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Figure 33.2 Review of animal phylogeny

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Chapter 33: Invertebrates Figure 33.2 Review of animal phylogeny - Invertebrates no backbone 95% of all animals Tree based on body plan Phylum Porifera (sponge) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Figure 33.2 Review of animal phylogeny


1
Figure 33.2 Review of animal phylogeny
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • no backbone
  • 95 of all animals
  • Tree based on body plan
  • Phylum Porifera (sponge)
  • No true tissue (parazoa)
  • Sessile porous
  • Most are hermaphrodites

2
Figure 33.4 Anatomy of a sponge
3
Figure 33.2 Review of animal phylogeny
  • - Invertebrates
  • no backbone
  • 95 of all animals
  • Tree based on body plan
  • Phylum Porifera (sponge)
  • No true tissue (Parazoa)
  • Sessile porous
  • Most are hermaphrodites
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Phylum Cnidaria
  • Radial symmetry diploblastic
  • Gastrovascular cavity
  • 1 opening - both mouth anus
  • Sessile polyp or floating medusa

4
Figure 33.5 Polyp and medusa forms of cnidarians
5
Table 33.1 Classes of Phylum Cnidaria
6
Figure 33.7 Cnidarians
7
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8
Figure 33.2 Review of animal phylogeny
  • - Invertebrates
  • no backbone
  • 95 of all animals
  • Tree based on body plan
  • Phylum Porifera (sponge)
  • No true tissue (parazoa)
  • Sessile porous
  • Most are hermaphrodites
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Phylum Cnidaria
  • Radial symmetry diploblastic
  • Gastrovascular cavity
  • 1 opening - both mouth anus
  • Sessile polyp or floating medusa
  • Bilateral symmetry triploblastic
  • Body cavities of lophotrochozoa

9
Figure 32.8 Body plans of triploblastic animals
10
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Acoelomates
  • Phylum Platyhelminthes flat as a plate
  • Tapeworms flukes
  • Gastrovascular cavity with 1 opening
  • Tapeworms absorb nutrients along
  • the length of their body

11
Figure 33.10 Anatomy of a planarian, a
turbellarian
12
Table 33.2 Classes of Phylum Platyhelminthes
13
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Phylum Nematoda (round worms)

14
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15
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Body cavities of lophotrochozoa
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Phylum Nematoda (round worms)
  • Mostly aquatic habitats in body fluids
    tissues
  • Tough transparent cuticle unsegmented body
  • Complete digestive tract
  • Nutrients spread in fluid of pseudocoelom
  • Trichinella spiralis trichinosis in undercooked
    meat
  • C. elegans

16
Figure 33.27 Juveniles of the parasitic nematode
Trichinella spiralis encysted in human muscle
tissue (LM)
17
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Body cavities of lophotrochozoa
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Coelomates
  • Phylum Mollusca (snails, clams, oysters, octopus,
    etc)

18
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19
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Body cavities of lophotrochozoa
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Coelomates
  • Phylum Mollusca (snails, clams, oysters, octopus,
    etc)
  • Muscular foot, visceral mass, mantle
  • Soft-bodied but most are protected by shell
  • secreted by mantle

20
Figure 33.16 The basic body plan of a mollusc
21
Table 33.3 Major Classes of Phylum Mollusca
22
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Coelomates
  • Phylum Mollusca (snails, clams, oysters, octopus,
    etc)
  • Muscular foot, visceral mass, mantle
  • Soft-bodied but most are protected by shell
  • secreted by mantle
  • Phylum Annelida segemented worm earthworms,
    leeches

23
Figure 32.11 One hypothesis of animal phylogeny
based mainly on molecular data
24
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Coelomates
  • Phylum Mollusca (snails, clams, oysters, octopus,
    etc)
  • Phylum Annelida segmented worm earthworms,
    leeches
  • Damp climates
  • Divided coelom
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Digestive tract with specialized regions
  • Ventral nerve cord cerebral ganglia

25
Figure 33.23 Anatomy of an earthworm
26
Table 33.4 Classes of Phylum Annelida
27
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Coelomates
  • Phylum Mollusca (snails, clams, oysters, octopus,
    etc)
  • Phylum Annelida segmented worm earthworms,
    leeches
  • Damp climates
  • Divided coelom
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Digestive tract with specialized regions
  • Ventral nerve cord cerebral ganglia
  • Phylum Arthropoda jointed feet insects,
    spiders, crustaceans

28
Figure 32.11 One hypothesis of animal phylogeny
based mainly on molecular data
29
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Coelomates
  • Phylum Mollusca (snails, clams, oysters, octopus,
    etc)
  • Phylum Annelida segmented worm earthworms,
    leeches
  • Phylum Arthropoda jointed feet insects,
    spiders, crustaceans
  • Regional segmentation jointed appendages
  • Appendages for walking, eating, copulating,
    defense, sensing
  • Exoskeleton of chitin proteins molts
  • Extensive cephalization
  • Open circulatory system

30
Figure 33.29 External anatomy of an arthropod
31
Table 33.5 Subphyla of Phylum Arthropoda
32
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Coelomates
  • Phylum Mollusca (snails, clams, oysters, octopus,
    etc)
  • Phylum Annelida segmented worm earthworms,
    leeches
  • Phylum Arthropoda jointed feet insects,
    spiders, crustaceans
  • Insects
  • Most have wings 1 or 2 pair
  • Malpighian tubules remove waste from hemolymph
  • Tracheal system for gas exchange
  • Ventral nerve cords
  • Incomplete of complete metamorphosis
  • Pollination crop destruction
  • Disease carriers

33
Figure 33.35 Anatomy of a grasshopper, an insect
34
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelomates
  • Coelomates
  • Phylum Mollusca (snails, clams, oysters, octopus,
    etc)
  • Phylum Annelida segmented worm earthworms,
    leeches
  • Phylum Arthropoda jointed feet insects,
    spiders, crustaceans
  • Insects
  • Most have wings 1 or 2 pair
  • Malpighian tubules remove waste from hemolymph
  • Tracheal system for gas exchange
  • Ventral nerve cords
  • Incomplete or complete metamorphosis
  • Significant ecological impact
  • Pollination crop destruction
  • Disease carriers
  • Deuterostomes

35
Figure 32.11 One hypothesis of animal phylogeny
based mainly on molecular data
36
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelmates
  • Coelomates
  • Deuterostomes
  • Phylum Echinodermata spiny skin sea urchin,
    sea stars,
  • Sessile or slow movers as adults
  • Radial symmetry

37
Figure 33.40 Echinoderms
38
Chapter 33 Invertebrates
  • - Invertebrates
  • True tissue (Eumetazoa)
  • Bilateral symmetry
  • Body cavities of lophotrochozoa
  • Acoelomates
  • Pseudocoelmates
  • Coelomates
  • Deuterostomes
  • Phylum Echinodermata spiny skin sea urchin,
    sea stars,
  • Sessile or slow movers as adults
  • Radial symmetry
  • Phylum Chordata Ch 34 - vertebrates

39
Table 33.7 Selected Animal Phyla
40
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