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3D GIS for EPlanning:


... GIS, Isle of Dogs/Canary Wharf example. Housing density analysis ... Subcentre structure weaker, major dense employment subcentres at Croydon and Canary Wharf. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 3D GIS for EPlanning:

3D GIS for E-Planning Urban land use, density
and sustainable development

CASE Award 3D GIS for E-Planning and
E-Democracy 1st Year Progress Presentation
14/02/07 Duncan Smith

Talk Summary
  • Introduction to Virtual London project
  • London planning and policy context
  • Land use mapping in 3D GIS, Isle of Dogs/Canary
    Wharf example
  • Housing density analysis
  • Office density and High Buildings Policy
  • Conclusion

Virtual London
Ongoing project developing 3D model of
London (Batty Hudson-Smith, 2005) Base of the
model uses building outlines from OS MM combined
with LIDAR height data, heights aggregated for
each polygon. Coverage across Greater
London. Aim of the research to improve
communication and public participation in
planning. Licensed for all London Boroughs to use
model through London Connects.
Virtual London Applications
  • Visualisation of planning data-
  • provides sense of place, engaging for public
  • Example of pollution mapping, project with
    British Oxygen Foundation.
  • Online visualisation allows widespread access via
    digital globe/web interface, potential for
    interactivity. Licensing issues.
  • Base for detailed textured 3D models. Before and
    after visualisation of urban change using photo
    texturing and modelling techniques.
  • Visual Impact Assessment- widespread practice in
    development control, need automated techniques
    improving geometric and photo texture detail.

GIS Analysis and Virtual London
  • Potential to use the model for GIS planning
    analysis, currently lacking attribute data and
    spatial analysis functionality.
  • Attribute data-
  • Fundamentally need land use data for planning.
    New datasets becoming available.
  • Link to planning databases (London Development
    Database from GLA).
  • Further socio-economic data useful e.g. census
    (at coarser scale).
  • Physical urban form data e.g. energy efficiency
    of buildings (Steadman Bruhns, 2000).
  • Spatial analysis-
  • Density of population (dwelling density
    indicator), office space (Valuation Office).
  • Accessibility- good pedestrian access to
    services and public transport necessary for
    achieving more sustainable travel. Calculate
    small scale accessibility measures, possibly link
    to existing larger scale transport model data.
  • Differences from typical GIS models
  • Finer Scale GIS generally use aggregated data,
    urban form and development analysis benefit from
    finer scale, data at individual building level,
    compliment larger scale analysis.
  • 3D represent multiple land uses, explore major
    issue of high rise development. Challenges with
    data, standardised datamodels, analysis in true

London Planning Context
  • Period of sustained economic growth. Substantial
    employment growth, led by service industries,
    particularly business services, predicted to
  • Offset partly by loss of 600,000 manufacturing
    jobs in last 30 years, sector still shedding jobs
    (GLA, 2004).
  • Population steadily rising- 7.5 million in 2006
    (GLA, 2006), 8.2 m 2016. Still lower than
    historical peak of 8.6 million in 1939.
  • Planners face number of related challenges from
    this growth
  • Housing shortages
  • Regeneration following industrial decline.
  • Accommodating growth (minimise town cramming
    and congestion).

Source London Plan (GLA, 2004)
London Growth and Sustainable Development
  • Establishing Greater London Authority important
    change in providing unified development strategy
    and policies across Greater London.
  • Annually monitored targets for Borough Councils
    on new homes constructed, brownfield land
    development, density of development.
  • Planning policy all within framework of
    sustainable development. Aspects in current
    planning policy
  • Efficient use of land, minimise development on
    greenbelt, encourage brownfield development.
  • Allow high density development in general and
    particularly at public transport nodes, more
    mixed use developments. Intended to encourage
    sustainable travel, more walking and cycling.
  • Also issues of emissions during construction,
    energy efficiency during use- not looked at in
    this research.
  • In general agreement with compact city ideas
    (Jenks et al, 1996), but contested concept in

London Plan Monitoring Report (GLA, 2006)
Urban Form and Sustainable Travel
  • Although promotion of the compact city is now
    enshrined in land use policy in the UK, there is
    little evidence to support the many claims in its
    favour (Burton, 2002).
  • Car ownership and fuel prices most important
    factors in determining travel behaviour (Breheny
    et al, 1998). Transport planning measures
    (parking provision, road capacity) also

Despite lack of strong relationship between urban
form and travel, still important to measure urban
form and accessibility. Provide opportunity for
sustainable travel, necessary but not sufficient
condition. Built form timescale long term
(decades, centuries), private vehicle costs (fuel
prices) likely to rise substantially in this
period. Opportunity for finer scale measures to
explore density and accessibility- defining
compact city using density figures without any
consideration of built form, may lead to the
failure of the concept (Sherlock, 1996)
Employment Density
  • Trends in knowledge economy encourage clustering
    jobs in city centre, agglomeration of business
    services (Sassen, 2000).
  • Londons global financial centre expanding
    (Southwark, East End).
  • Subcentre structure weaker, major dense
    employment subcentres at Croydon and Canary
  • Edge City effects at Heathrow and M4/M1
  • Monocentric structure encourages public transport
    use but can also increase commuting times
    (Breheny et al, 1998) .

Employment Density Map (GLA Economics, 2003)
Visualising Land Use
  • Recently released OS Address Layer 2 now includes
  • land use attributes. First fine scale
  • land use data for UK.
  • Each Address Point linked to a building polygon.
  • 3 Classifications Included-
  • OS Base Function- very specific classification
  • (1000 categories)
  • e.g. Travel Agency, Cathedral, Dwelling.
  • National Land Use Database- more manageable
    number of categories e.g. Retail, Residential.
    But incomplete.
  • Valuation Office- Similar to NLUD but only
    commercial properties.
  • Decided to use Base Function attribute,
    generalise into simpler classes.
  • Isle of Dogs- example to test concept and
    accuracy of data. Isle of Dogs area of massive
    redevelopment, great contrasts in land use and
    building scale, symbolic of structural economic

Isle of Dogs Background
  • West India Docks constructed in 1802, part of
    worlds largest port in 19th century.
  • Isle of Dogs urbanised to house dock workers
    (21,000 in 1901).

Growth continues into 20th century, then
containerisation and structural economic change
in the 1970s lead to massive decline.
Canary Wharf Background
  • West India Docks close 1980. Large areas of
    derelict and abandoned land.
  • Conservative government attempt to revive area-
    set up Enterprise Zone 1982 with tax allowances,
    planning restrictions lessened.
  • Plan for 12.2 million sq. ft. office development
    at Canary Wharf, infill part of West India Docks.
    Centrepiece UKs tallest tower at 1 Canada
    Square, completed 1991.
  • 1992- recession sends developers into
    administration. Lack of transport infrastructure.
  • 1996- Canary Wharf bought by international
  • consortium. Jubillee Line station opens in 1999.
  • Period of rapid expansion. New towers for
  • Citybank, Credit Suisse, HSBC.
  • 13,400 employees in 1996
  • 82,000 by 2006.

Land Use Classes
  • Aiming for visualisation that is easily
    comprehended from map, maintains major land use
    categories for urban context.
  • Emphasis on home/work/retail division

Also interested in more specific land uses,
categorising urban area, local services and
facilities that encourage sustainable travel
Local Services- health centre, community centre,
church, post office etc.
Leisure- cinema, gallery, gym.
Education- schools, further edu
Pub/Restaurant- cafes, takeaway
Industrial- warehouses, factory
Hotel- guest houses, hostel
Emergency Services
Mixed Use Categories, dominant land use
Isle of Dogs Housing
Housing Density
  • Land use data can also be used to calculate the
    number of dwellings per building, and then create
    a dwelling density surface.
  • Developers attracted to waterside.
  • Canyonisation of the Thames?
  • (Karadimitriou, forthcoming),
  • social and physical division.
  • Marketed as sustainable development.
  • Interesting to combine with accessibility
  • data, parking data.
  • Temporal perspective lacking.
  • Also detailed housing data, planning class,
  • Affordable housing. Link to London
  • Development Database from
  • the Greater London Authority.

Accessibility Measures
  • Planning policy directs that new development
    should be accessible by public transport, and
    that higher density development should be
    focussed at public transport nodes. But not
    necessarily priority in private sector
  • Accessibility data could be combined with
    housing/office density data to measure success of
  • Public Transport Accessibility Level (PTAL)
    common measure used in London. Tends to be
    contour measure, sharp cutoffs, and doesnt model
    destinations beyond public transport nodes.
  • More sophisticated measures based around Hansen
    indices, weigh all available opportunities from
    an origin (e.g. population zones) to destinations
    (e.g. services) by the deterrent effect of travel
    to each (Hansen, 1959).
  • Virtual London model offers opportunity for finer
    scale accessibility measures. Not yet setup with
    network data.

Greater London Public Transport Accessibility Map
(TfL, 2004)
3D Land Use Visualisation
  • Metropolitan areas (Central London) dominated by
    mixed use buildings-
    single buildings
    categories less useful.
  • Possible to slice 3d building volumes
    into distinct land uses.
  • Lack of floor information means effectively
    guessing at vertical land use distribution.
    Assume retail/restaurant/leisure at ground level,
    residential typically highest level.
  • Another source of error is property divisions
    changing between floors. Ideally need volume or
    layer datamodel (Slingsby, 2006).
  • Need to assess accuracy. Floor information
    sources- Valuation Office?

Measuring Office Density
  • Potential to map density of office space by
    linking land use model to Valuation Office data.
  • City of London restricted heights to preserve
    views of St Pauls since 1930 (City of London,
  • Possible to investigate how policy has influenced
    development over this period.
  • New cluster of towers given planning permission
    north west of Bank (Bishopsgate, Leadenhall
    Street). Current debate on strategic views policy.

  • Attributing the Virtual London model with
    socio-economic data provides base for spatial
    analysis of planning issues at fine scale.
  • Land use data visualisation potential to be
    highly useful to planners. Need to test accuracy,
    develop 3D visualisations, use standard
    classifications, feedback from planners.
  • Intend to use model to explore sustainable
    development issues
  • accessibility and density of development,
    accessibility and land use, local services and
    sustainable travel. Which accessibility measures
    most useful? Scale of analysis.
  • Link planning policy to urban form
  • High buildings policy, more detailed urban design
    measures possible?

  • Thank you for listening!
  • Welcome any comments and questions.
  • References
  • Batty, M. Hudson-Smith, A. (2005), Urban
    Simulacra London, Architectural Design, Vol 5,
    6, pp 42 47.
  • Breheny,M.,Gordon,I.,Archer,S.(1998), Building
    densities and sustainable cities, Engineering
    and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC),
    Sustainable Cities Programme, Project Outline No.
    5, June 1998.
  • Burton, E. (2002), Measuring urban compactness in
    UK towns and cities, Environment and Planning B
    Planning and Design 2002, 29, pp 219 250.
  • Greater London Authority (2004), The London Plan
    Spatial Development Strategy for London, GLA.

Affordable Housing and Sustainability
  • Provision of affordable housing priority in
    London - public service workers, social
  • Local authority negotiate proportion of
    affordable housing with developer during planning
  • Arsenal example- new stadium development, 1200
    homes. Islington council secure 40 affordable.
  • Affordable housing built at very high density
    next to tube station. Highly sustainable from
    accessibility view.
  • But amenity, public realm issues- next to railway
    and waste centre, no public space, dark street

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Mixed Uses and Subcentre Structure
  • London centre dominant, also hundreds of
    subcentres, local services. Can be measured
    spatially using employment diversity data.
  • (Thurstain-Goodwin Batty, 2001)
  • Urban village ideal of local services
    accessible on foot, strong communities, urban
    texture of London (Sherlock, 1996).
  • Encourage sustainable travel? Potential to-
    history in London of centres developing around
    rail and underground stations.
  • Nodes on road network also create subcentres,
    especially Greater London.

Diversity Index Greater London (Batty et al, 2003)
  • Batty, M. Hudson-Smith, A. (2005), Urban
    Simulacra London, Architectural Design, Vol 5,
    6, pp 42 47.
  • Breheny,M.,Gordon,I.,Archer,S.(1998), Building
    densities and sustainable cities, Engineering
    and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC),
    Sustainable Cities Programme, Project Outline No.
    5, June 1998.
  • Burton, E. (2002), Measuring urban compactness in
    UK towns and cities, Environment and Planning B
    Planning and Design 2002, 29, pp 219 250.
  • Greater London Authority (2004), The London Plan
    Spatial Development Strategy for London, GLA.
  • Jenks, M, Burton, E., Williams, K. (2000) The
    Compact City A Sustainable Urban Form?, (Spon.
  • Sassen, S (2000), The Global City New York,
    London, Tokyo, Princeton University Press.
  • Sherlock, H. (1996), Repairing our much abused
    cities the way to sustainable living, in The
    Compact City A Sustainable Urban Form?, eds.
    Jenks, M, Burton, E., Williams, K. (Spon. London)
    pp 66 73.
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