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Reform of higher education Policy and integrity perspectives

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Title: Reform of higher education Policy and integrity perspectives


1
Reform of higher educationPolicy and integrity
perspectives
  • Prof. Hossam Badrawi MD, MP
  • Chair Education Committee NDP

2
Introduction
  • Egypt is the largest, country in North Africa and
    the Middle East. Its education system is also the
    oldest of all.
  • The higher education system carries almost 2.3
    million students, distributed in only 18 state
    and 16 private universities

3
Introduction
  • The system is an example of mass education,
  • this student bulk represents only 29 of young
    people at the age of 18 to 23, a percentage that
    does not represent the neither the aspiration of
    the society nor the set standards of
    enrollement.

4
Introduction
  • We realize that HE outputs in any nation
    are
  • the engines of change,
  • the power of fostering reforms,
  • the leaders of the future and
  • the eligible platform of creativity.
  • That is why we believe that Education in Egypt
    requires nothing less than a major revolution.

5
Five main policies
  • We see five main policies urgently needed for a
    serious reform of higher education in Egypt .

6
Five main policies
  • Redesigning the responsibility of the State to
    H.E. system and institutes.
  • A H.E. Expansion to accommodate new enrollments
    according to a set vision .
  • Powerful Shake-up to Improve Quality.
  • A Versatile, flexible system that is compatible
    with the needs of development, connected and
    exposed to the international H.E. moves of
    reforms .
  • Clear commitments to institutional integrity

7
1- Redesigning the responsibility of the State to
H.E. system and institutes
  • The responsibility of the state towards higher
    education should continue, but in a different
    format.
  • Higher Education should be liberated from the
    domination of both government and the unregulated
    profit motive.

8
1- Redesigning the responsibility of the State to
H.E. system and institutes
  • The government's responsibility for higher
    education does not mean that all institutions of
    HE should be government owned and managed.

9
1- Redesigning the responsibility of the State to
H.E. system and institutes
  • However, such institutions should be governed by
    independent boards with quadripartite
    representations of the people, the state, the,
    the civil society, the academia and the private
    sector.

10
1- Redesigning the responsibility of the State to
H.E. system and institutes
  • This new constituency, replacing the government
    only, is needed to be developed so as
    accountability of this institutions to the
    society becomes a reality.

11
1- Redesigning the responsibility of the State to
H.E. system and institutes
  • We are, encouraging privet sector involvement in
    higher education, as long as, the two pillars
    are developed and implemented
  • -quality assurance accreditation,
  • -the development of student finance
    systems.

12
1- Redesigning the responsibility of the State to
H.E. system and institutes
  • We should prevent copying the stat Osco of the
    existing system to the new developments weather
    state owned or privately financed.

13
1- Redesigning the responsibility of the State to
H.E. system and institutes
  • A third option of creating non governmental, non
    profit Universities should be encouraged,
  • however we believe that this will be a natural
    development with improving the economy of the
    country and the growth of the institutional
    wealth.

14
1- Redesigning the responsibility of the State to
H.E. system and institutes
  • As part of its responsibility for higher
    education, the state should not anymore deal with
    universities as public sector entities or with
    university staff as public employees, the state
    should however
  • Massively increase government and social funding
    of public higher education.
  • Increase the efficiency of the use of resources
    (good governance)
  • Maximize the knowledge and societal return
  • Reform the choice of administration

15
1- Redesigning the responsibility of the State to
H.E. system and institutes
  • To accomplish these tasks, institutions of higher
    education should have increased autonomy while
    seeking to systematically strengthen their ties
    with regional and international institutions and
    networks. However they should be
  • Financially accountable.
  • Subjected to strict accreditation systems and
    rigorously monitored to ensure quality.
  • Abiding to codes of institutional integrity.

16
2- Higher Education Expansion
  • Only 29 of young Egyptians, with reasonable
    gender equality at the age 18 22 are enrolled
    in the Egyptian higher education system.
  • To close the wide gap in enrollment in Higher
    Education, building human capabilities in Egypt
    require expansion of this level of education.

17
2- Higher Education Expansion
  • However, expansion needs to be carefully
    designed, especially in the case of existing
    institutions, where expansion in the past has led
    to a deterioration of quality, drop in management
    efficiency, and appearance of corruption.

18
2- Higher Education Expansion
  • Can the state alone create the needed expansion
    with quality education, the answer is definitely
    No, and then who can?

19
2- Higher Education Expansion
  • The challenge needs
  • Creative Public Private Initiatives (out of the
    box thinking)
  • Private non for profit initiatives
  • Private sector investments transparently
    regulated.

20
2- Higher Education Expansion
  • However, no new institutions, public or private,
    should be created unless they can offer higher
    standard of quality.
  • I believe public private initiatives can be the
    pear head in that development for the time being.
  • The state should create that environment, and
    help that development.

21
3- A Powerful Shake-up to Improve Quality
  • A powerful shake-up to improve quality is
    highly needed in the existing institutions of
    higher education, standard has to be set up,
    indicators has to be clarified, and quality
    assurance and accreditation should be
    implemented.

22
3- A Powerful Shake-up to Improve Quality
  • Accreditation, both academic and institutional,
    can only serve its purpose if the accrediting
    body, is totally independent from government
    control, particularly for the government owned
    universities.

23
3- A Powerful Shake-up to Improve Quality
  • Decentralization, and budgeting of those
    university should be directly related to
  • --------------the university ratings,
  • --------------world class research activities and
    ,
  • --------------number of students.

24
3- A Powerful Shake-up to Improve Quality
  • We believe applying quality assurance measures
    using the European International standards of
    HE, should be a policy that should not be
    compromised under any circumstances, and will not
    only lead to a better education but can be the
    gate for restoring integrity of it's institutions.

25
3- A Powerful Shake-up to Improve Quality
  • Teaching and research capacities should be
    enhanced, and facilities should be improved to
    accommodate the enrollment.
  • Effective programs should be implemented to
    improve the capabilities of faculty and staff
    through training, research, and study programs in
    Egypt and abroad, especially in preparation for
    assuming faculty positions.

26
3- A Powerful Shake-up to Improve Quality
  • Competition must be established as a essential
    ongoing condition in the filling of faculty
    posts.
  • Tenure should be confined to professors with
    exceptional performance.
  • University Presidents and higher administration
    should be chosen via transparent methods with
    participation of stake holders, and they should
    be held accountable against tasks and objectives.

27
3- A Powerful Shake-up to Improve Quality
  • There is also a need for reform of the rules
    governing enrollment.

28
Quality integrity are interrelated
  • .
  • We can argue that part of the challenge to
    enforce codes of institutional integrity in an
    old longstanding system, that suffers from
    malpractices, frauds, plagiarism, fabrication and
    sometimes violation of student rights, could be
    dealt with via the rout of quality assurance and
    the subjection to accreditation and external
    independent auditing.

29
3- A Powerful Shake-up to Improve Quality
  • Without institutional integrity, no true
    excellence could be expected or achieved, neither
    in teaching nor in research.
  • Without integrity and having standards to tackle
    conflicts of interest within the institution
    Quality is jeopardized and cost effectiveness of
    managing university budgets could be easily
    violated.

30
4-University Needs of Development
  • A-Flexibility and Versatility of the system
  • B-Readability of the System
  • C-Institutional Autonomy
  • D- Academic Freedom

31
4- University Needs of Development
  • A- Flexibility and Versatility of the system
  • A versatile flexible system of higher education
    that is compatible with the needs of development
    should be established.
  • To achieve versatility, basic programs should not
    be replicas of old ones (a condition for
    developing new programs in the stat Osco).

32
4- University Needs of Development
  • A-Flexibility and Versatility of the system
  • Flexibility on the individual level means the
    freedom to leave and to return to various
    institutions of higher education.
  • Flexibility on the institutional level means that
    the structure of institutions and the content of
    their programs are continually revised by
    governance boards to guarantee a quick response
    to local and international developments.

33
4- University Needs of Development.
  • A- Flexibility and Versatility of the system
  • Much of the originality and flexibility in the
    system will be achieved through the use of credit
    hours system , this will allow for validation of
    these acquired credits for those who choose
    initial or continued education in different
    universities and wish to be able to acquire
    degrees in due time throughout life.

34
4- University Needs of Development
  • A-Flexibility and Versatility of the system
  • Students should be able to enter the academic
    world at any time in their professional life and
    from diverse backgrounds.
  • Undergraduates should have access to a diversity
    of programs, including opportunities for
    multidisciplinary studies, development of a
    proficiency in languages and the ability to use
    new information technologies.

35
4- University Needs of Development
  • B-Readability of the System
  • The international recognition and attractive
    potential of our systems should be directly
    related to their external and internal
    readabilities.
  • A 3 cycle degree system should be recognized for
    international comparison and equivalence,
    following the bologna process of reforming HE in
    Europe.

36
4- University Needs of Development
  • B-Readability of the System
  • In all graduate degrees, appropriate emphasis
    would be placed on research and autonomous work.

37
4- University Needs of Development
  • B-Readability of the System
  • New scientific and technological research
    projects should be decided on the basis of input
    from expert reviewers, with each project and
    program evaluated both for technical merit and
    its potential benefits to society.
  • All existing research programs and centers of
    excellence can similarly benefit from periodic
    expert review and evaluation.
  • Techniques for such procedures should include, as
    appropriate, peer-review teams, relevance-review
    panels, or benchmarking studies.

38
4- University Needs of Development
  • Teaching and research in universities must be
    inseparable, rejecting intolerance and always
    open to dialogue

39
4- University Needs of Development
  • C- Institutional Autonomy
  • The university is an autonomous institution at
    the heart of societies it produces, examines,
    appraises and hands down culture by research and
    teaching.
  • To meet the needs of the world around it, its
    research and teaching must be morally and
    intellectually independent of all political
    authority and economic power.

40
4- Needs of Development
  • D-Institutional Autonomy
  • A university is an ideal meeting-ground for
    teachers capable of imparting their knowledge and
    well equipped to develop it by research and
    innovation and students entitled, able and
    willing to enrich their minds with that
    knowledge.
  • University's constant care should be attaining
    universal knowledge.

41
4- University Needs of Development
  • To fulfill university's vocation it should
    cross geographical and political frontiers, and
    affirms the vital need for different cultures to
    know and influence each other.

42
4- Needs of Development
  • E- Academic Freedom
  • To attain this goal some some principles has to
    be respected
  • Each university must ensure that its students'
    freedoms are safeguarded, and that they enjoy
    conditions in which they can acquire the culture
    and training which is their purpose to possess.

43
4- Needs of Development.
  • E- Academic Freedom
  • Academic freedom is the intellectual and creative
    foundation of the University
  • This concept should be clearly stated and applies
    to all members of the faculty

44
4- Needs of Development
  • E- Academic Freedom
  • The faculty and administration jointly should
    accept the responsibility for maintaining an
    atmosphere in which scholars may freely teach,
    conduct research, publish, and engage in other
    scholarly activities.
  • This responsibility includes maintaining the
    freedom for the examination of controversial
    issues throughout the University, including
    classroom discussion when such issues are
    relevant to the subject matter of the course

45
4- University Needs of Development
  • E- Academic Freedom
  • University should not attempt to control the
    personal opinion, nor the public expression of
    that opinion, of any member of the faculty or
    staff of the institution.
  • But in doing so, employees have an obligation to
    avoid any action which purports to commit the
    institution to a position on any issue without
    appropriate approval.
  • Individual academic freedom for study, inquiry,
    research, and debate, conditioned and balanced by
    a commitment to pursue its stated mission.

46
4- University Needs of Development
  • E-Higher Education Academic Freedom
  • University should not attempt to control the
    personal opinion, nor the public expression of
    that opinion, of any member of the faculty or
    staff of the institution.
  • But in doing so, employees have an obligation to
    avoid any action which purports to commit the
    institution to a position on any issue without
    appropriate approval.

47
4- University Needs of Development
  • E-Higher Education Academic Freedom
  • Individual academic freedom for study, inquiry,
    research, and debate, conditioned and balanced by
    a commitment to pursue its stated mission.
  • Faculty are expected to pursue truth and
    knowledge and are conferred the right to
    research, teach, and discuss any topic without
    being subject to University or System discipline
    or censorship.

48
4- University Needs of Development
  • E-Higher Education Academic Freedom
  • Faculty are expected to prize accuracy, exercise
    appropriate self control, show respect for the
    opinions of others, and protect the academic
    freedom of students and their rights of access to
    the University.

49
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • Every Higher institution should adhere to the
    highest ethical standards
  • in its representation to its constituencies and
    the public
  • in its teaching, scholarship, and service
  • in its treatment of its students, faculty, and
    staff
  • in its relationships with regulatory and
    accrediting agencies.

50
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • The institution, including governing board
    members, administrators, faculty, and staff,
    should subscribe to, exemplify, and advocate high
    ethical standards in the management and
    operations and in all of its dealings with
    students, the public, organizations, and external
    agencies.
  • Every institution should regularly evaluate and
    revise as necessary its policies, procedures, and
    publications to ensure continuing integrity
    throughout the institution.

51
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • Every institution should represent itself
    accurately and consistently to its
    constituencies, the public and prospective
    students through its publications, and official
    statements

52
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • Every Institutional policy should define and
    prohibit conflict of interest on the part of
    governing board members, administrators, faculty,
    and staff.

53
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • Every institution should demonstrate, through
    its policies and practices, its commitment to the
    free pursuit and dissemination of knowledge
    consistent with the institution's mission and
    goals.

54
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • Policy on Institutional Integrity
  • By academic tradition and by philosophical
    principle, an institution of higher learning is
    committed to the pursuit of truth and to its
    communication to others.
  • To carry out this essential commitment calls for
    institutional integrity in the way a college or
    university manages its affairs which can be seen
    in the way it specifies its goals, selects and
    retains its faculty, admits students, establishes
    curricula, determines programs of research, and
    fixes its fields of service.

55
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • Policy on Institutional Integrity
  • The maintenance and exercise of such
    institutional integrity postulates and requires
    appropriate autonomy and freedom as mentioned
    before.
  • This is the freedom to examine data, to question
    assumptions, to be guided by evidence, to teach
    what one knows to be a learner and a scholar.
  • This is a freedom from unwarranted harassment
    which hinders or prevents a college or university
    from getting on with its essential work.

56
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • A college or university must be managed well
    and remain solvent, but it is not a business or
    an industry.
  • It must be concerned with the needs of its
    community and it's country
  • An institution of higher learning is not a
    political party or a social service. It must be
    morally responsible, but, even when religious -
    related, like Al Azhar University in Egypt, it is
    not a religion or a mosque.

57
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • Relating to this general concern corresponding to
    intellectual and academic freedom are correlative
    responsibilities.
  • On the part of boards and administrators, there
    is the obligation to protect faculty and students
    from inappropriate pressures or destructive
    harassments.

58
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • On the part of the faculty, there is the
    obligation to distinguish personal conviction
    from proven conclusions and to present relevant
    data fairly to students because this same freedom
    asserts their right to know the facts.

59
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • On the part of students, there is the obligation
    to sift and to question, to be actively involved
    in the life of the institution, but involved as
    learners at appropriate levels.

60
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • Intellectual freedom does not rule out
    commitment, rather it makes it possible and
    personal.
  • Freedom does not require neutrality on the part
    of the individual or the educational institution,
    certainly not toward the task of inquiry and
    learning, nor toward the value systems which may
    guide them as persons or as schools.

61
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • Hence, institutions may hold to a particular,
    social, or religious philosophy, as may
    individual faculty members or students.
  • But to be true to what they profess academically,
    individuals and institutions must remain
    intellectually free and allow others the same
    freedom to pursue truth and to distinguish the
    pursuit of it from a commitment to it.

62
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • The challenge and the great difficulty in
    assuming and honoring those policies is the fact
    that we cannot separate the higher education
    institution from the surrounding environment in
    the country.
  • It is not enough to have a new legislation or
    develop a regulatory body, as we have to consider
    change of culture in the society.

63
5-commitments to institutional integrity
  • reform cannot be achieved piecemeal
  • A holistic vision should exist,
  • A comprehensive reform including human rights
    issue should be respected,
  • Freedom and democracy should prevail,
  • political support and social reform, together
    with major economic reform should go hand in hand.

64
University Decline
  • History of universities which reveals that
    slow, but inevitable, institutional decline is
    brought about by the followings
  • Unconditional submission to the ideological
    interest of the state, of political parties, of
    organized minorities or of economic
    organizations.

65
University Decline
  • 2-Excessive preoccupation with current local
    issues, and faculty self interest

66
University Decline
  • 3-Acceptance of the stats quo, with resistance to
    develop and resistance to change

67
University Decline
  • 4-Disregard of the universal mission of the
    University as an Institution devoted to teaching
    and research and steadily search for excellence
    in these two areas

68
University Decline
  • 5-Use of the two pillars of universal academic
    values, that of academic freedom and of
    university autonomy, not for democratic
    governance and to protect students and teachers
    in their pursuit of truth and new knowledge, but
    as self serving.

69
Conclusion
  • It was Albert Einstein who once said that
    The significant problems we face cannot be
    solved at the same level of thinking we were at,
    when we created them.

70
Higher education reform necessity
  • HE institutes are expected to be the change agent
    in developing societies, leading them to the
    future.
  • We should not allow them to decline and the
    priority of their reform becomes more than a
    necessity to the whole society.

71
Higher education reform necessity
  • However, this cannot be achieved with the same
    thinking we were at when we created their current
    problems.
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