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Introduction to Computer Networks and Data Communications

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Title: Introduction to Computer Networks and Data Communications


1
Data Communications and Computer Networks A
Business Users Approach
  • Chapter 1
  • Introduction to Computer Networks and Data
    Communications

2
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Introduction
  • Who today has not used a computer network?
  • Mass transit, interstate highways, 24-hour
    bankers, grocery stores, cable television,
    pagers, mobile telephones, most businesses and
    schools, and other retail outlets can support
    some form of computer networks.

3
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • The Language of Computer Networks
  • Computer network - an interconnection of
    computers and computing equipment using either
    wires or radio waves over small or large
    geographic distances
  • Local area network - networks that are small in
    geographic size spanning a room, building, or
    campus
  • Metropolitan area network - networks that serve
    an area of 3 to 30 miles - approximately the area
    of a typical city

4
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • The Language of Computer Networks
  • Wide area network - a large network that
    encompasses parts of states, multiple states,
    countries, and the world
  • Data communications - the transfer of digital or
    analog data using digital or analog signals
  • Voice network - a network that transmits
    telephone signals
  • Data network - a network that transmits computer
    data

5
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • The Language of Computer Networks
  • Telecommunications - the study of telephones and
    the systems that transmit telephone signals
  • Network management - the design, installation,
    and support of a network and its hardware and
    software
  • Personal area network a network of a few
    meters, between wireless devices such as PDAs,
    laptops, and similar devices.

6
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • The Big Picture of Networks
  • Networks are composed of many devices,
    including
  • workstations (computers and telephones)
  • network servers
  • network hubs and switches (bridges)
  • routers (LAN-WAN and WAN-WAN)
  • telephone switching gear

7
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

8
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Computer Networks - Basic Configurations
  • Computer terminal to mainframe computer
  • Microcomputer to mainframe computer
  • Microcomputer to local area network
  • Microcomputer to Internet
  • Local area network to local area network

9
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Computer Networks - Basic Configurations
  • Local area network to metropolitan area network
  • Personal area network to workstation
  • Local area network to wide area network
  • Sensor to local area network
  • Satellite and microwave
  • Wireless telephone and wired telephone to network

10
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Computer terminal to
mainframe computer Predominant form in 60s and
70s Still used in many types of businesses for
data entry and data retrieval. Usually involves a
low-speed connection.
11
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

12
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Microcomputer to Local
Area Network Highly common throughout business
and academic environments, and now even
homes Typically a medium- to high-speed
connection Microcomputer requires a NIC (network
interface card) NIC connects to a hub-like device
13
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

14
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Microcomputer to
Internet Very popular with home users and some
small businesses Typically a dial-up modem is
used to connect users microcomputer to an
Internet service provider. Newer technologies
such as DSL and cable modems are replacing modems.
15
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

16
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Local Area Network to
Local Area Network Found in businesses and
schools that have two or more LANs and a need for
them to intercommunicate. A bridge-like device is
typically used to interconnect LANs. Bridge-like
device can filter frames
17
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

18
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Personal Area Network to
Workstation Interconnects wireless devices such
as PDAs, laptops, and music playback devices Used
over a short distance such as a few meters
19
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

20
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Local Area Network to
Metropolitan Area Network Used to interconnect
companies (usually local area networks) to
networks that encompass a metropolitan city High
speed networks with redundant circuits
21
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

22
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Local Area Network to Wide
Area Network One of the most common ways to
interconnect a user on a LAN workstation to the
Internet (a wide area network). A router is the
typical device that performs LAN to WAN
connections. Routers are more complex devices
than bridges/switches
23
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

24
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Sensor to Local Area
Network Not all local area networks deal with
microcomputer workstations. Often found in
industrial and laboratory environments. Assembly
lines and robotic controls depend heavily on
sensor-based local area networks.
25
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

26
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Satellite and
Microwave Long distance wireless connections Many
types of applications including long distance
telephone, television, radio, long-haul data
transfers, and wireless data services. Typically
expensive services but many companies offer
competitive services and rates.
27
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

28
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Mobile Telephones Quickly
expanding market across the U.S. and world. First
generation analog services and second generation
PCS services available in most areas and under
many types of plans. Third generation services
beginning to appear in Europe and Asia.
29
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

30
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Basic Configurations Telephone to
Network Telephone systems are ubiquitous and can
now carry more data than voice Common
configuration telephone connected to POTS Newer
configuration telephone to LAN via gateway
(VoIP)
31
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Network Architectures
  • A reference model that describes the layers of
    hardware and software necessary to transmit data
    between two points
  • Reference models are necessary to increase the
    likelihood that different components from
    different manufacturers will converse
  • There are two architectures that are required
    learning The OSI Model, and the TCP/IP protocol
    suite

32
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Network Architectures
  • The OSI Models seven layers

33
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Network Architectures
  • Application layer - where the application using
    the network resides. Common network applications
    include remote login, file transfer, e-mail, and
    web page browsing.
  • Presentation layer - performs a series of
    miscellaneous functions necessary for presenting
    the data package properly to the sender or
    receiver

34
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Network Architectures
  • Session layer - responsible for establishing
    sessions between users.
  • Transport layer - provides an end-to-end
    error-free network connection. Makes sure the
    data arrives at the destination exactly as it
    left the source.
  • Network layer - responsible for creating,
    maintaining and ending network connections.
    Transfers a data packet from node to node within
    the network.

35
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Network Architectures
  • Data link layer - responsible for taking the
    data and transforming it into a frame with
    header, control and address information, and
    error detection code.
  • Physical layer - handles the transmission of bits
    over a communications channel. Includes voltage
    levels, connectors, media choice, modulation
    techniques.

36
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

37
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Network Architectures
  • The TCP/IP protocol suite (DoD protocol suite)

38
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Network Architectures
  • Application layer - equivalent to the OSIs
    presentation and application layers
  • Transport layer - performs same function as OSI
    transport layer
  • Network (Internet or internetwork) layer -
    roughly equivalent to the OSIs network layer
  • Network access (data link/physical) layer -
    equivalent to the OSIs physical and data link
    layers

39
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Network Architectures
  • Logical and physical connections - A logical
    connection is one that exists only in the
    software, while a physical connection is one that
    exists in the hardware.
  • Note that in a network architecture, only the
    lowest layer contains a physical connection,
    while all higher layers contain logical
    connections.

40
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Network Architectures
  • Logical and physical connections


41
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

Network Configurations in Action
42
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • The TCP/IP Protocol Suite in Action
  • Note the flow of data from user to web browser
    and back
  • At each layer, information is either added or
    removed, depending on whether the data is leaving
    or arriving at a workstation
  • The adding of information over pre-existing
    information is termed encapsulation

43
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1

44
Data Communications and Computer Networks
Chapter 1
  • Review Questions
  • A user is sitting at work using a laptop
    computer with a wireless connection into the
    corporate LAN. The user is sending email. What
    basic configurations are being used?
  • List the seven OSI layers with a quick
    description of each layer.
  • List the TCP/IP layers with a quick description
    of each layer.
  • What is the difference between a logical and a
    physical interface / connection?
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