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The Black Death

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... the 'Black Death' ... Black Death began during a recession in the European economy ... The Black Death should have opened the way to increased peasant ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Black Death


1
The Black Death

2
The Black Death
  • a devastating worldwide pandemic that first
    struck Europe in the mid-14th century (134750),
    killing about a third of Europe's population, an
    estimated 34 million people.

3
The Black Death
  • Originated in Asia
  • Came to Europe along major seal and land trade
    routes

4
Why is it called the Black Death?
  • because of a striking symptom of the disease, in
    which sufferers' skin would blacken due to
    hemorrhages under the skin

5
Overview of the Plagues Effects
  • Depopulation
  • changed Europe's social structure,
  • was a disastrous blow to Europe's predominant
    religious institution, the Roman Catholic Church,
  • caused widespread persecutions of minorities like
    Jews and lepers,
  • created a general mood of morbidity that
    influenced people to live for the moment, unsure
    of their daily survival

6
3 forms of the plague
  • Bubonic
  • Pneumonic
  • Septicemic.

7
Mortality Rates
  • Bubonic plague most common
  • 30 75
  • Pneumonic plague second most common
  • 90 95.
  • Septicemic plague most rare
  • close to 100

8
Bubonic Plague
  • worldwide pandemic starting in the mid-14th
    century (134750),
  • killing about a third of Europe's population, an
    estimated 34 million people.

9
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10
Bubonic Plague
  • Historically thought to be a bacterial infection
    spread by fleas with the help of animals like the
    black rat (Rattus rattus),
  • today's experts are not sure of this

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13
Bubonic plague
  • painful lymph node swellings called buboes
  • buboes in the groin and armpits, which ooze pus
    and blood.
  • damage to the skin and underlying tissue until
    they were covered in dark blotches.
  • Therefore, "Black" plague
  • Most victims died within four to seven days after
    infection

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16
Pneumonic plague
  • Symptoms included slimy sputum tinted with blood.
  • As the disease progressed, sputum became free
    flowing and bright red.

17
Pneumonic plague
  • transmitted through infected droplets of saliva
    coughed up by bubonic or septicemic infected
    humans
  • The airborne bacteria enters the lungs through
    the windpipe and starts attacking the lungs and
    throat.

18
Septicemic plague
  • Symptoms were high fevers and skin turning deep
    shades of purple
  • transmitted by direct contact with fleas

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20
Consequences
  • Depopulation
  • Socio-economic effects
  • Persecutions
  • Religion
  • Other social effects

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22
Depopulation
  • Approximately 25 million deaths occurred in
    Europe alone, with many others occurring in
    northern Africa, the Middle East and Asia.
  • It is estimated that between 1/3 and 1/2 of the
    European population died from the outbreak
    between 1348 and 1350.

23
Depopulation
  • Villages, towns and cities more deaths than in
    the countryside (more remote)
  • population densities and close living quarters
    made disease transmission easier
  • Cities were also filthy, infested with lice,
    fleas and rats, and subject to diseases related
    to malnutrition and poor hygiene

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25
Socio-economic effects
  • The governments of Europe had no effective
    response to the crisis because no one knew its
    cause or how it spread. Most monarchs instituted
    measures that prohibited exports of foodstuffs,
    condemned black market speculators, set price
    controls on grain, and outlawed large-scale
    fishing.

26
Socio-economic
  • These controls did not work and contributed to
    the economic downturn and shortages of food

27
Socio-economic
  • In 1337, on the eve of the first wave of the
    Black Death, England and France went to war in
    what would become known as the Hundred Years'
    War. This, another of the crises of the
    fourteenth century, would deplete the treasuries,
    manpower, and infrastructure of both kingdoms
    throughout and beyond the worst of the plague.
    Malnutrition, poverty, disease and hunger,
    coupled with war, growing inflation and other
    economic concerns made Europe in the
    mid-fourteenth century ripe for tragedy.

28
Socio-economic
  • Black Death began during a recession in the
    European economy that had been under way since
    the beginning of the century, and only served to
    worsen it
  • As a consequence, it greatly accelerated social
    and economic change during the 14th and 15th
    centuries

29
Socio-economic
  • It also led to peasant uprisings in many parts of
    Europe
  • The Black Death should have opened the way to
    increased peasant prosperity
  • But it didnt
  • Prosperity does not occur till 100 years or so
    later reasons unknown

30
Socio-economic
  • In Western Europe
  • increased social mobility, as depopulation
    further eroded the peasants' already weakened
    obligations to remain on their traditional
    holdings.

31
Socio-economic
  • the sudden scarcity of cheap labor provided an
    incentive for landlords to compete for peasants
    with wages and freedoms, an innovation that, some
    argue, represents the roots of capitalism, and
    the resulting social upheaval caused the
    Renaissance and even Reformation

32
Socio-economic
  • In Eastern Europe, by contrast, renewed
    stringency of laws tied the remaining peasant
    population more tightly to the land than ever
    before through serfdom.

33
Socio-economic
  • On top of all this, the plague's great population
    reduction brought cheaper land prices, more food
    for the average peasant, and a relatively large
    increase in per capita income among the
    peasantry, if not immediately, in the coming
    century.

34
Socio-economic
  • However, the upper class instituted laws which
    barred the peasantry from certain actions or
    material goods

35
Persecutions
  • Jews
  • Lepers

36
Religion
  • cynicism toward religious officials who could not
    keep their frequent promises of curing plague
    victims and banishing the disease.
  • Extreme alienation with the Christian church lead
    to
  • Interest in other forms of religion, such as the
    flagellants
  • Secular solutions i.e. government

37
Religion
  • severe shortage of clergy
  • new clergy members abuse of power
  • a further deterioration of the position of the
    Church in the eyes of the people

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39
Religion
  • the church's power was weakened causing the
    social roles it had played to be replaced by
    secular ones i.e. government

40
Other social effects
  • European culture in general turned very morbid
    reflected in art, literature, etc.
  • mood was one of pessimism, and the art turned
    dark with representations of death
  • influenced people to live for the moment, unsure
    of their daily survival
  • Loss of belief in alchemy potions did not work
  • Liquor invented by alchemists thought to be a
    cure for Black Death - increased consumption of
    liquor

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42
Danse Macabre
  • Inspired by Black Death, Danse Macabre is an
    allegory on the universality of death and a
    common painting motive in late-medieval periods.

43
Illustration of the Black Death from the
Toggenburg Bible (1411).
44
Source
  • http//en.wikipedia.org
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