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SANDAG's use of GIS


This show designed to illustrate SANDAG's current and future uses of GIS technology. For use at conferences, in house meetings and anywhere people might have ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SANDAG's use of GIS

GIS Software, Applications and the Internet
Class 2 GISG 110
  • GIS Software, Applications and the Internet
  • Why GIS?
  • Software vendors
  • Types of GIS software
  • Application fields
  • Application areas

Why GIS?
  • Wider availability through Internet and networks
  • Lower cost of GIS hardware and software
  • Greater awareness that decision making affects
    geographic neighbors
  • More user-friendly
  • Increased availability of GIS data
  • Better technology
  • Availability of out of box applications and

Software Evolution
  • 1970 and 80s Command line
  • Late 1980s
  • Graphical user interfaces (GUIs)
  • Customization capabilities
  • Current Day Software linked to Web

Software Vendors
  • Main players
  • ESRI
  • Intergraph
  • Autodesk
  • GE Energy
  • Secondary players
  • Leica Geosystems
  • IBM
  • MapInfo

  • Private company founded in 1969, headquartered in
    Redlands, CA
  • Employs over 4000 worldwide
  • Annual revenues over 500 million
  • Serves over 130,000 organizations, 1 million
  • Focus solely on GIS market
  • Primarily software
  • ¼ revenue from project work advising clients how
    to implement GIS
  • Product suite called ArcGIS (hand-held, desktop,

Intergraph Inc.
  • Founded 1969, went public 1981
  • Focus is CAD and mapping software, consulting
    services and hardware
  • Four main operating units
  • Process, Power, and Marine
  • Public Safety
  • Solutions
  • Mapping and Geospatial Solutions
  • Accounts for over 200 million in revenue
  • Total revenue over 500 million
  • GIS product line is GeoMedia
  • Strongest GIS company in military, infrastructure
    and utility

  • Publicly traded company, headquartered in San
    Rafael, CA
  • Leading digital design and content company in
    building, manufacturing, infrastructure, and
    digital media, and location services
  • Product family is called AutoCAD
  • Used worldwide by over 4 million customers
  • Publicly traded 1 billion entity, employing
  • Successful computer-aided design (CAD) company
    that extended into GIS

GE Energy
  • GIS software is referred to as Geospatial Asset
    Management Solution
  • Based on Smallworld GIS
  • GE acquired Smallworld codebase in 2000
  • Smallworld established in 1980 in UK
  • Onset focused on complex utility network
    solutions, gas and electric
  • One of top 3 GIS utility software providers

Types of software systems
  • Desktop
  • Server GIS
  • Developer GIS
  • Hand-held GIS
  • Others
  • Imagery products, CAD, DBMS

  • Took off after development Microsoft Windows
    Operating System
  • Most widely used GIS software
  • Developed for PC platform
  • Focuses on data use (maps, charts, reports)
    verses data creation
  • Prices range from 1,000-2,000
  • Professional GIS prices 7,000-20,000

Server GIS
  • GIS runs on server, handles concurrent processing
    requests from range of networked clients
  • Functions editing, mapping, data management,
    spatial analysis
  • Potential for largest user base and lowest cost
    per user
  • Cost varies 5,000-25,000 for small to medium

Developer GIS
  • Oriented toward needs of developers
  • Toolkits of GIS functions that programmers use to
    build GIS applications
  • Create highly customized applications that stand
    alone or are embedded in other applications
  • Cost is 1,000-5,000 for developers kit

Hand-held GIS
  • GIS for mobile systems and field use
  • Palm and pocket devices support display, query,
    analytical applications similar to desktop
  • Programs and data held in memory, due to (size
    and) lack of hard disk
  • Provides fast access, but memory more expensive
    than hard disk space
  • Smartphones hold 1 GB data and sophisticated
  • Cost for smartphone is 400-600

Software Usage Summary
GIS Software Sector Number of Users
Server 2 million
Desktop 1.25 million
Developer 450,000
Other 400,000
Hand-held 200,000
  • Total size of GIS market 4 million users
  • If consider Internet GIS users 10 million

Traditional application fields
  • Military
  • Know Thy Enemy approach (tracking movements and
  • Government
  • Natural resource management, tax assessment
  • Education
  • Academic research in a variety of area, training
  • Utilities
  • Infrastructure, gas, electric

Growing fields and uses
  • Mid-1990s Increased business uses
  • Banking and financial services
  • Transportation logistics
  • Real estate
  • Market analysis
  • 21st century
  • SOHO and personal/consumer applications
  • Security, Intelligence, and counter-terrorism

  • Application areas and examples

Representative application areas
  • Government and Public Service
  • Business and Service Planning
  • Logistics and Transportation
  • Environment

Government and Public Service
Government and Public Service
  • First to discover value of GIS
  • CGIS national system for natural resource
    inventory and management
  • Now used at all levels of government national to
  • Government users are biggest single group of GIS
  • Top down decision making supplemented with
    bottom up representation of real communities
  • 70-80 local government work should involve GIS

Local governments
  • Common ways GIS is used
  • Inventory resources and infrastructure
  • Improve public service delivery
  • Manage land development
  • Generate revenue by increasing economic activity
  • Typical GIS applications
  • Monitoring health risks
  • Managing public housing stock
  • Allocating welfare assistance funds
  • Tracking crimes

Applications in local government
  • Inventory applications
  • Policy Analysis
  • Management/Policy-Making applications

Applications in local government
  • Inventory applications
  • Locating property information e.g., ownership
    and tax assessments
  • County of San Diego
  • Required to identify all landfills, hazardous
    waste facilities and recycling sites

Applications in local government
  • Policy Analysis applications
  • e.g., proximity to land use or feature
  • Caltrans
  • Environmental Impact Report (EIR) required to
    assess proximity of endangered species to planned

Applications in local government
  • Management/Policy-Making applications
  • e.g., forecasting future housing needs
  • California Cities
  • Housing Element is required to determine number
    of new low-income homes needed

Example of Local Government GIS application
GIS in tax assessment
  • Tax Assessors Office is often first home of GIS
    in local government
  • Assessors responsible for judging the value of
    all taxable properties in jurisdiction
  • Details about properties include ownership,
    address, land and building value, and tax

GIS in tax assessment
  • Method
  • GIS used to collect and mange geographic parcel
    boundaries and associated property information
  • Basic tax assessment task involves database query
    to locate all sales of similar properties within
    a given distance
  • Property to be valued is identified in property
  • Geographic query performed to pull values of all
    comparable properties within 1 mile radius of
  • Properties displayed on assessors screen

GIS in tax assessment
  • Result
  • Assessor can compare the characteristics of
    properties (lot size, sales price, and date of
    sale, neighborhood status, property improvements,
    etc) and value the property

Local government agencies working with GIS
  • The County
  • The eighteen cities
  • Caltrans
  • San Diego County Water Authority
  • Metropolitan Transit System and North County
    Transit District
  • Port Authority

Business and Service Planning
Business and Service Planning
  • Retailing applications perform the following
  • Operational
  • Day-to-day processing of routine transactions and
    inventory analysis (e.g., stock management)
  • Tactical
  • Allocation of resources to address specific
    problems (e.g., store sales promotions)
  • Strategic
  • Contribute to longer-term goals and mission,
    (e.g., entail problems such as opening new store)

  • Indicators of consumer behavior available at
    small-level geography (e.g., CT or ZIP)
  • Identify variations in the incidences of customer
  • Often supplemented by lifestyle data, such as
    shopping habits or consumption choices

Market area analysis
  • Assess the distribution of retail outlets
    relative to the greatest concentrations of
    potential customers
  • Increasing field/service in many types of
    agencies, public and private
  • Improves public service planning in health,
    education and law enforcement
  • Geodemographics used as basis for analysis

Examples of Business and Service Planning GIS
Market area analysis 1
  • City of Escondido abandoned Kmart site
  • City contacted SANDAG to assist with the sale and
    redevelopment of abandoned site
  • 19 acre site, located on Mission Avenue next to
    State Route 78, vacant since March 2003
  • Land planned for redevelopment Mixed-use
    commercial and residential

Escondido abandoned Kmart site
  • Method
  • Demographic data gathered to profile area
  • Current and forecasted demographic and economic
    data (population, median income) aggregated for a
    10 mile radius of site
  • Maps produced to display neighboring land uses,
    future plans, and area characteristics
  • Existing land use, general plan, and population
    and housing density

Escondido abandoned Kmart site
  • Result
  • Data used to predict the success of
  • New commercial development in local market area,
  • Sale of new housing units (based on similar house
  • As marketing tool

Market area analysis 2
  • Tesco Grocery retailer in UK
  • Success through
  • Strategic diversification
  • Store loyalty card program (e.g, Ralphs club
  • Rewards members with coupons
  • Generates lifestyles data (identify consumption
  • Identify whether customers are value or
    quality driven
  • Powerful marketing tool
  • Acquisition of smaller neighborhood stores

Market analysis suburban Tesco store
  • Method
  • Traditionally, leaflet drops or enclosure with
    free local newspapers
  • With GIS, identify all households within a 1 km
    radius of store
  • Two options
  • Each address sent a flyer with coupons or
  • Refine by overlaying geodemographic and
    lifestyles data onto target area
  • Tailor coupon offerings to consumption patterns
    Beer or champagne coupons

Market analysis suburban Tesco store
  • Result
  • Money saved on number of flyers (not) distributed
  • Saved printing costs
  • Saved trees

Local private and nonprofit firms using GIS
  • Workforce Partnership
  • BMJ Marketing
  • American Cancer Society
  • Gemnological Institute of America
  • YMCA
  • North County Health Services
  • Economic Planning Systems

Logistics and Transportation
Logistics and Transportation
  • Deal with movement of goods and people from one
    place to another and infrastructure (highways,
    railroads, canals) that moves them

Logistics and Transportation
  • Logistics Companies (e.g., parcel delivery and
  • Addresses the shipping and transportation of
  • Organize operations, parcel routing, origins and
  • Where to put sorting warehouses and transfer

Logistics and Transportation
  • Transportation Authorities
  • New routes
  • Where to build
  • Highway conditions

Logistics and Transportation
  • Transit Authorities
  • Plan routes and schedules
  • keep track of vehicles and incidents that delay
  • Provide information to travelers
  • All fields employ GIS applications to handle
    day-to-day operations

Applications overview
  • Each has two parts
  • Static
  • Deals with fixed infrastructure
  • Dynamic
  • Deals with vehicles, goods, and people that move
    on static part

  • Historically, GIS easier to apply to static part
  • Today, use of GPS
  • Track vehicles as they move
  • Transit authorities use to inform users of buses
    and trains
  • Deal with emergency incidents occuring on
    transportation networks (OnStar)

  • GIS helped many service and delivery companies to
    reduce operating costs in field
  • Optimization
  • Design of solutions to meet specified objectives
  • E.g., A delivery company needs to deliver parcels
    to 200 locations in one shift, dividing work
    between 10 trucks
  • Different ways of dividing the work, and routing
    vehicles, can result in differences in time
  • GIS logistics applications determine optimal
    routes based on shortest distances, time of day,
    traffic volume

Example of Transportation GIS application
Planning for emergency evacuation
  • Overview
  • Tool allows neighborhoods to rate potential for
    problems associated with evaluation
  • Develop plans accordingly
  • Uses GIS database on distribution of population
    in neighborhoods
  • Street patterns
  • Result Evacuation vulnerability map
  • Assumes worst-case scenario for location

Planning for emergency evacuation
  • How it works
  • Assumes one vehicle to evacuate each household
  • Looks further than household location
    (cul-de-sac? Street have only one exit?) to
    locate bottlenecks
  • E.g., Densely packed neighborhood, single exit
    massive evacuation problem
  • Resulting maps draw attention to areas of
    potential problems

Evacuation vulnerability map
  • Method
  • Two types data for analysis
  • Population and household counts, number of
    vehicles (Census)
  • Street centerline files (Census TIGER and USGS)
  • Both free

Evacuation vulnerability map
  • Analysis
  • Begins at every street intersection, works
    outwards following street connections to reach
    new intersections
  • Every connection tested for bottleneck (total
    number of vehicles/number of exit lanes)
  • After all streets tested, worst-case value
    (vehicles per lane) assigned, resulting in
    network of values

Local agencies working with transportation GIS
  • Caltrans
  • RBF Consulting
  • Katz Okitsu Assoc.
  • Parsons and Wilbur Smith.

  • Drove some of earliest GIS applications
  • CGIS driven by need for policies over land use

  • Applications used to
  • Measure land area for effective strategies
  • Monitor land use change through remote sensing
    (loss of forest in Amazon basin)
  • Compare environmental conditions prevailing in
    different nations

Common application
  • How urban sprawl occurs
  • To understand environmental consequences and
    predict future ones
  • Based on historic patterns of growth
  • Location of roads
  • Steep slopes and other undevelopable lands
  • Other factors that encourage/restrict development
  • Each presented on map as GIS layer
  • Software simulates the processes that drive growth

Simulation models
  • Dynamic simulation models
  • Computer programs design to simulate the
    operation of some part of human or environmental
    system over time
  • Soil erosion
  • Forest growth
  • Groundwater movement
  • Runoff

Example of an Environmental GIS application
Deforestation on Sibuyan Island
  • Sibuyan Island, Philippines Overview
  • Problem Deforestation poses major threat to
  • Objective Identify development scenarios to
    anticipate future land use and habitant change,
    and as a result anticipate changes in
  • Sibuyan small island (area 283 sq mi), steep
    forested mountain slopes, coastal land used for
    agriculture, mining and human settlement
  • Biodiversity 700 plant species (54 only occur in

Deforestation on Sibuyan Island
  • Method
  • Qualitative
  • List of factors influencing to land use patterns
  • E.g., suitability of soil for agriculture (ideal
    or not) can increase likelihood that area will be
    stripped of forest and used for agriculture
  • Quantitative GIS-based analysis
  • Calculates the probabilities of land use
    transition under three scenarios of land use

Deforestation on Sibuyan Island
  • Quantitative GIS-based analysis
  • Scenario 1 Assumes no effective protection of
    forests on island
  • Scenario 2 Protection of the designated natural
    park alone
  • Scenario 3 Assumes protection not only of
    natural park but a GIS-defined buffer zone

Deforestation on Sibuyan Island
  • Techniques
  • Digitizing of land features and classification of
    imagery to obtain a land use map
  • Correlation and regression analysis between
    location factors and land use
  • GIS simulates scenarios of future land use change
    based on different spatial policies
  • Measures connectivity and fragmentation of
    forest, affecting ability of species to mix and
    breed without disturbance

Deforestation on Sibuyan Island
  • Results
  • 3 land use change scenarios (maps)
  • Show decreasing deforestation (increasing
    connectivity, decreasing fragmentation),
    respectively, from Scenario 1 to 3

Local environmental agencies working with GIS
  • AMEC Environmental
  • KEA Environmental
  • EnviroMINE, Inc
  • PBSJ
  • TAIC
  • HDR

GIS and the Internet
  • Through Internet map server technology, spatial
    data can be accessed and analyzed

Current wildfire perimeters are displayed with a
standard web browser, allowing fire managers to
better respond to fires while in the field and
helping homeowners to take precautionary measures
GIS and the Internet
  • Google Earth allows you to view or fly to
    areas, find businesses and get directions

  • List the four main GIS software vendors.
  • AutoDesk is the strongest GIS company in
    military, infrastructure and utility. (T/F)
  • Intergraphs GIS product line is GeoMedia. (T/F)
  • Smallworld is alive and going strong. (T/F)
  • Desktop GIS software focuses on data creation.
  • Smartphone is a ______ GIS software system.
  • Server GIS software has the highest number of
    users. (T/F)
  • What are the four traditional fields of GIS
  • List three reasons more organizations are using
    GIS applications.
  • A Management/Policy-Making application is an
    example of Business and Public Service
    applications. (T/F)
  • Indicators of consumer behavior available at
    small-level geography is the definition of _____.
  • ______ and _____ deal with movement of goods and
    people from one place to another and
    infrastructure that moves them.
  • Urban sprawl is a common application in this area
    of GIS.
  • Sibuyan is a desert in northern Africa. (T/F)
  • What traditional fields helped define GIS?

Remainder of Class
  • Break
  • Lab
  • ESRI Products page
  • Google Earth
  • ESRI Chapter 3

ESRI Products Overview
  • Briefly describe the difference in
    functionalities between ArcExplorer, ArcReader,
    and ArcView.
  • List the software names that can be downloaded
    for free.