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1. Introduction to the Climate System

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1. Introduction to the Climate System 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Overview of Midlatitude Climate 1.3 Overview of Tropical Climate Key Concepts from today s Lecture: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1. Introduction to the Climate System


1
1. Introduction to the Climate System  
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Overview of Midlatitude Climate
  • 1.3 Overview of Tropical Climate
  • Key Concepts from todays Lecture
  • Earths energy balance (basics)
  • Atmospheric circulations in midlatitudes jets,
    cyclones and anticyclones
  • Atmospheric circulations in tropics monsoons,
    ITCZ, seasonality
  • Physics of large-scale circulations in the
    tropics

2
The amount of energy received by the earth
Solar Radiation Received at TOA

Figure 2.1
Outgoing radiation
Solar absorbed
Northward transport of energy
Northward transport by atmosphere
Figure 2.2
3
Annual variations in energy received by the earth


Figure 2.3
4
Mean Meridional Circulations

Figure 2.4
5
Zonal and time mean circulations


Figure 2.5
6
Zonal and time mean circulations


Figure 2.6
7
Zonal and time mean circulations


Figure 2.7
8
Zonal and time mean circulations


Figure 2.8
9
1.2 Introduction Overview of Midlatitude
Climate  
10
Asymmetric Circulations


Figure 2.9
11
Asymmetric Circulations


Figure 2.10
12
Asymmetric Circulations


Figure 2.11
13
Figure 2.12
14
Rainfall


Figure 2.13
15
1.3 Introduction Overview of Tropical Climate  
Figure 2.14
16
Zonal and time mean circulations


Figure 2.15
17
Zonal and time mean circulations


Figure 2.16
18
1.3 Introduction Overview of Tropical Climate  
Figure 2.17
19
Zonal and time mean circulations


Figure 2.18
20
1.5 Zonal and time mean circulations


Figure 2.19
21
1.3 Introduction Overview of Tropical Climate  
Figure 2.20
22
Figure 2.21
23
Tropical Synoptic Weather Systems
  • Westward moving synoptic waves characterize the
    whole tropics
  • They are tropospheric waves, that modulate the
    rainfall and move at about 8m/s and have
    wavelengths of 2000-4000km.

Figure 2.22
24
Figure 2.23
25
Figure 2.24
26
1. Introduction to the Climate System  
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Overview of Midlatitude Climate
  • 1.3 Overview of Tropical Climate
  • Key Concepts from todays Lecture
  • Earths energy balance (basics)
  • Atmospheric circulations in midlatitudes jets,
    cyclones and anticyclones
  • Atmospheric circulations in tropics monsoons,
    ITCZ, seasonality
  • Physics of large-scale circulations in the
    tropics
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