An Introduction to the Localisation of eContent - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 58
About This Presentation

An Introduction to the Localisation of eContent


Not simply another name for translation ... Machine Translation. Translation Memory. Terminology Management. Web Localisation. MT vs TM ... Machine Translation (MT) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:162
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 59
Provided by: antoino


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: An Introduction to the Localisation of eContent

An Introduction to the Localisation of eContent
  • A course provided by
  • the Localisation Research Centre (LRC)
  • as part of the EU-Funded ELECT Project
  • Instructor Karl Kelly

Course Outline
  • Four 1½ hour sessions
  • Session 1
  • Introduction to Localisation
  • Language Selection
  • Session 2
  • Localisation Vendor Selection
  • Preparing for Localisation
  • Session 3
  • Translation Technology
  • Localisation Testing
  • Session 4
  • Managing a Localisation project

Session 1 Introduction
  • Localisation
  • Not simply another name for translation
  • Adapting content both linguistically and
    culturally to a target market
  • A prerequisite for successful participation in
    the global market place
  • The relationship to internationalisation
  • Internationalisation (I18n) makes content
    culturally neutral
  • Localisation goes a step further creating
    material that looks as though it was created for
    a specific locale/market by natives of that
  • Localisation Issues
  • Localisation does not only deal with translating
    languages - even English needs to be localised
    sometimes. UK Localise Vs US Localize.
  • Content of text is important - Does it reflect
    local beliefs, cultural differences, differences
    in legal and administrative regulations between
    countries, VAT rates etc..
  • Little things like the format of phone numbers,
    dates, measurements, addresses

  • The Case for Localisation
  • Our material is globally accessible
    (internationalised) WHY BOTHER LOCALISING???
  • Although language isnt always an issue, in many
    instances it will be
  • Although someone may speak your language,
    usually, theyd prefer if you spoke theirs
  • Make the customer comfortable, overcome
    fears/concerns about distance purchasing
  • We want the customer to think about the product
    and why they want/need it, not potential problems
    involved in its purchase eg. Warranty, exchange,
  • Eliminate misunderstandings and protect yourself
  • Making all terms and conditions available in the
    customers language means that a customer cannot
    say they didnt understand the terms of
    sale/contract etc.
  • A person is 3 times more likely to purchase from
    a site that is in their native language

Localisation People
  • Vendor Side
  • Project Manager
  • Localisation Engineer
  • QA Engineer
  • Translator Linguist
  • Proof Reader
  • Graphic Designer
  • Client Side
  • Project Manager
  • Engineering/Testing resource
  • Language Reviewer

There must be involvement from the client side,
you cannot simply hand off files and expect to
have no involvement until the files return
localised. Client participation is necessary,
therefore the more you know about the process the
easier it becomes.
Localisation Process
  • Vendor Client
  • 1. Pre Sales 1. Market analysis to choose
  • 2. Kick off meeting 2. Business Case -
    Including R.O.I
  • 3. Analysis of Source Material 3.
    Internationalisation analysis
  • 4. Scheduling and Budgeting 4. Examination
    of existing content for legal
  • 5. Terminology Setup and cultural
  • 6. Preparation of files for translation 5.
    Develop glossary for new languages
  • 7. Translation of files 6. Prepare a
    localisation kit
  • 8. Content Review 7. Select a localisation
  • 9. Rebuilding of localised files 8. Monitor
    their work
  • 10. Functional and cosmetic testing 9.
    Determine update and maintenance plan
  • 11. Resolution of any bugs found for when
    initial localisation is finished
  • 12. Delivery of localised files 10. Hire
    multilingual staff
  • 11. Promote your new multilingual website

Course Map
  • The main sections of this course are as follows
  • Language selection
  • Should be based on a business analysis - factors
    to consider include will localisation be
    worthwhile when selling your product, will the
    target language market accept your product, will
    return on investments rise, what markets should
    you choose, how much will it cost?
  • Localisation Vendor Selection
  • Factors include experience, knowledge and
    expertise, costs, which company suits your needs,
    number of languages, single vs. multiple vendors
  • Preparing for Localisation
  • Creating a checklist to ensure you send only
    necessary files, that what you send is Complete
    Properly organised. Time is money and this
    will cut down on unnecessary questions and time
    losses, saving both.

Course Map
  • Translation Technology
  • The heart of modern translation, minimising
    costs. This section will explain common jargon
    and examine some common tools, letting you see
    why some sentences are cheaper to translate than
  • Localisation Testing
  • This course aims to show you where your money is
    being spent and so here well show you what
    should be looked for when testing a localised
    site, so you can check a vendors work and make
    sure youre getting value for money.
  • Managing localisation projects
  • Managing a localisation project is a task of two
    halves, half on the vendors side and half on the
    clients side. Here we will look at the different
    phases of a localisation project and examine how
    each one is managed

  • List the changes that were made to the site that
    you internationalised yesterday. Can you think
    of any additional changes that we will need to
    make during localisation?

Language Selection
  • Which languages should you localise your eContent
  • One of the most important and critical decisions
    you will make but how do you decide. Should your
    decision be based on
  • Largest markets? US, France, Germany and Japan,
    then Spain, Italy, Brazil and Nordic Countries?
  • Traditionally targeted language groupings such as
    FIGS (French Italian, German, Spanish), Nordic
    Languages, CJKV(Chinese, Japanese, Korean
    Vietnamese)? FIGS are usually targeted first,
    while CJKV means added expense and technical
    challenges but also means more marketing
  • New emerging markets such as the Eastern European
  • You cannot target all language groups at once
    (first time out anyway)
  • This section should help you to
  • Choose the language(s) to localise your eContent
  • Assess if your company is ready for localisation
  • Select the best localisation strategy to allow
    your company to succeed

  • Choosing your target languages
  • This chart is useful to gauge which languages
    would be more profitable. For example English
    alone possible 226 million customers. Add
    Spanish and you add another 44.5 million
    potential customers, thats 270.5 million
  • Dont take it for granted that someone will speak
    a second language, and even if they do
  • Consumers are three times more likely to buy in
    their native language
  • But
  • You cant base your decision on percentages
    alone, there are other factors to consider

  • Factors to consider
  • Costs, some languages are more expensive than
  • Ability to supply to this locale, demand for your
    product in the locale
  • Trade laws, restrictions, compatibility issues
  • You cant target all language groups but
  • if you wish to establish your eContent in a truly
    international environment it would be wise to
    provide versions of your site in the following
  • - English - Spanish
  • - Japanese - French
  • - German
  • Once you have decided on target markets you must
    decide which sections of your site need to be
    localised for each market. Localising the entire
    site may not be justified by the potential sales
    for a particular market

Analysing Your Readiness
  • It is important to determine whether your
    organisation is ready for localisation and
    whether the market is ready for your product(s).
  • Market Potential (Size and Growth)
  • You must have a critical and unbiased view of
    your positioning and strategy when entering a new
  • Do you have an overseas marketing plan?
  • You should get advice from experts in both the
    sector in which you operate and your target
  • Is there a market for your product? Depending on
    the product you may have to do individual market
    surveys as opposed to one global survey?
  • How is your product better than those currently
  • People
  • Can you commit people and resources to
    international business development? Does your
    company have access to necessary expertise for
    the venture?
  • Senior management must support the allocation of
    qualified people and sufficient budget to the
    marketing effort as well as hiring new specialist

  • Additional/Hidden Expenses
  • Does your budget allow for at least 12 months of
    operations to get things up and running?
  • Are you willing to modify or localise the product
    to meet local regulations or business processes?
  • Once your eContent is multilingual, you will
    start receiving multilingual queries, have you
    allocated funds to communicating with customers
    in their own language - hiring multilingual
    staff, subscribing to email translation services?
  • Have you provided for hiring Internet marketers
    to publicise your website?
  • Legal
  • Are your aware of local laws cultures and
    business practices? Laws vary depending on the
    country. For example laws regarding patents,
    contracts, agreements will all have to be
    researched. For legal concerns it would be wise
    to employ a local specialist.
  • Cost of Translation
  • This can vary depending on language and content.
    Different languages have different prices,
    double-byte languages are more expensive than
    single byte languages and technical translations
    are more expensive than literary translations.
  • A rough guideline could be .25 per word
    (European) and .35 per word (Asian), with
    250-300 words per page this means a page costs
    approx. 50-80 to translate.

  • Technical Considerations
  • The visibility of the original site must be
    expanded. You need to make sure that the site
    appears in searches conducted using the target
    language search engines.
  • Your vendor may submit your site for you but this
    should be discussed with them, dont take for
    granted that they will do this.
  • Purchase a local domain name to host a local
    language version of the site. This can be a
    useful and cheap way of automatically giving your
    site a local feel. You can either ask your
    vendor to do this or do it yourself using a
    domain registration service such as
  • Localise generic links, if for example your site
    links to, localise the link to for France or for Spain
    and so forth.
  • Use local access points. To truly localise your
    eContent you need to provide your customers with
    local access points. This can be achieved by
    providing your customers with a local telephone
    number and the address of a local office. This
    of course means setting up a local branch of your
    business and this may beyond your budget for the
    moment. If this is the case simply provide an
    international phone number but do so in the
    target locales format, complete with necessary
    country and area code

Strategies for Localisation
  • Different Degrees of Localisation
  • It is not an all or nothing venture as we saw in
    the last slide, if you cant provide local
    access, then provide your existing contact
    information and have a method for dealing with
    multilingual communication
  • Not everything on your site must be localised
  • Global Information.
  • Identify common information for all versions of
    your site, this will all have to be translated,
    but if it has been internationalised that should
    be a simple task
  • Locale specific information.
  • If there is regional or national information on
    the original site this will not need to be on all
    versions of the site. You can choose to
    eliminate it or get a it from a local site
  • Localise a Minimum Amount of Content
  • If youre not sure of the feasibility of
    localisation you can start by localising only the
    most important pages on your site and phasing in
    full localisation based on the response the
    translated pages generate

  • Integration
  • You can look at the way in which the localised
    version of the site can be integrated easily into
    the over
  • Exercise
  • Open the website. Take a few
    minutes to browse throught the site and then go
    to your own language version of the site.
  • Analyse the level of integration between your
    language version and the main site.
  • Has your version of the site been designed
    specifically for your locale?
  • Is the information the same as that on the main
  • What are the main differences/similarities?

Localisation Vendor Selection
  • Important Points to Remember
  • eContent is not static and will need to be
    updated constantly, so you will have material to
    localise on a regular basis
  • Select your localisation vendor early in the
    content development cycle. The earlier you
    involve the vendor in the process the lower the
    cost of localisation. The vendor can offer you
    advice on areas such as
  • User Interface Design
  • File Structure
  • Writing for an international audience
  • If these elements are considered and dealt with
    from the start you will automatically lower the
    risk of problems occurring during
    internationalisation and localisation
  • Remember Choosing a localisation vendor is like
    looking for any service provider and many of the
    same criteria apply, look around until you find
    one that suits your need and dont be afraid to
    ask them questions.

A Good localisation vendor
  • Before you involve a vendor you need to know
    whether they have relevant experience, are
    competent and understand the nature of the
    project you are suggesting eContent
    localisation is not something every vendor
    specialises in
  • Definition of a good vocalisation vendor
  • A good vendor honours promises, has a stable
    background and always supplies the specified
    quality at a fair and competitive price they
    supply what you need at the right price
  • A good vendor reacts quickly to your unforeseen
  • A good vendor uses initiative to suggest better
    methods or services to you in order to complete
    the project within, or below budget
  • A good vendor warns you in good time if, for
    whatever reason, the agreed delivery time or
    conditions cannot be met.
  • These definitions should sound familiar because
    the vendor is a service provider
  • Localisation is just a service and the vendor
    wants to keep you happy because repeat business
  • is the key to all industries
  • As we said before eContent is not static so when
    getting quotations from potential vendors make
  • sure that your quote is not just for the initial
    project and find out how much updates are likely
    to cost you (a rough estimate)

Preparatory Phase
  • Know what you need
  • Before approaching a vendor you must be sure of
    what you require from them
  • Involve your staff
  • All staff likely to be affected by localisation
    should know what your are going to be doing
    Marketing, Engineering Technical
    Communication/Documentation and management staff
    should be involved in the preparation
  • In-house Analysis
  • If you already have eContent files prepared, then
    one of your first tasks will be to analyse them.
    This way you
  • Make sure you can access your files (if your
    files were created by, or are hosted by a third
    party you may not be able to access them)
  • Can get an idea of how much work needs to be done
  • It also makes you aware of where the latest
    version of your eContent is and who owns it?
    This is important as you need to know who will be
    responsible for your vendor receiving the latest
    version of your content?

Questions to ask yourself when preparing to
select a vendor
  • Where is the site located?
  • Is it hosted locally? Or at the site of a
    third-party hosting company?
  • Do you know how to access the files?
  • Do you know who created the eContent originally?
  • Do you have their contact details?
  • What tool(s) were used to create the eContent?
  • Were any specific tools used to prepare the
    graphics for your website?
  • What tagging language was used to prepare your
  • Were any scripting languages used to generate
    dynamic content?
  • Do you have database driven content that needs to
    be localised?
  • If so, how do you export/import the data?
  • Is there any content management system (CMS)
  • If so how is it integrated?
  • What platform is the eContent served on?
  • If you can answer all these questions then you
    can proceed to the first stage of selecting a
    vendor, if you are unsure it would be wise to do
    a little more research before you begin.

  • Skills Required
  • What do you require from your vendor?
  • Experience in particular tools or technologies?
  • Multi-Vendor vs Single Vendor
  • Multiple languages 2 Options
  • One Multiple Language Vendor does all language
  • Many single language vendors do a language each
  • Industry Sources
  • Locating vendors, various methods
  • Vendor Survey
  • Vendor home web pages indicator of skill and
  • Verify experience and skill through industry

  • Vendor Quotes, describe project and check
    interest. If the vendor is interested send them
    the Localisation Kit and request a proposal.
    The proposal is an indicator of how theyd
    approach the project
  • Technical Competence
  • Make sure the vendors knowledge and skills are
  • Experience in the relevant technologies Tools,
    Tagging, Platforms, Servers, Graphics
  • Thoroughness
  • How thorough is the proposal.
  • Tough to spot the best but easy to spot the worst
  • Previous Experience
  • Company background Translation based, Dedicated
    Localisation or Consultancy that outsources
    (dangerous option)
  • Get client and product list watch for repeat
    business and multiple product versions
  • Client retention is always desirable

  • Process
  • Is their process Stable, repeatable, efficient
    and sensible.What QA procedures are used
    Automated, Visual, Functional, Technical?
  • ? How does the company handle updates?
  • What translation model do they use? Do they
    translate themselves? Do they outsource to the
    target country?
  • Will the same people work on your updates as on
    the original? Preferable
  • Personnel
  • Look for high staff retention esp. management.
    Updates are easier with the same people involved.
  • Infrastructure
  • Facilities at vendors disposal, file storage
    information, backup methods, virus protection
  • Test Translation
  • Approx 300 words, re integrated into site then
    check quality
  • Additional Issues
  • Does the vendor ask relevant and insightful
    questions? If not why not? Lack of knowledge?
  • Do they make suggestions, or think of things
    youve overlooked

Compare Proposals and Decide
  • Choosing the right vendor is vitally important
  • A quotation that appears cheap may not be so
    cheap in the end?
  • First impressions last! A bad job could affect
    your reputation for years
  • Things to consider when rating a proposal
  • Standard vs personalised?
  • Is there a detailed schedule
  • Is there a proper explanation of each step?
  • Sample test scripts?
  • Pricing Clear and sensible?
  • Fixed rate vs Hourly rate? Hourly rate may be a
    false friend
  • Missing files from localisation kit? It may not
    happen but if it is noticed it means they are
    paying attention

  • Developing a Shortlist
  • If you are unsure about similar proposals develop
    a shortlist and grade each vendor on the
    following criteria
  • Background -Reputation, -Economic Stability, -
    Client List, -Process used
  • Project Specifics -Proposed time frame, - Price,
    -Quality, -Flexibility, -Proactivity, - Specific
  • Then meet them in their offices- View their
    organisation and workplace- and meet the people
    you would have to deal with
  • Placing the order
  • Finalise negotiations with the vendor in terms of
  • - Scope of the project - Time Frame
  • - Price - Quality standards to be adhered to,
    (acceptable bugs etc)
  • Project kick off meeting
  • Meeting with all parties involved in the project
    (Vendor and Client)

Preparing for Localisation
  • Ensuring that the vendor understands your project
  • Elements of a localisation kit
  • Preparing files for translation
  • Creating a translation report
  • What is a Localisation Kit?
  • Invaluable from cost reduction standpoint
  • Used to explain/demonstrate your eContent to
    translators and engineers
  • Engineers prepare files for translators sort
    translatable from untranslatable
  • What is a Localisation Kit?
  • Instructions containing all information needed to
    Localise your eContent
  • Typically will contain
  • Source files
  • Translatable files
  • Translation memory and analysis log
  • Translation/Localisation Guidelines
  • Style Sheet and Glossaries
  • Project-Specific software

  • Source Files
  • Complete working version of eContent files (not
    just a link) no missing files
  • Important for translators context wise and
    Engineers File/ Directory structure
    information- essential for rebuilding the site
  • Translatable Files
  • Kit allows translatable files to be isolated and
    prepared and untranslatable files to be
  • 2 folders Source and Target-
  • Do not modify source files
  • Table shows typical files included
  • in an eContent project and whether they
  • require translation.
  • Some files dont need translation those
  • That do fall into one of 3 categories, files
  • That
  • Can be translated in current form
  • Need translation but text cannot be
  • Accessed
  • Require preparation before translation

  • Files that can be translated in their current
  • HTML XML translated using Translation memory/ web
  • Files that need to be translated but text cannot
    be accessed
  • Embedded text, Layered graphics,
  • Need layered source graphics to localise or else
    more expense
  • Files that require preparation before translation
  • Tagged files containing sections of script.
  • Script needs to be protected or functionality of
    page will be lost
  • Translation Memory
  • Translation Memory (TM) Database for translated
    phrases and sentences. Translate text just once
    and reuse
  • Typically one of the add on tools used within the
    T.M. will protect the tags in your content, so
    that translated files appear identical to the
    source files in every way except language
  • Localisation quotations are based on word counts.
    TM generate these counts, not all words are
    counted, only translatable ones so analysis needs
    to be carried out

  • Analysing Leverage between Versions (analysis
  • Analysing your translatable files against the new
  • Built in feature on most Translation Memory
  • produces a text file with word counts and other
    details about the files that are important for
    translation purposes
  • This information can be added to your translation

  • Localisation Guidelines
  • A localisation kit should include specific
    guidelines for all members of the localisation
    team, including
  • Conditions under which the project is to be
  • Guidelines on how the files are to be built and
  • Style Sheets and Glossaries
  • Style sheet ensures consistency font types,
    styles, colours, language, grammar
  • Glossary- word/phrase definitions and
    explanations, aids in translation process, cuts
    down on ambiguity
  • Project Specific Software
  • Any specialist software that was used in the
    creation of your eContent
  • Vendor will need access to this software to
    localise your content

Translation Report
  • Summary of all details of the project.
  • Typically will contain the following
  • Description of the project
  • Description of folder structure in Localisation
  • List of files (translatable and untranslatable)
  • Trados analysis log, with translatable word count
  • Specific details of tools to be used during
    localisation including version information
  • Details of deliverables and output formats to be
    returned after translation
  • Any special instructions you have for the vendor
  • If updating, prior versions of source and target
    language files
  • Previous Translation Memory
  • A separate Localisation Kit is needed for each
    language you are localising into.

  • Exercise
  • There is a folder on the C Drive of your machine
    called Source Files
  • Copy this folder to your desktop and create two
    sub folders called Translatable Files and New
  • Analyse the Source Files to see which ones need
    to be translated
  • Move any files that do not need to be translated
    into the New Build folder. All other files
    should be placed in the Translatable Files
    folder.(Dont make any changes to the Source
    Files Folder)
  • Open Trados Translators Workbench (explained on
    pages 39-41). Create a new TM Database. Analyse
    sample1.doc and sample2.doc from the Source
    Files directory in order to find the word count
    for each of the files.

Translation Technology
  • Over the years the focus of translation
    technology has moved from Machine Translation to
    Translation Memory, a fact mirrored by the
    localisation industry.
  • Translation Memory applications improve
    consistency and reduce translation costs
  • Vendors will discuss leverage, word counts,
    matches and repetitions
  • In addition to Translation Memory, there are
    other tools used to automate many of the time
    consuming tasks in translation. Here we will
    cover the following categories
  • Machine Translation
  • Translation Memory
  • Terminology Management
  • Web Localisation

  • MT vs TM
  • Similar goals automate translations, re use
  • Machine Translation (MT)
  • Accepts text, breaks it down, analyses (grammar
    and syntax) then queries a dictionary to produce
    a translated version
  • Good in theory but in reality poor results must
    be checked by hand
  • Can be refined by restricting the complexity of
    the text- using controlled languages.
  • Many free services on the web- sometimes useful
    for gist translations.
  • Translation Memory (TM)
  • Stores matching source and target segments
    (phrases, sentences, words) in a database for
    future reuse.
  • Database is searchable so a phrase (sentence) can
    be entered and checked against current contents
    of the database.
  • Doesnt translate just searches for similar
    sentences that have occurred before
  • Results based on accuracy - 100 Full match -
    Below 100 Fuzzy Match
  • Important ownership of TM Database created
    during localisation of your content should be
    established by both you and your vendor from the
    outset and specified in your contract.

Features of TM Applications
  • Segmentation
  • Used to break down blocks of text into sentences
  • Programs use punctuation marks to identify
    sentence ends. . ?! Etc. while rules allow for
    commas, semicolons etc.
  • Statistics
  • Leverage reusing sections of a previous
  • TM Word Count more accurate identifies new
    and unique words, omits tags note some scripting
    languages may not be recognised as untranslatable
  • Matches
  • TMs give values to matches based on their
    similarity to stored sentences
  • Matches used to calculate the total cost of
  • If a translator only has to translate one word of
    a sentence you should not and do not have to pay
    for the translation of the sentence but
  • 100 matches are not guaranteed to be perfect so
    you will need to negotiate rates of payment for
    each type of match

  • Alignment
  • Creation of TM from previously translated files
  • Allows you to place two files side-by-side.
    source and target, and match up the individual
    segments or sentence pairs creating a TM

  • Translation Memory Exchange (TMX)
  • Universal interchange format for Translation
  • Allows TMs created on one system to be used on
    another, for example Trados SDLX
  • Editing of Tagged files
  • As we mentioned before some
  • file formats contain tags that
  • can cause
  • problems during
  • localisation
  • unless protected
  • TM technology can recognise
  • and protect tags to prevent
  • these problems
  • Trados Tag Editor

  • Examples of TM Applications
  • There are various TM tools on the market and as a
    client you can request that the vendor uses a
    specific tool, however it may be best to allow
    your vendor to use the tool that they are most
    comfortable with.
  • Dominant in the TM market
  • Tool made up of six modules Translators
    Workbench. WinAlign, TagEditor, Filters, T-Window
    and MultiTerm
  • SDLX
  • Dedicated TM application
  • Similar functionality to that of Trados
  • Benefits of MT and TM Technology
  • Speed Reduce time required to translate large
    volumes of text
  • Cost Savings By reducing the need for human
    involvement these technologies can reduce overall
    translation costs from 5 to 50
  • Consistency By drawing on pre-translated
    dictionaries and databases respectively both
    technologies allow for a significant increase in
    translation consistency.

Terminology Management
  • Consistent terminology uniform look and feel.
    Many TMs have terminology management systems
    allowing parties to maintain a detailed
    terminology database allowing entry of terms and
    information regarding context, gender,
    definition, synonyms etc.
  • It is best to agree on tools for Terminology
    Management at the start of the project
  • Examples of Terminology Management Tools
  • Trados MultiTerm
  • Create, manage and view Terminology Databases -
    enter terms in multiple languages and enter
    information on usage, grammar and even images
  • STAR TermStar
  • Similar tool can be used on individual
    machines, enterprise database servers and and
    with WebTerm over the internet.
  • Allows compilation of Multilingual Dictionaries,
    importing from other dictionaries , databases and
    files, customisation of dictionaries and sorting,
    searching and filtering of dictionaries

Web Localisation Tools
  • WebBudget
  • Allows quick access and translation of the
    contents of a website
  • Supports most commonly used tagged file formats,
    HTML, XML, and scripting languages, JavaScript,
  • Has an integrated Translation Memory system
  • Safe translation environment and full TMX
  • Its core functionality allows users to accurately
    assess web content
  • However it does not offer any testing facilities
    and cannot handle leverage between products.

  • Since these tools will be utilised primarily by
    the localisation vendor it is not necessary for
    you to become an expert user. However getting a
    feel for some of the technology used will give
    you a greater understanding of what happens to
    your eContent once you hand it over to be
  • So.
  • Using Trados TagEditor, translate the eContent
    files that you created during the
    Internationalisation Course
  • (Instructions on Page 53 of the Localisation

Localisation Testing
  • Errors are inevitable
  • Usually small but sometimes large
  • Methods of testing - 2 main methods
  • 1) Manually - checking each page, link and
    process by hand
  • 2) Automated - Using various tools to check for
  • What we will cover in this section
  • Localisation testing process
  • various types of localisation testing
  • Commonly used tools
  • Remember Testing is an essential part of the
    localisation process and should form part of any
    quotation you receive from potential vendors

Localisation Testing Process
  • Testing is not a once off action. It is
  • Carried out at various stages during
    localisation process
  • Documents used during testing
  • Test Plan
  • Outlines What to test, How to test, and Who
    should test it. It explains
  • What level of testing is needed
  • Who is responsible for it
  • How bugs will be reported
  • If automated tools are available
  • Who is responsible for resolving bugs
  • How many test cycles are necessary
  • The length of each test cycle
  • Test Script
  • Explains in great detail exactly what must be
    done during testing
  • Bug Tracking Report
  • Records how many bugs found, where, when, how and
    gives their status

Types of Localisation Testing
  • Localising/Internationalising making changes
  • Character and language encoding
  • Translation of Text
  • Layout
  • Changes can cause problems - 3 categories of
    problem so 3 testing categories
  • Functional
  • Linguistic
  • Cosmetic
  • Functional Testing
  • Objective Making sure everything on site works
    as it is supposed to
  • Problems with web forms (registration, ordering)
  • No detection of locale specific formats
  • Broken Hyperlinks
  • Scripting Errors

  • Linguistic Testing
  • Objective check language related aspects of the
  • Ensure all text has been translated
  • Check correctness of translation both
    linguistically and culturally
  • Evaluate cultural meanings of translations (faux
  • Mistakes in this area can be costly - Remember
    first impressions last
  • Cosmetic Testing
  • Objective check visual aspects of the localised
  • Localised and Original site should be virtually
  • Make sure there is no clipped (truncated) text
    (check buttons and graphics)
  • Check that everything displays ok and has the
    correct formatting
  • Check that no code appears on the page
  • Check that the correct formatting is used
  • Regression Testing
  • Term used to describe the process of going back
    over previously resolved bugs and ensuring that
    all of the reported problems have been solved

Localisation Testing Technology
  • Trans Web Express
  • Useful tool - Easy to use with following
  • View the code behind the source and target
    language files side by side
  • Visually compare the localised file and original
    source file as they will appear on the web
  • Perform a statistical analysis of the files
    giving you a breakdown of the content and any
    errors found in the file
  • Navigator function that allows a quick check on
    the files after localisation
  • Allows you to edit the source and target files
  • Highlights all tagging in red - helps prevent
    mistaken deletions
  • NOTE
  • Trans Web Express is not a Translation Memory
    application and so should only be used to make
    minor changes or fix code errors

(No Transcript)
  • Quality assurance tool used to visually and
    technically examine files after localisation
  • Allows you to perform consistency checks across
    two HTML projects
  • Checks that functions of the Localised site match
    those of the Original site
  • Returns report detailing any problems, the type
    of problem and their location

  • Testing involves more than just checking the
    linguistic quality of the translation. The
    localised website should look and feel as though
    it was created for the target market
  • Testing will/should be completed by your vendor
    before they return the files to you however you
    should always check the files yourself before you
    place them online
  • Exercise
  • Using Trans Web Express test the sample Berlitz
    files and take a note of any bugs that you find
  • Use HTMLQA to complete a test of the eContent
    files that you translated in the last section.
    Note any bugs you find

Managing Localisation Projects
  • Similar to normal management but with some
    specific areas
  • Jargon It is crucial to be familiar with
    localisation terminology
  • TM, Fuzzy Match, Test Script, Regression Testing
  • A localisation project managers aim is to guide
    the project from start to finish on time and
    hopefully under budget often on tight schedule
  • 7 of final L10N bill is for project management,
    but you get value for money
  • The project manager often has to co-ordinate
    across countries and time zones
  • In this section we will look at Project
    Management in terms of
  • - Planning - Post Project Analysis
  • - Budgeting - Planning for updates
  • - Scheduling
  • - Tools
  • - Reviews

  • Planning
  • Vendor Side
  • Project Manager involved from Day 1
  • preliminary plan, proposal and quotation
  • Planning is important
  • to allocate resources properly
  • Keep everything on time and within budget
  • Planning is not just Project Managers job
  • entire team must take responsibility for their
    specific section of the project
  • Project Manager co-ordinates, making sure all
    staff know exactly what to do
  • Projects that run over budget, often caused by
    poor planning
  • Client Side (Appointing a contact)
  • At planning stage appoint a contact to
    communicate your needs to the vendor
  • Contact must be familiar with localisation
    process. They will identify everyone in client
    organisation likely to be involved and brief them
    at regular meetings
  • All files, information and queries should go
    through the contact
  • limit miscommunication and keep a handle on the

  • Budgeting
  • Vendor proposal will contain an estimated
    quotation for the project
  • This is not a guaranteed price - keeping a
    project within budget can be a challenge
  • Budgets depend on a number of factors such as
  • Word count of your eContent files
  • File Formats and Scripting used (Advanced
    technology Higher prices)
  • Level of existing internationalisation in your
  • Number of languages, language types (Asian/DBCS
    more expensive)
  • Vendor resource costs - staff salaries, overheads
  • Budgets can be difficult to work out
  • No guarantee or return on investment (ROI)
  • will the risk be worth it?
  • but if a careful analysis is carried out (as
    detailed earlier) you will be able to get a
    better idea of what type of budget is justified
    for the project.
  • A budget cannot be completed until the project
    schedule has been finalised

  • Scheduling 4 Main steps
  • Step 1 - Identify the core activities to be
    carried out
  • Step 2 - Put the tasks in sequential order
  • Step 3 - Assign resources to each Task
  • Step 4 - Specify start and finish dates for each
  • Backward and Forward scheduling
  • Backward Deadline (finish date) set at start,
    concrete time-frame
  • Forward Finish date dictated by the duration or
    each task - Preferable
  • Milestones
  • Important steps in the project without set
    duration but which must be completed before
    project can move forward
  • Client delays
  • Client can affect schedule - delay in file
    delivery, giving feedback etc.
  • Contingency
  • No schedule is perfect
  • Assign a 10 contingency to allow for unforeseen

  • Project Management Tools
  • Microsoft Project - Generic management tool used
    in various industries
  • Allows for creation and updating of schedules and
  • Allows communication of project status/reporting
    of project information
  • Contains all fundamental project management
    features necessary to keep a project on track
  • Also has built in project management assistance
    (for beginners)
  • LTC organiser - Specialist tool for business
    processes of translation projects
  • User friendly
  • Local or web based integration of multilingual
  • Essential steps automated
  • Various options and flexibility in setting up
    different project structures and workflows
  • Can be used on projects of any size

  • Reviews
  • Your localised eContent files will be checked by
    your vendor but as we said previously it is a
    good idea to get your organisation to review the
    files as well. Appoint 2 people
  • 1 person to look at the files from a technical
    point of view
  • 1 person to review the quality of the
  • Post-Project Analysis
  • A post-mortem or project review meeting
  • All staff, client and vendor, that worked on the
    project should attend
  • Everyone should feel free to contribute
  • Aims to make sure the next project runs more
  • As a final step
  • Request a final project archive from your vendor
  • Approve this and store it in a secure location

  • Planning for updates
  • Often overlooked by companies localising for the
    first time.
  • Web content isnt static so discuss the idea of
    updates with the vendor to get
  • an idea of costs for future updates.
  • Before they can provide you with a quote you will
    need to inform them of
  • The likely volume of potential updates
  • Timing and frequency
  • Nature of the updates
  • update of existing content?
  • adding new sections to the site?
  • The level of testing that will be required

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)