SEMINAR FOR BOLOGNA AND HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM EXPERTS Organisation and Profile of Doctoral Studies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

SEMINAR FOR BOLOGNA AND HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM EXPERTS Organisation and Profile of Doctoral Studies

Description:

SEMINAR FOR BOLOGNA AND HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM EXPERTS Organisation and Profile of Doctoral Studies Salzburg Principles Chafic Mokbel, University of Balamand ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:137
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 25
Provided by: CATi57
Learn more at: http://www.tempus-lb.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: SEMINAR FOR BOLOGNA AND HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM EXPERTS Organisation and Profile of Doctoral Studies


1
SEMINAR FOR BOLOGNA AND HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM
EXPERTS Organisation and Profile of Doctoral
Studies
  • Salzburg Principles
  • Chafic Mokbel, University of Balamand, Research
    Council, HER Expert Lebanon
  • Mazen El Khatib, HER Expert Lebanon, Pierre
    Gedeon, HER Expert Lebanon,
  • Amer Helwani, NTO Lebanon, Aref Soufi, NTO
    Lebanon
  • Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, USEK, 11-12
    March 2013

2
Outline
  • History, Context and Motivation
  • Some Challenges Facing Doctoral Studies
  • Salzburg Principles and Excellence in Doctoral
    Studies
  • Discussions and Perspectives

3
History, Context and Motivation
  • March 2005 The European Charter for Researchers
    The Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of
    Researchers
  • Defines general principles and requirements to
    specify the roles, responsibilities and
    entitlements of researchers as well as of
    employers and research funders
  • February 2005 Bologna Seminar yields to the
    Salzburg Principles
  • Seminar set to discuss the new action line EHEA
    and ERA two pillars of Knowledge-based Society
  • Organizers
  • Austrian federal ministry of education. Science
    and culture
  • German federal ministry of education and research
  • European University Association
  • 300 participants, 48 universities and 25
    countries gt Large interest to contribute to
    policy debate
  • Seminar discussed the European Charter for
    Researchers
  • June 2010 Salzburg II Recommendations
  • EUA-CDE (Council for Doctoral Education) annual
    meeting
  • Free University in Berlin
  • Intensive Consultation
  • 220 participants, 165 institutions and 36
    countries
  • Recommendations in 3 categories
  • Research as the basis and the difference
  • Cues for success
  • Clearing the obstacles

4
History, Context and Motivation
  • Few Numbers (2008)
  • 1.5 Millions FTE researchers in Europe
  • Researchers share of the total labour market 6
    in Europe, 9 in USA and, 11 in Japan
  • Share of Researchers in Business Sector 46 in
    Europe, 68 in Japan, 79 in USA
  • RD intensity (percentage of GDP) 1.9 in
    Europe, 2.8 in USA, 3.4 in Japan
  • 600,000 doctoral candidates in Europe 110,000
    graduating every year
  • Need for more researchers and therefore to
    further develop the high quality doctoral studies
    and training

5
History, Context and Motivation
  • This reflected in the Europe 2020 flagship
  • 1. By the end of 2011, Member States should have
    strategies in place to train enough researchers
    to meet their national RD targets and to promote
    attractive employment conditions in public
    research institutions. Gender and dual career
    considerations should be fully taken into account
    in these strategies
  • 4. In 2012, the Commission will propose on the
    basis of the provisions on ERA in the New Lisbon
    Treaty a European Research Area framework and
    supporting measures to remove obstacles to
    mobility and cross-border cooperation, aiming for
    them to be in force by end 2014. They will
    notably seek to ensure through a common approach
  • - quality of doctoral training, attractive
    employment conditions and gender balance in
    research careers
  • - mobility of researchers across countries and
    sectors, including through open recruitment in
    public research institutions and comparable
    research career structures and by facilitating
    the creation of European supplementary pension
    funds

6
History, Context and Motivation
  • Key stakeholders working on Doctoral Studies and
    Training
  • EUA - CDE
  • LERE (League of European Research Universities)
  • Coimbra group
  • Thematic Inititiatives
  • The ten Salzburg principles are set to guide the
    development of relevant and high quality doctoral
    studies and training

7
Outline
  • History, Context and Motivation
  • Some Challenges Facing Doctoral Studies
  • Salzburg Principles and Excellence in Doctoral
    Studies
  • Discussions and Perspectives

8
Some Challenges Facing Doctoral Studies
  • Rapid Development of Science and Technology

Duration of PhD preparation and originality?
What to include in the 3rd cycle?
Third Cycle
Where to place the boundaries?
Second Cycle
First Cycle
Three Cycle System
Development of Science and Technology
9
Some Challenges Facing Doctoral Studies
  • Knowledge based society (economy)
  • Central role to higher education and especially
    Doctoral Studies
  • Balance to find between long-term and short-term
    research
  • Demand for more PhD holders

Applied Research
Theoretical Research
Short-term Research
Long-term Research
Number of Researchers? Bandwidth of doctoral
programmes?
10
Some Challenges Facing Doctoral Studies
  • Globalisation
  • Originality and competitiveness to be shown at
    wider scale
  • Relevance to be sought at the international level
  • Recognition a more crucial issue
  • PhD candidates and researchers to be more dynamic
  • Other Challenges
  • Local levels of knowledge and skills
  • Socioeconomic levels
  • Resources allocated to research

11
Outline
  • History, Context and Motivation
  • Some Challenges Facing Doctoral Studies
  • Salzburg Principles and Excellence in Doctoral
    Studies
  • Discussions and Perspectives

12
Salzburg Principles
  • i/ The core component of doctoral training is the
    advancement of knowledge through original
    research
  • However, meet the increasing needs of employment
    market
  • Training by research
  • Provide candidates with core skills
  • problem solving innovative, creative and
    critical thinking analyzing and synthesizing
    knowledge developing strategies
  • Training in transferable, generic skills and
    competences should become an integral part of all
    doctoral programmes in order to meet the
    challenges of the global labour market
  • ii/ Embedding in institutional strategies and
    policies
  • The university is responsible for design,
    structure and organisation of its doctoral
    programmes with regulations covering
    recruitment, supervision, exams, evaluations and
    monitoring, and defence of the thesis throughout
    the university
  • Orientation
  • Tutoring and Advising

13
Salzburg Principles
  • iii/ The importance of diversity
  • Diversity at all levels throughout the European
    space should be seen as a strength
  • Diversity needs transparency and quality
  • Discipline differences require more different
    approaches than institutional or system
    differences
  • iv/ Doctoral candidates as early stage
    researchers
  • In the European Charter for Researchers Early
    stage researchers are professionals who are
    trained through research in the conception or
    creation of new knowledge, products, processes,
    methods and systems, and in the management of the
    projects concerned
  • Doctoral stage should be recognised as the first
    part in a professional career
  • Doctoral candidates to participate at all levels
    in the University governance process

14
Salzburg Principles
  • v/ The crucial role of supervision and assessment
  • Arrangements for supervision and assessment
    should be based on a transparent contractual
    framework of shared responsibilities between
    doctoral candidates, supervisors and the
    institution
  • Who can be a supervisor?
  • How often she/he meets with the candidate?
  • How many candidates the supervisor can manage and
    how the research progress is monitored?
  • vi/ Achieving critical mass
  • Crucial to have an impact
  • Bilateral and multilateral collaboration at
    local, national and international levels
  • Virtual research networks

15
Salzburg Principles
  • vii/ Duration
  • Between 3 to 4 years
  • Flexibility in the duration is needed for
    discipline differences, gender issues,
  • Full-time and part-time doctoral studies?
  • viii/ The promotion of innovative structures
  • To meet the challenge of interdisciplinary
    training and the development of transferable
    skills
  • Transferable (generic professional and
    personal) skills and competences to ensure wider
    employability of doctoral candidates in different
    sectors of the economy and society communication
    and presentation skills, writing skills, project
    and time management, human resources management,
    financial resources management, teamwork, risk
    and failure management, etc
  • Transferable skills and competences facilitate
    multidisciplinarity
  • ECTS to be used in structured course-part of
    doctoral programmes and not for measuring
    research progress

16
Salzburg Principles
  • ix/ Increasing mobility
  • Doctoral programmes should seek to offer
    geographical as well as interdisciplinary and
    intersectoral mobility and international
    collaboration within an integrated framework of
    cooperation between universities and other
    partners
  • Several support programmes exist Marie-Curie,
    Joint doctoral programmes, Co-tutelle
  • Classical obstacles exist
  • Inter-diciplinary and inter-sectoral mobility
    exist
  • No consensus on doctoral label
  • x/ Ensuring appropriate funding
  • The development of quality doctoral programmes
    and the successful completion by doctoral
    candidates requires appropriate and sustainable
    funding

17
Outline
  • History, Context and Motivation
  • Some Challenges Facing Doctoral Studies
  • Salzburg Principles and Excellence in Doctoral
    Studies
  • Discussions and Perspectives

18
Discussions and perspectives
  • The Salzburg ten Principles aim at fostering
    formal and recognized(ii) doctoral training
    models and their well defined supervision and
    assessment processes(v) that prepare good young
    researchers(i) formally recognized as such(iv)
    with transferable skills and competences(viii)
    in an appropriate period of time(vii) and with
    an adequate financial support scheme(x) in
    fields with recognized critical mass(vi) while
    making good use of mobility(ix) and preserving
    diversity(iii)

19
Discussions and perspectives
20
Discussions and perspectives
  • This copes with nearly all the challenges and
    clearly point out that, with the present
    socioeconomic context and with the fast
    development of science and technology, although
    research is first an individual effort, a formal
    and well thought setting is needed to make the
    best out of the doctoral studies

21
Discussions and perspectives
  • The optimal balance is to be found between the
    Salzburg principles

22
Discussions and perspectives
Core RD Skills
Transferable competences
23
Discussions and perspectives
  • While the 10 Salzburg principles are suitable,
    the good balance is still to be found
  • Depending on the context system, institution
  • But also sector, discipline
  • Is it relevant and appropriate to integrate the
    postgraduate within the third cycle?
  • Is it the good timing?

24
  • Thank you
About PowerShow.com