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High Intensity Residential Fires Amendments to the Alberta Safety Codes

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Photo courtesy City of Calgary. 4. Erlton Fire. Photo courtesy The Calgary Herald. Multi-family Building Under Construction. 5. Fort McMurray Fire ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: High Intensity Residential Fires Amendments to the Alberta Safety Codes


1
High Intensity Residential FiresAmendments to
the Alberta Safety Codes
  • Presenter Building Safety Codes Officer
  • Presented in Parternship with


2
Background
  • Numerous high-intensity residential fires across
    province
  • Calgary Riverbend 1996
  • Calgary Erlton 2002
  • Fort McMurray 2007
  • Edmonton MacEwan 2007

3
Riverbend Fire
Photo courtesy City of Calgary
3
4
Erlton Fire
Multi-family Building Under Construction
Photo courtesy The Calgary Herald
4
5
Fort McMurray Fire
  • Portions of the burning roof fall to the ground
    and ignite various portions of the exterior wall
    at the ground level

Photo courtesy City of Calgary
5
6
MacEwan Fire
Multi-family Building Under Construction
Photo courtesy The Edmonton Sun
6
7
Background
  • Working group led by AEMA formed
  • Research and recommend ways to reduce occurrence
    and severity of HIRFs
  • Prepared High-Intensity Residential Fires
    Working Group Final Report
  • Report contained 22 recommendations
  • Amendments to ABC and AFC recommended
  • Some based on NRC changes
  • Some province-specific

8
Definition - HIRF
  • High-Intensity Residential Fires (HIRFs)
  • Fires involving rapid heat release and fire
    spread beyond the point of origin that usually
    involve adjacent buildings.
  • These fires also typically include the early
    exposure of large amounts of combustible
    materials.

8
9
Definition - HIRF
  • High-Intensity Residential Fires (HIRFs)
  • Can occur in any of the following groupings
  • Occupied residential buildings
  • Unoccupied residential buildings that are under
    construction
  • A mix of occupied and under-construction
    residential buildings

9
10
Overview Building Code
  • Clearer definition of 10 minute response time.
  • Sizes of windows and unprotected openings.
  • Construction requirements for projections and
    soffits close to property lines.
  • Allowable siding materials and protection of
    combustible siding.
  • Additional sprinklering requirements for
    concealed spaces and balconies.
  • Protection of unsprinklered balconies.
  • Protection and insulation of attached garages.

11
Overview Fire Code
  • Large number of editorial changes.
  • Moving, renumbering and rewording.
  • Protection of adjacent structures to construction
    sites.
  • More emphasis placed on production of fire safety
    plan.
  • Standpipe systems during construction.
  • Site and equipment access requirements.
  • Hot works scope expanded.

11
12
Fire Department Response
  • 10 minutes response time from initiation of alarm
    at the fire department
  • Not a new requirement in place since 1981
  • Response time must be lt 10 min. in 90 of all
    calls
  • Areas inside 10 min. established by local fire
    department not a site-specific calculation
  • Outside 10 min. area ? assume LD half of actual
    LD for determining construction

13
Size of Windows non-houses
  • 3.2.3.1.(5), (6) and (7)
  • 9.10.14.4.(3), (4) and (5)
  • Doesnt apply to sprinklered buildings
  • LD lt 2 m ? area of individual unprotected
    openings restricted according to table

13
14
Size of Windows houses
  • 9.10.15.4.(3), (4) and (5)
  • Doesnt apply to sprinklered buildings
  • Max. size of glazed openings found fromTable
    9.10.15.4.
  • LD lt 2 m ? area of individual glazed openings not
    to exceed 50 of max. found from Table 9.10.15.4.
  • LD gt 2 m ? above restrictions on individual
    glazed openings removed

14
15
Separation of Glazed Openings
  • Individual UOs to be separated by 2 m
    horizontally and vertically.
  • Relates to same fire compartment.
  • Full-height wall extending 1.5 m into room will
    be considered to create separate fire
    compartments.

15
16
Separation of Glazed Openings
16
17
Separation of Glazed Openings
17
18
Soffit Construction
  • 3.2.3.6.(3), (4) and (5)
  • 9.10.14.5.(5), (6) and (7)
  • 9.10.15.5.(8), (9) and (10)
  • No soffits at LD 0.45m
  • LD gt 0.45m, soffits allowed to project no closer
    than 0.45m
  • Unvented and protected soffits between 0.45m and
    1.2m to property line

Photo courtesy City of Calgary
19
Soffit Construction
  • Pictures show progression of fire up the side of
    the wall and into the roof space via the soffits.

Photo courtesy City of Calgary
19
20
Soffit Construction
  • Protected Soffits
  • Minimum 0.38 mm thick sheet steel conforming to
    CAN/CGSB-93.4
  • Unvented aluminum conforming to CAN/CGSB-93.2-M
  • Minimum 12.7 mm gypsum board
  • Minimum 11 mm thick plywood
  • Minimum 12.5 mm thick OSB
  • Minimum 11 mm thick lumber

21
Soffit Construction
22
Combustible Projections
  • 9.10.15.5.(7)
  • Limitations on combustible projections within
    1.2m
  • Applies to totally enclosed projections
  • Face constructed as if LD lt 1.2m
  • Sides constructed same as face, no openings
    permitted in side
  • Bottom higher than 0.6m protected same as
    protected soffits
  • Projections that include habitable space (e.g.
    china cabinets, benches, bay windows, etc.) would
    still be governed by 9.10.15.2.(4)

23
Combustible Projections
24
Combustible Projections
24
25
Cladding non-houses
  • 3.2.3.7.(3) and (4)
  • 9.10.14.5.(2) and (3)
  • Reorganised into Table format
  • Added new line for 25-50 U.O.
  • Exception to NC cladding for U.O. gt 10
  • Test entire wall assembly to ULC S134
  • Exception to NC cladding for U.O. gt 25 but lt 50
  • LD gt 5m
  • Sprinklered OR install cladding over
    exterior-grade gypsum sheathing

26
Cladding - houses
  • 9.10.15.5.(2) and (3)
  • At LD lt 0.6m, 45 min FRR plus
  • Cladding must be noncombustible or vinyl siding
    installed over exterior-grade gypsum sheathing or
    masonry (wood not permitted)
  • OR
  • Wall assembly must be tested to ULC S134
  • At LD gt 0.6m and lt 1.2m, 45 min FRR plus
  • Cladding can be noncombustible or combustible
    installed over exterior-grade gypsum sheathing or
    masonry (vinyl or other combustible cladding-wood
    permitted)
  • OR
  • Wall assembly must be tested to ULC S134

27
Cladding
28
Automatic Sprinkler Systems
  • Fire spread through the roof space to involve the
    whole of the building. Debris (wood siding and
    railings) from roof and wall fell to ground to
    ignite lower portions of the exterior walls

Lakeview CondominiumsCalgary, July 2007
Photo courtesy City of Calgary
29
Automatic Sprinkler Systems
  • 3.2.5.13. Automatic Sprinkler Systems
  • NFPA 13R applies to residential, 4 stories or
    less
  • Contains exceptions for sprinklering in certain
    areas
  • New (10) removed exceptions to sprinkler
    protection from NFPA 13R
  • Porches and balconies
  • Public corridors
  • Attics and floor/ceiling spaces
  • Crawl spaces
  • Storage rooms on exterior balconies
  • Other concealed spaces

30
Automatic Sprinkler Systems
  • 3.2.5.13. Automatic Sprinkler Systems
  • New (11) allowance to not sprinkler concealed
    spaces defined in NFPA 13
  • Dimensional lumber with floor and ceiling
    directly applied
  • I-joists with floor and ceiling directly applied
    and divided into compartments

31
Unsprinklered Balconies
  • 9.10.12.5. Protection of Balconies
  • New (1) applies to multi-storey, multi-family,
    un-sprinklered buildings with dwelling units
    located whole or in part above another dwelling
    unit
  • New (2) description of acceptable protection
    methods (non combustible cladding or combustible
    cladding over drywall/masonry)
  • New (3) protect walls for full width and depth
    1.2m on either side
  • New (4) protect ceiling and roof assemblies
    above balcony

32
Unsprinklered Balconies
  • Fire began on an upper balcony

Lakeview CondominiumsCalgary, July 2007
Photo courtesy City of Calgary
33
Unsprinklered Balconies
34
Unsprinklered Balconies
35
Attached Garages
  • 9.35.4.1. Interior Finish
  • New (2) walls and ceilings of attached garage
    needs interior finish
  • ½ taped and mudded drywall
  • Lath and plaster
  • Any other material that prevents passage of flame
    for 15 min when tested to ULC S101
  • 9.35.4.4. Thermal Insulation
  • New (1) walls and ceilings of attached garage
    need insulation and vapour barrier

36
Protection of Adjacent Structures
  • 5.6.1.1. Application expanded
  • applies to buildings, parts of buildings,
    facilities, adjacent buildings or facilities and
    associated areas
  • 5.6.1.2. Protection of Adjacent Buildings
  • Protection of exposed adjacent buildings or
    facilities from any fire originating from
    construction, alteration or demolition operations

36
37
Fire Safety Plans
  • 5.6.1.3. Fire Safety Plan
  • Plans to be prepared in cooperation with local
    Fire Service.
  • Prior to starting work, fire safety plan shall be
    prepared and shall include
  • Designation of site personnel for fire safety
    duties.
  • Emergency procedures in the event of a fire.
  • Measures for controlling fire hazards in and
    around the building.
  • Maintenance procedures to ensure above measures
    are adhered to.

37
38
Access for Firefighting
  • 5.6.1.4. Access for Firefighting
  • Unobstructed access to all fire protection
    equipment
  • Means provided to enable firefighting on all
    building levels
  • Use of building elevators, hoists, lifts to
    assist in above
  • Maintaining access routes for F/D vehicles
  • F/D access if site is fenced

38
39
Standpipe Systems
  • 5.6.1.6. Standpipe Systems
  • Installed progressively in areas permitted to be
    occupied buildings
  • Not occupied
  • Permanent or temporary standpipe system permitted
  • Conspicuously marked and accessible F/D
    connections
  • Appropriate pipe, valve size and water supply
  • Standpipe and F/D hose valves in specific
    locations
  • Useable until permanent system installed

39
40
Hot works
  • 5.6.1.7.
  • Bitumen kettles can not be placed on roofs
  • Must be maintained free of excessive residue.

40
41
QUESTIONS?
  • Presented By
  • Presenter Building Safety Codes Officer
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