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Animal Bodies

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Symmetry-a consistent overall pattern of structure-is displayed by some animals ... Radial Symmetry (Hydra) Bilateral Symmetry (Butterfly) Germ Layers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Bodies


1
Animal Bodies
  • Chapter 34
  • Section 2

2
Body Structure
  • Symmetry-a consistent overall pattern of
    structure-is displayed by some animals and is not
    present in others.
  • Animal bodies range from those that lack true
    tissues and an organized body shape, to those
    that have very organized tissues and a consistent
    body shape.

3
Patterns of Symmetry
  • Some animals have no front, back, right or left
    end, but have a top and bottom side
  • Radial Symmetry-an arrangement of body parts
    around a central axis
  • Most animals have dorsal and ventral side,
    anterior and posterior end, and a right and left
    side
  • Bilateral symmetry-two similar halves on either
    side of a central plane
  • Cephalization is the concentration of sensory and
    brain structures in the anterior end of the
    animal

4
Bilateral Symmetry (Butterfly)
Radial Symmetry (Hydra)
5
Germ Layers
  • Germ layers- a specific layer of cells in an
    embryo from which specific organ systems are
    derived
  • Occurring from these germ layers is every body
    feature, organ and tissue.

6
Body Cavities
  • A body cavity is a fluid filled space that forms
    between the digestive tract and the outer wall of
    the body during development
  • A body cavity aids in the movement process by
    muscles contracting against a firm structure
  • The fluid in a body cavity transports nutrients
    and wastes.

7
Animal Diversity
  • A phylogenetic tree of animals shows the
    evolutionary relationships thought to exist among
    11 major animal phyla.
  • Multicellularity and a limited degree of cell
    specialization characterizes sponges.
  • True tissues in two layers are found in
    ctenophores and cnidarians.
  • True tissues in three layers and bilateral
    symmetry are all other animal phyla.

8
Invertebrates
  • A heterogeneous group that range from no body
    symmetry or true tissue, to bilateral symmetry
    and specialized body parts.
  • The trait that connects all invertebrates is the
    absence of a backbone
  • Are a large number of animals species as well as
    most individual animals.

9
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10
Chordates
  • Chordate- an animal that, some day, has a dorsal
    nerve cord, a notochord, and pharyngeal pouches
  • Notochord- a firm, flexible rod of tissue in the
    dorsal region.
  • Dorsal nerve chord- a hollow tube just above the
    notochord
  • Pharyngeal pouches- small out pockets of the
    anterior part of the digestive tract.
  • Postanal tail- muscle tissue that lies behind the
    posterior opening of the digestive tract.

11
Chordates Continued
  • Regularly in vertebrates, a subphylum of the
    chordates, the dorsal nerve cord, develops in the
    brain and the spinal cord and runs in the back
    bone.
  • Fish and amphibians develop their pharyngeal
    pouches into gills.
  • In most vertebrates, the notochord evolves when
    they are an embryo and replaced by a backbone
    later in development.

12
Vertebrates
  • Humans are vertebrates, and interact with other
    vertebrates.
  • Fish and birds, along with many other animal
    species, are a food source for humans.

13
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