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SANDAG's use of GIS

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This show designed to illustrate SANDAG's current and future uses of GIS technology. For use at conferences, in house meetings and anywhere people might have ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SANDAG's use of GIS


1
GIS Software, Applications and the Internet
Class 2 GISG 110
2
Objectives
  • GIS Software, Applications and the Internet
  • Why GIS?
  • Software vendors
  • Types of GIS software
  • Application fields
  • Application areas

3
Why GIS?
  • Wider availability through Internet and networks
  • Lower cost of GIS hardware and software
  • Greater awareness that decision making affects
    geographic neighbors
  • More user-friendly
  • Increased availability of GIS data
  • Better technology
  • Availability of out of box applications and
    software

4
Software Evolution
  • 1970 and 80s Command line
  • Late 1980s
  • Graphical user interfaces (GUIs)
  • Customization capabilities
  • Current Day Software linked to Web

5
Software Vendors
  • Main players
  • ESRI
  • Intergraph
  • Autodesk
  • GE Energy
  • Secondary players
  • Leica Geosystems
  • IBM
  • MapInfo

6
ESRI Inc.
  • Private company founded in 1969, headquartered in
    Redlands, CA
  • Employs over 4000 worldwide
  • Annual revenues over 500 million
  • Serves over 130,000 organizations, 1 million
    users
  • Focus solely on GIS market
  • Primarily software
  • ¼ revenue from project work advising clients how
    to implement GIS
  • Product suite called ArcGIS (hand-held, desktop,
    servers)
  • www.esri.com

7
Intergraph Inc.
  • Founded 1969, went public 1981
  • Focus is CAD and mapping software, consulting
    services and hardware
  • Four main operating units
  • Process, Power, and Marine
  • Public Safety
  • Solutions
  • Mapping and Geospatial Solutions
  • Accounts for over 200 million in revenue
  • Total revenue over 500 million
  • GIS product line is GeoMedia
  • Strongest GIS company in military, infrastructure
    and utility
  • www.intergraph.com

8
AutoDesk
  • Publicly traded company, headquartered in San
    Rafael, CA
  • Leading digital design and content company in
    building, manufacturing, infrastructure, and
    digital media, and location services
  • Product family is called AutoCAD
  • Used worldwide by over 4 million customers
  • Publicly traded 1 billion entity, employing
    3,700
  • Successful computer-aided design (CAD) company
    that extended into GIS
  • www.autodesk.com

9
GE Energy
  • GIS software is referred to as Geospatial Asset
    Management Solution
  • Based on Smallworld GIS
  • GE acquired Smallworld codebase in 2000
  • Smallworld established in 1980 in UK
  • Onset focused on complex utility network
    solutions, gas and electric
  • One of top 3 GIS utility software providers
  • www.gepower.com

10
Types of software systems
  • Desktop
  • Server GIS
  • Developer GIS
  • Hand-held GIS
  • Others
  • Imagery products, CAD, DBMS

11
Desktop
  • Took off after development Microsoft Windows
    Operating System
  • Most widely used GIS software
  • Developed for PC platform
  • Focuses on data use (maps, charts, reports)
    verses data creation
  • Prices range from 1,000-2,000
  • Professional GIS prices 7,000-20,000

12
Server GIS
  • GIS runs on server, handles concurrent processing
    requests from range of networked clients
  • Functions editing, mapping, data management,
    spatial analysis
  • Potential for largest user base and lowest cost
    per user
  • Cost varies 5,000-25,000 for small to medium
    systems

13
Developer GIS
  • Oriented toward needs of developers
  • Toolkits of GIS functions that programmers use to
    build GIS applications
  • Create highly customized applications that stand
    alone or are embedded in other applications
  • Cost is 1,000-5,000 for developers kit

14
Hand-held GIS
  • GIS for mobile systems and field use
  • Palm and pocket devices support display, query,
    analytical applications similar to desktop
  • Programs and data held in memory, due to (size
    and) lack of hard disk
  • Provides fast access, but memory more expensive
    than hard disk space
  • Smartphones hold 1 GB data and sophisticated
    software
  • Cost for smartphone is 400-600

15
Software Usage Summary
GIS Software Sector Number of Users
Server 2 million
Desktop 1.25 million
Developer 450,000
Other 400,000
Hand-held 200,000
Estimated
  • Total size of GIS market 4 million users
  • If consider Internet GIS users 10 million

16
Traditional application fields
  • Military
  • Know Thy Enemy approach (tracking movements and
    strategies)
  • Government
  • Natural resource management, tax assessment
  • Education
  • Academic research in a variety of area, training
  • Utilities
  • Infrastructure, gas, electric

17
Growing fields and uses
  • Mid-1990s Increased business uses
  • Banking and financial services
  • Transportation logistics
  • Real estate
  • Market analysis
  • 21st century
  • SOHO and personal/consumer applications
  • Security, Intelligence, and counter-terrorism

18
  • Application areas and examples

19
Representative application areas
  • Government and Public Service
  • Business and Service Planning
  • Logistics and Transportation
  • Environment

20
Government and Public Service
21
Government and Public Service
  • First to discover value of GIS
  • CGIS national system for natural resource
    inventory and management
  • Now used at all levels of government national to
    neighborhood
  • Government users are biggest single group of GIS
    professionals
  • Top down decision making supplemented with
    bottom up representation of real communities
  • 70-80 local government work should involve GIS

22
Local governments
  • Common ways GIS is used
  • Inventory resources and infrastructure
  • Improve public service delivery
  • Manage land development
  • Generate revenue by increasing economic activity
  • Typical GIS applications
  • Monitoring health risks
  • Managing public housing stock
  • Allocating welfare assistance funds
  • Tracking crimes

23
Applications in local government
  • Inventory applications
  • Policy Analysis
  • Management/Policy-Making applications

24
Applications in local government
  • Inventory applications
  • Locating property information e.g., ownership
    and tax assessments
  • County of San Diego
  • Required to identify all landfills, hazardous
    waste facilities and recycling sites

25
Applications in local government
  • Policy Analysis applications
  • e.g., proximity to land use or feature
  • Caltrans
  • Environmental Impact Report (EIR) required to
    assess proximity of endangered species to planned
    freeway

26
Applications in local government
  • Management/Policy-Making applications
  • e.g., forecasting future housing needs
  • California Cities
  • Housing Element is required to determine number
    of new low-income homes needed

27
Example of Local Government GIS application
28
GIS in tax assessment
  • Tax Assessors Office is often first home of GIS
    in local government
  • Assessors responsible for judging the value of
    all taxable properties in jurisdiction
  • Details about properties include ownership,
    address, land and building value, and tax
    exemptions

29
GIS in tax assessment
  • Method
  • GIS used to collect and mange geographic parcel
    boundaries and associated property information
  • Basic tax assessment task involves database query
    to locate all sales of similar properties within
    a given distance
  • Property to be valued is identified in property
    database
  • Geographic query performed to pull values of all
    comparable properties within 1 mile radius of
    property
  • Properties displayed on assessors screen

30
GIS in tax assessment
  • Result
  • Assessor can compare the characteristics of
    properties (lot size, sales price, and date of
    sale, neighborhood status, property improvements,
    etc) and value the property

31
Local government agencies working with GIS
  • The County
  • The eighteen cities
  • SANDAG
  • Caltrans
  • San Diego County Water Authority
  • Metropolitan Transit System and North County
    Transit District
  • Port Authority

32
Business and Service Planning
33
Business and Service Planning
  • Retailing applications perform the following
    functions
  • Operational
  • Day-to-day processing of routine transactions and
    inventory analysis (e.g., stock management)
  • Tactical
  • Allocation of resources to address specific
    problems (e.g., store sales promotions)
  • Strategic
  • Contribute to longer-term goals and mission,
    (e.g., entail problems such as opening new store)

34
Geodemographics
  • Indicators of consumer behavior available at
    small-level geography (e.g., CT or ZIP)
  • Identify variations in the incidences of customer
    types
  • Often supplemented by lifestyle data, such as
    shopping habits or consumption choices

35
Market area analysis
  • Assess the distribution of retail outlets
    relative to the greatest concentrations of
    potential customers
  • Increasing field/service in many types of
    agencies, public and private
  • Improves public service planning in health,
    education and law enforcement
  • Geodemographics used as basis for analysis

36
Examples of Business and Service Planning GIS
applications
37
Market area analysis 1
  • City of Escondido abandoned Kmart site
  • City contacted SANDAG to assist with the sale and
    redevelopment of abandoned site
  • 19 acre site, located on Mission Avenue next to
    State Route 78, vacant since March 2003
  • Land planned for redevelopment Mixed-use
    commercial and residential

38
Escondido abandoned Kmart site
  • Method
  • Demographic data gathered to profile area
  • Current and forecasted demographic and economic
    data (population, median income) aggregated for a
    10 mile radius of site
  • Maps produced to display neighboring land uses,
    future plans, and area characteristics
  • Existing land use, general plan, and population
    and housing density

39
Escondido abandoned Kmart site
  • Result
  • Data used to predict the success of
  • New commercial development in local market area,
  • Sale of new housing units (based on similar house
    values)
  • As marketing tool

40
Market area analysis 2
  • Tesco Grocery retailer in UK
  • Success through
  • Strategic diversification
  • Store loyalty card program (e.g, Ralphs club
    card)
  • Rewards members with coupons
  • Generates lifestyles data (identify consumption
    profiles)
  • Identify whether customers are value or
    quality driven
  • Powerful marketing tool
  • Acquisition of smaller neighborhood stores

41
Market analysis suburban Tesco store
  • Method
  • Traditionally, leaflet drops or enclosure with
    free local newspapers
  • With GIS, identify all households within a 1 km
    radius of store
  • Two options
  • Each address sent a flyer with coupons or
  • Refine by overlaying geodemographic and
    lifestyles data onto target area
  • Tailor coupon offerings to consumption patterns
    Beer or champagne coupons

42
Market analysis suburban Tesco store
  • Result
  • Money saved on number of flyers (not) distributed
  • Saved printing costs
  • Saved trees

43
Local private and nonprofit firms using GIS
  • Workforce Partnership
  • BMJ Marketing
  • American Cancer Society
  • Gemnological Institute of America
  • YMCA
  • North County Health Services
  • Economic Planning Systems

44
Logistics and Transportation
45
Logistics and Transportation
  • Deal with movement of goods and people from one
    place to another and infrastructure (highways,
    railroads, canals) that moves them

46
Logistics and Transportation
  • Logistics Companies (e.g., parcel delivery and
    shipping)
  • Addresses the shipping and transportation of
    goods
  • Organize operations, parcel routing, origins and
    destinations
  • Where to put sorting warehouses and transfer
    facilities

47
Logistics and Transportation
  • Transportation Authorities
  • New routes
  • Where to build
  • Highway conditions

48
Logistics and Transportation
  • Transit Authorities
  • Plan routes and schedules
  • keep track of vehicles and incidents that delay
    them
  • Provide information to travelers
  • All fields employ GIS applications to handle
    day-to-day operations

49
Applications overview
  • Each has two parts
  • Static
  • Deals with fixed infrastructure
  • Dynamic
  • Deals with vehicles, goods, and people that move
    on static part

50
Transportation
  • Historically, GIS easier to apply to static part
  • Today, use of GPS
  • Track vehicles as they move
  • Transit authorities use to inform users of buses
    and trains
  • Deal with emergency incidents occuring on
    transportation networks (OnStar)

51
Logistics
  • GIS helped many service and delivery companies to
    reduce operating costs in field
  • Optimization
  • Design of solutions to meet specified objectives
  • E.g., A delivery company needs to deliver parcels
    to 200 locations in one shift, dividing work
    between 10 trucks
  • Different ways of dividing the work, and routing
    vehicles, can result in differences in time
    cost
  • GIS logistics applications determine optimal
    routes based on shortest distances, time of day,
    traffic volume

52
Example of Transportation GIS application
53
Planning for emergency evacuation
  • Overview
  • Tool allows neighborhoods to rate potential for
    problems associated with evaluation
  • Develop plans accordingly
  • Uses GIS database on distribution of population
    in neighborhoods
  • Street patterns
  • Result Evacuation vulnerability map
  • Assumes worst-case scenario for location

54
Planning for emergency evacuation
  • How it works
  • Assumes one vehicle to evacuate each household
  • Looks further than household location
    (cul-de-sac? Street have only one exit?) to
    locate bottlenecks
  • E.g., Densely packed neighborhood, single exit
    massive evacuation problem
  • Resulting maps draw attention to areas of
    potential problems

55
Evacuation vulnerability map
  • Method
  • Two types data for analysis
  • Population and household counts, number of
    vehicles (Census)
  • Street centerline files (Census TIGER and USGS)
  • Both free

56
Evacuation vulnerability map
  • Analysis
  • Begins at every street intersection, works
    outwards following street connections to reach
    new intersections
  • Every connection tested for bottleneck (total
    number of vehicles/number of exit lanes)
  • After all streets tested, worst-case value
    (vehicles per lane) assigned, resulting in
    network of values

57
Local agencies working with transportation GIS
  • Caltrans
  • RBF Consulting
  • Katz Okitsu Assoc.
  • CH2MHILL
  • Parsons and Wilbur Smith.

58
Environment
59
Environment
  • Drove some of earliest GIS applications
  • CGIS driven by need for policies over land use

60
Environment
  • Applications used to
  • Measure land area for effective strategies
  • Monitor land use change through remote sensing
    (loss of forest in Amazon basin)
  • Compare environmental conditions prevailing in
    different nations

61
Common application
  • How urban sprawl occurs
  • To understand environmental consequences and
    predict future ones
  • Based on historic patterns of growth
  • Location of roads
  • Steep slopes and other undevelopable lands
  • Other factors that encourage/restrict development
  • Each presented on map as GIS layer
  • Software simulates the processes that drive growth

62
Simulation models
  • Dynamic simulation models
  • Computer programs design to simulate the
    operation of some part of human or environmental
    system over time
  • Soil erosion
  • Forest growth
  • Groundwater movement
  • Runoff

63
Example of an Environmental GIS application
64
Deforestation on Sibuyan Island
  • Sibuyan Island, Philippines Overview
  • Problem Deforestation poses major threat to
    biodiversity
  • Objective Identify development scenarios to
    anticipate future land use and habitant change,
    and as a result anticipate changes in
    biodiversity
  • Sibuyan small island (area 283 sq mi), steep
    forested mountain slopes, coastal land used for
    agriculture, mining and human settlement
  • Biodiversity 700 plant species (54 only occur in
    Sibuyan)

65
Deforestation on Sibuyan Island
  • Method
  • Qualitative
  • List of factors influencing to land use patterns
  • E.g., suitability of soil for agriculture (ideal
    or not) can increase likelihood that area will be
    stripped of forest and used for agriculture
  • Quantitative GIS-based analysis
  • Calculates the probabilities of land use
    transition under three scenarios of land use
    change

66
Deforestation on Sibuyan Island
  • Quantitative GIS-based analysis
  • Scenario 1 Assumes no effective protection of
    forests on island
  • Scenario 2 Protection of the designated natural
    park alone
  • Scenario 3 Assumes protection not only of
    natural park but a GIS-defined buffer zone

67
Deforestation on Sibuyan Island
  • Techniques
  • Digitizing of land features and classification of
    imagery to obtain a land use map
  • Correlation and regression analysis between
    location factors and land use
  • GIS simulates scenarios of future land use change
    based on different spatial policies
  • Measures connectivity and fragmentation of
    forest, affecting ability of species to mix and
    breed without disturbance

68
Deforestation on Sibuyan Island
  • Results
  • 3 land use change scenarios (maps)
  • Show decreasing deforestation (increasing
    connectivity, decreasing fragmentation),
    respectively, from Scenario 1 to 3

69
Local environmental agencies working with GIS
  • AMEC Environmental
  • KEA Environmental
  • DUDEK
  • EnviroMINE, Inc
  • PBSJ
  • TAIC
  • HDR

70
GIS and the Internet
  • Through Internet map server technology, spatial
    data can be accessed and analyzed

Current wildfire perimeters are displayed with a
standard web browser, allowing fire managers to
better respond to fires while in the field and
helping homeowners to take precautionary measures
71
GIS and the Internet
  • Google Earth allows you to view or fly to
    areas, find businesses and get directions

72
Review
  • List the four main GIS software vendors.
  • AutoDesk is the strongest GIS company in
    military, infrastructure and utility. (T/F)
  • Intergraphs GIS product line is GeoMedia. (T/F)
  • Smallworld is alive and going strong. (T/F)
  • Desktop GIS software focuses on data creation.
    (T/F)
  • Smartphone is a ______ GIS software system.
  • Server GIS software has the highest number of
    users. (T/F)
  • What are the four traditional fields of GIS
    applications?
  • List three reasons more organizations are using
    GIS applications.
  • A Management/Policy-Making application is an
    example of Business and Public Service
    applications. (T/F)
  • Indicators of consumer behavior available at
    small-level geography is the definition of _____.
  • ______ and _____ deal with movement of goods and
    people from one place to another and
    infrastructure that moves them.
  • Urban sprawl is a common application in this area
    of GIS.
  • Sibuyan is a desert in northern Africa. (T/F)
  • What traditional fields helped define GIS?

73
Remainder of Class
  • Break
  • Lab
  • ESRI Products page
  • Google Earth
  • ESRI Chapter 3

74
ESRI Products Overview
  • Briefly describe the difference in
    functionalities between ArcExplorer, ArcReader,
    and ArcView.
  • List the software names that can be downloaded
    for free.
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