelon

65
Links to Cancer
  • Inactivity and Obesity
  • Linked to colon cancer
  • Benefits of Physical Activity

66
Carcinogens in the Environment
  • Ingested Chemicals
  • Environmental and Industrial pollution
  • Radiation

67
Detecting, Diagnosing, and Treating Cancer
  • Detecting
  • Self-monitoring
  • Diagnosing
  • Biopsy
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Computed tomography (CT)
  • Ultrasonography

68
Detecting Cancer
  • Self Monitoring is Essential
  • C Change in bowel or bladder habits
  • A A sore that does not heal
  • U Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • T Thickening or lump in breasts or elsewhere
  • I Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
  • O Obvious change in a wart or mole
  • N Nagging cough or hoarseness

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Detecting, Diagnosing and Treating Cancer
  • Treatment
  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • New and Experimental
  • Gene therapy
  • Bone marrow and Stem Cell transplants
  • Biological therapies

71
Cancer Survivors
  • Must live with fear of recurrence
  • Face prejudice from health insurers
  • Psychological support is important
  • Financial impact

72
Prevention
  • Lifestyle choices
  • Avoid tobacco
  • Control diet and weight
  • Regular exercise
  • Protecting skin from the sun
  • Avoiding environmental and occupational
    carcinogens
  • Regular self exams
  • Medical screenings
  • Be aware of the early signs and symptoms

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