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TCS for R.E. Miller


What devices are used at which layers of the OSI model, why those devices are used. ... OSI Model. Layer 7: Network design is important to consider the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TCS for R.E. Miller

TCS for R.E. Miller
  • Members
  • Sandra Freeman
  • Gabriel Vera
  • Sat Ram
  • Sukanya Ram

General Information
  • Washington Project Availability
  • Find out what availability means to your
    customer. In the case of the Washington School
    District, you need to conduct a detailed analysis
    of current and projected needs in order to help
    meet this need. Analysis of network requirements
    includes analyzing the district's business and
    technical goals. You need to answer the following
  • What applications will be implemented?  Answer
    What new networks will be accessed?  Answer What
    are the success criteria?  Answer What level of
    reliability must the WAN and LANs have? Answer

General Information
  • Project Connection Speeds
  • In the Washington School District network, the
    vertical cabling should carry all data traffic
    between the IDFs and MDFs. Therefore, the speed
    of this connection should be designed to be the
    fast link in the network. All traffic across the
    district network backbone will traverse this
    link, so this link should be at least 100 Mbps.

Physical Cabling
General Wiring Scheme
  • Windows NT will be the proprietary software used
    at  R E Miller. All E-mail accounts will be set
    up at the local level along with Domain Name
    Services (DNS). Each site will have a direct
    connection to the Internet.
  • Of the two LAN's implemented at each school, one
    LAN will be designated for Student / Curriculum
    usage and the other will be designated for
    Administration usage. The LAN infrastructure will
    be based on Ethernet LAN switching. This will
    allow for a migration to faster speeds (more
    bandwidth) to the individual computers and
    between MDF's and IDF's without revamping the
    physical wiring scheme to accommodate future

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Access List
  • An Access Control List Example What follows is a 
    Access Control List that, when placed on our
    schools router that will
  • 1.Block curriculum LAN users from accessing
    the    Administrative LAN segment.
  • 2.Continue to give the Administrative LAN
    users    complete access into the Curriculum LAN
  • 3.Allow the router is to pass ANY DNS or
    e-mail    packets to the DNS/Email server which
    is located on    the Administration LAN segment.

Access List Cont
  • Access Control Lists Deliverables
  •   1.The purpose of my Access Control List is To
    deny all protocols except DNS and e-mail for the
    students to the facality, give the administrators
    full access to the LAN, allow DNS and e-mail
    packet to pass to the DNS/e-mail server.
  • 2.The effect of my ACL as it relates to traffic
    flow across the schools LAN is It will slow down
    the traffic, but my goal is to keep it as fast as
    possible and still have all of my requirements.
  • 3.The router commands sequence required to
    implement the Access Control List on the router
  •     Router(config), access-list
    access-list-number    permit/deny test
    conditions, Router(config-if),    protocol
    access-group access-list-number.

Access List Cont
  • RE_Miller Config Terminal
  • RE_Miller(config) access-list 102 deny tcp eq 21
  • RE_Miller(config) access-list 102 permit tcp
    any, any
  • RE_Miller(config) interface ethernet o
  • RE_Miller(config) access-group 102 in
  • RE_Miller(config)exit
  • RE_Miller(config)exit
  • RE_Miller(config)

Access List Cont
  • RE_Miller Configure terminal
  • RE_Miller(Config) access-list 101 permit tcp eq 25
  • RE_Miller(Config) access-list 101 permit any eq 110

Equipment List
Equipment List

Each IDF requires 2 switches, 3 patch panels, and
an equipment rack. The MDF
needs 4 switches, 3 patch panels, a router, 2
hubs, and a second equipment
rack. Cisco routers, switches, and hubs were
selected based on the required
number of p
orts and performance requirements.

Each room with a student/curriculum connection
needs a hub, a patch panel, and
a lockable wall cabinet.

The cabling is Multimode Fiber Optic between the
MDF and IDFs. All other
cabling is Category 5e UTP.

The cabling e
stimates do not include patch cables, work
station cables, or cabling

the room hubs to the outlets.

Other items not included are raceways, outlet
boxes, outlet jacks, and any other
hardware for cable management.

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  • OSI
  • The seven layers of the OSI model are (also
    briefly state what each does)
  •   Application   Presentation   Session  
    Network   Transport   Data Link   Physical
  • The overall function of the OSI model is...and
    the problems it solves are..
  • To reduce complexity
  • Standardize interfaces
  • Facilitate modular engineering
  • Ensures technology
  • Accelerates evolution
  • Simplifies teaching and learning
  • The characteristics of the Physical layer of the
    OSI model include,,,
  • Provide electrical, mechanical, procedural, and
    functional means for activating and maintaining
    the physical link between systems. This layer
    uses physical media such as twisted pair,
    coaxial, and fiber optic. Hubs work at this layer
    of the OSI model.

Summary Cont
  • The characteristics of the Transport layer of the
    OSI model include...
  • This layer segments and reassembles data into a
    data stream. The transport layer attempts to
    provide a data transport service that shields the
    upper layers from transport implementation
  • Routing
  • The function of routing in networks is..
  • The function of routing in networks is the
    process of finding a path to a destination host.
    Moving data from one place to another.
  • The different classes of routing protocols are  
    Distance Vector   Link-State Balanced Hybrid

Summary Cont
  • Reflection
  • In semesters 1 2, I learned the basic
    fundamentals of networking. What devices are used
    at which layers of the OSI model, why those
    devices are used. What the standards of
    networking are and how they came about and how
    they have impacted the way we communicate today.
    I learned some basic fundamentals about routers,
    such as how to log in to a router, change the
    name, set IP addresses, and program interfaces on
    a router.
  • In Semesters 12 I learned.... . This is
    important to network designers because....
  • Without a solid understanding of what devices to
    use and when, the network design would be a
    disasters flaw in the network. A network should
    be well planned from the beginning to be

Summary ContEthernet Issues
  • Broadcasts are... are packets that are sent to
    all nodes on a network. Broadcasts are identified
    by a broadcast address of all 1s.
  • Collisions are... in Ethernet, the result of two
    nodes transmitting simultaneously. The frames
    collide and are damaged when they meet on the
    physical media.
  • Congestion is... traffic in excess of network
  • Bandwidth is... the rated throughput capacity of
    a given network medium or protocol.
  • Latency (Propagation Delay) is... is the time it
    takes a frame or packet or data takes to travel
    from the source station to its final destination.
  • Extending LANs with repeaters is an issue
    because... they increase the collision domain
    size and increase broadcast domains.
  • The difference between Full-Duplex and Fast
    Ethernet is
  • Full Duplex is - allows the transmission of a
    packet and the reception of a different packet at
    the same time. This simultaneous transmission and
    reception requires the use of two pairs of wires
    in the cable and a switched connection between
    each node. Fast
  • Ethernet is provides ten times the bandwidth of
    standard Ethernet. Because of its compatibility
    with standard 10BaseT, the two standards can be
    shared on the same network and many Ethernet
    devices can auto-negotiate between the two
    standards based upon the devices they are
    attached to.

Summary ContLan Devices
  • Four important LAN devices are
  • Repeaters are devices that regenerate and
    propagate electrical signals between 2 network
    segments. Bridges are devices that connect and
    pass packets between two network segments that
    use the same communications protocol. Bridges
    work at the data link layer of the OSI model. In
    general, a bridge filters, forwards, or floods an
    incoming frame based on the MAC address of that
  • Switches - concentrate connectivity while
    guaranteeing bandwidth. Switches use MAC
    addresses to make its switching decisions.
    Routers - are network layer devices that use one
    or more metrics to determine the optimal path
    along which network traffic should be forwarded.
    Routers forward traffic based on network layer
    information contained in routing updates.
  • Bridges Ethernet LANs that use a bridge to
    segment the LAN provide more bandwidth per user
    because there are fewer users on each segment. In
    contrast, LANs that do not use bridges for
    segmentation provide less bandwidth per user
    because there are users on a nonsegmented LAN.
    Bridges increase latency in a network by 10 to
    30. Switches - LAN switching eliminates the
    impact of collisions through micro segmentation,
    has low latency and high frame forwarding rates
    at each interface port. Although the LAN switch
    eliminates collision domains, all hosts connected
    to the switch are still in the same broadcast
  • Routers create the highest level of
    segmentation by forwarding data to the hub, to
    which workstations are connected. A router must
    examine a packet to determine the best path for
    forwarding that packet to its destination.
    Protocols that require acknowledgement from the
    receiver to the sender for every packet as it is
    delivered have a 30 to 40 delay.

Summary ContSwitching
  • LAN Switching is .... and the benefits include...
  • LAN switching is technology that uses switched
    Ethernet topology and creates a network that
    behaves as though it only has two nodes, the
    sending and receiving node. In a switched
    Ethernet implementation, the available bandwidth
    can reach close to 100.
  • The differences between Asymmetric and Symmetric
    Switching include
  • Asymmetric Switching - provides switching
    between unlike bandwidths (10/100Mbps) Symmetric
    Switching - provides connections between ports
    with the same bandwidth, such as all 10mbps or
    all 100Mbps.
  • The differences between Cut-Through and
    Store-and-Forward Switching are
  • Cut-Through reads the destination address
    before receiving the entire frame. The frame is
    then forwarded before the entire frame arrives.
    Fast-forward and fragment free are two forms of
    cut-through switching. Store-and-Forward - The
    entire frame is received before any forwarding
    takes place.
  • Spanning Tree Protocol is... is to allow
    duplicate switched/bridged paths without
    incurring the latency effects of loops in the

Summary ContVLANs
  • VLAN's are... a logical grouping of devices or
    users. These devices can be grouped by function,
    department, or application, regardless of their
    physical segment location. Configuration for
    VLANs is done in the switch via software.
  • Why create VLANs? Because... they make additions
    to the network, moves, and changes easier. They
    help control broadcast activity, improve network
    security by using ACLs (Access Control Lists).
  • The 5 components of VLAN implementations are
  •   They work at Layer 2 3 of the OSI Model
  •   Communication between VLANs is provided by
    Layer 3 routing.
  •   VLANs provide a method of controlling network
  •   The network administrator assigns users to a
  •   VLANs can increase network security by
    defining which network nodes can communicate with
    each other.
  • Switches make VLANs possible by...using
    proprietary software from the switch vendor.
  • Hubs can be used with switches and VLANs in order
    to create a VLAN architecture. You can also share
    traffic and network resources directly attached
    to switching ports with VLAN destinations.
  • Specific VLAN types include
  • Port-centric which is where all the nodes
    connected to ports in the same VLAN are assigned
    to the same VLAN ID. Static which is where ports
    on a switch that you statically assign to a VLAN.
    Static VLANs are secure, easy to configure, and
    monitor. Dynamic which is are ports on a switch
    that can automatically determine their VLAN
    assignments. Dynamic VLAN functions are based on
    MAC addresses, logical addressing, or protocol
    type of the data packets.
  • The difference between static and dynamic VLANs
    are static must be changed by an administrator
    where dynamic VLANs change automatically and do
    not need to be reconfigured when a change occurs.
  • VLAN frame filtering and VLAN frame tagging
    are...the most common approaches for logically
    grouping users into distinct VLANs. Frame
    filtering examines particular information about
    each frame. Frame Tagging places a unique
    identifier in the header of each frame as it is
    forwarded throughout the network backbone.

Summary ContOSI Model
  • Layer 7 Network design is important to
    consider the applications on the network. Are
    they going to be client/server or are they going
    to be workgroups. When placing equipment on the
    networks, it must be well planned out.Layer 6
    This layer is responsible for presenting data in
    a form that the receiving device can understand.
    This layer will serve as a translator for devices
    that need to communicate over a network.Layer 5
    The session layer is concerned with inter-host
    communication. It establishes, manages, and
    terminates sessions. This is the layer that will
    coordinate applications as they interact on
    different hosts.Layer 4 This layers primary
    duties are to transport and regulate the flow of
    information from the source to the destination,
    and to do it reliable and accurately.Layer 3
    This layer is very important in network design
    because it is logically designed at this layer.
    Furthermore routers work at this layer, so it is
    crucial in planning a network as to where they
    will be placed and who shall have access to
    them.Layer 2 The data link layer is equally
    important in network design because this is the
    layer that interconnects your network. If not
    well thought out, it can cause extreme
    bottlenecks and cripple your network.Layer 1
    The physical layer is equally important. The
    equipment you connect is only as good as the
    physical medium that connects them. When planning
    this layer, consider the speed of your network it
    will help when making decisions on the type of
    cable to buy. What kind of topology will you use,
    this also must be considered at this layer.

Summary ContGeneral
  • An access control list is a list of instructions
    you apply to a routers interface.
  • The function of Access control lists on routers
  • These lists tell the router what kinds of
    packets to accept and deny. Acceptance and denial
    can be based on certain specifications, such as
    source address, destination address and port
    number.The reasons access control lists are used
  • To filter network traffic by controlling whether
    routed packets are forwarded or blocked at the
    routers interface.Segmentation with routers and
    access control lists are related because
  • What can enter and exit your network. Standard
    ACLs filter traffic based on a source address
    and mask. They work at the upper layers.
  • The layers of the OSI model standard access
    control lists function at are
  • The layers of the OSI model extended access
    control lists function at are
  • Extended access control lists deal with the
    source and destination addresses as well as
    protocol, so they function at layer 3 as well as
    layer 4 and what ever upper layers of the
    specific protocol they are effecting uses.
  • In order to develop an Access Control Lists for
    our sites router, we had to review the TCS LAN
    design requirements. These requirements stated
    that each school must have Two networks, one for
    Curriculum and the other for Administration. Each
    unique LAN segment (Curriculum and
    Administration) connected to a separate Ethernet
    port on the router.
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