Transmission Of Infectious Diseases P.H - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Transmission Of Infectious Diseases P.H


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Title: Transmission Of Infectious Diseases P.H

University Of Luzon Graduate School Master In
Public Health Public Health Microbiologyon
  • Public Health Microbiology Transmission Of
    infectious Diseases Through A Population By
    Ahmed, Habib Ahmed Dawoud

  • A century ago infectious diseases were by
    far the leading cause of death throughout
    the world.At present atherosclerotic heart
    disease and cerebrovascular disease (stroke)
    remain the leading causes of death
    worldwide, but as the table below shows,
    infectious diseases still remain important
    causes of death. Perhaps more importantly,
    infectious diseases remain the 1 cause of
    premature death  throughout the world because
    of a particularly heavy toll in infants
    and children.

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  •   A total of 1,433 people died from
    infectious diseases in China in September last
    year, with HIV/AIDS the top cause of deaths in
    China .

  • Public health measures have accounted
    for the vast majority of reductions in
    deaths from infectious disease through
    better sanitation, cleaner water, and the
    development of vaccines. A key to this
    success has been an increasingly refined
    understanding of the mechanisms by which
    infectious agents are transmitted. An
    understanding of mechanisms of transmission
    provides opportunities for simple, effective
    measures that will prevent disease.
    Moreover, an understanding of mechanisms of
    disease transmission shows how the disease
    spread through a population and to prevent

  • Discussion Transmission of infectious
    diseases Transmission A passage or
    transfer of a disease from one individual
    to another individual by different means

1. Horizontally Disease Transmission It
is the transmission of pathogens (Bacteria or
virus)spread to other members of the same or
different species through non-hereditary means.
  • 2. Vertically Disease Transmission It is
    the transmission of pathogens (Bacteria or virus)
    spreads from parent to offspring genetically or
    by way of passing an infection from mother to

3. Iatrogenical Disease Transmission It
is the transmission of pathogens (Bacteria or
virus) spread through medical procedure such as
blood transfusion.
Routes of disease transmission Person to
person spread 1. Direct person to persona)
Sexually transmitted disease Intimate sexual
contact provides opportunities for transmission
of several types of infectious agents such as
HIV, gonorrhea, human papilloma virus etc. There
are several factors that can modify the risk,
such as viral load in the infected partner.
  • Kissing Disease can be transmitted through
    kissing. A wide variety of viruses that cause
    upper respiratory tract infections. In addition,
    the human papilloma virus transmitted through
    kissing, particularly oral sex, and this
    contribute to the risk of oral cancers. b.)
    Prenatal mother to child transmission (PMTCT)
    There are several diseases that can be
    transmitted from mother to child inthe prenatal
    period.We could also include breastfeeding.(Vert
    ical Transmission).

  • c.) Needle injection and sharps exposure
    There are many organisms that can be transmitted
    to health care workers in a clinical setting. We
    could also include contaminated blood products
    and shared needles among intravenous drug users.
    (Iatrogenic Transmission)

d.) Skin to skin transmission Some disease
agents can be spread by direct skin to skin
contact (Touch). However some disease agents are
probably more often spread by fomites.
e.) Human bites Human bites frequently become
infected (10-15) because of large numbers of
bacteria in saliva.
  • 2. Indirect person to person contact a.)
    Transmission via fomites Fomites are inanimate
    objects that become contaminated with infectious
    agents and serve as a mechanism for transfer
    between hosts. b.) Air-borne Droplet nuclei
    Many diseases can be spread via respiratory
    droplets that are propelled into the air by
    sneezing or coughing.

  • Common Vehicle Spread The term common
    vehicle spread is defined in several very
    different ways. We will use the expression to
    refer to transmission of disease via Food,
    water, drugs, blood productsand medical devices.

  • Zoonosis Zoonotic disease as any disease
    or infection that is naturally transmissible from
    vertebrate animals to humans. Vector borne
    Vector is an organisms that can transmit
    infectious agents from one infected person or
    animalto another.

  • Summary Many infectious disease can be
    transmitted by more than one mechanism. Some
    mechanisms might logically fit into more than one
    category. Infectious diseases can easily spread
    from one person to another unless you are inside
    a bubble.References http//
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