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THE ISSUES AT HAND: RISING POPULATIONS URBANIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

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THE ISSUES AT HAND: RISING POPULATIONS. URBANIZATION. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS. DEMOGRAPHY ... INTERESTED IN CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF GROWTH ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE ISSUES AT HAND: RISING POPULATIONS URBANIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS


1
THE ISSUES AT HANDRISING POPULATIONSURBANIZATIO
NENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS
2
DEMOGRAPHYTHE STUDY OF HUMAN POPULATION
  • FROM 200,000 YEARS B.C. UNTIL SEVERAL CENTURIES
    AGO, THE HUMAN POPULATION GREW TO 500 MILLION
  • THE WORLD POPULATION IN 1995
  • PASSED 6 BILLION PERSONS
  • 77 MILLION PERSONS ANNUALLY
  • DEMOGRAPHY
  • INTERESTED IN CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF GROWTH
  • LETS EXAMINE SOME OF THE DISCIPLINES MORE BASIC
    CONCEPTS

3
FERTILITY
  • FERTILITY IS THE INCIDENCE OF CHILDBEARING IN A
    SOCIETYS POPULATION
  • FECUNDITY IS THE POTENTIAL FOR CHILDBEARING
  • CRUDE BIRTH RATE
  • THE NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS IN A GIVEN YEAR FOR
    EVERY THOUSAND PEOPLE IN A POPULATION
  • CRUDE BECAUSE IT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT EVERYBODY,
    NOT JUST WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE

4
MORTALITYTHE INCIDENCE OF DEATH IN A POPULATION
  • CRUDE DEATH RATE
  • NUMBER OF DEATHS IN A YEAR FOR EVERY 1,000
    PERSONS, TIMES 1,000
  • INFANT MORTALITY RATES
  • NUMBER OF DEATHS AMONG INFANTS UNDER ONE YEAR FOR
    EACH 1,000 LIVE BIRTHS
  • LIFE EXPECTANCY
  • AVERAGE LIFE SPAN FOR MALES AND FEMALES (1998 74
    FOR MALES, 79 FOR FEMALES)

5
THE MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE IN AND OUT OF A SPECIFIED
TERRITORY
  • VOLUNTARY MIGRATION
  • USUALLY DUE TO ECONOMIC PUSH AND PULL FACTORS
  • INVOLUNTARY MIGRATION
  • FORCED MIGRATION DUE TO WAR OR OTHER SOCIAL
    CONFLICT
  • IMMIGRATION
  • MOVEMENT INTO A TERRITORY
  • EMIGRATION
  • MOVEMENT OUT OF A TERRITORY
  • RATES
  • IN-MIGRATION RATE
  • THE NUMBER ENTERING FOR EVERY 1,000 PEOPLE
  • OUT MIGRATION RATE
  • NUMBER LEAVING FOR EVERY 1,000 PEOPLE IN THE
    TERRITORY
  • NET-MIGRATION RATE
  • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IN- AND OUT-MIGRATION NUMBERS

6
POPULATION COMPOSITION
  • SEX RATIO
  • NUMBER OF MALES COMPARED TO NUMBER OF FEMALES
  • IN THE UNITED STATES
  • THERE WERE APPROXIMATELY 96 MALES TO 100 FEMALES
    BECAUSE WOMEN USUALLY OUTLIVE MEN
  • IN INDIA
  • THERE WERE APPROXIMATELY 107 MALES FOR EVERY 100
    FEMALES
  • WOMEN WERE MORE LIKELY TO ABORT FEMALE FETUSES
  • AFTER BIRTH, PARENT MAY PROVIDE LESS CARE FOR
    FEMALE CHILDREN

DONT TRY TO CONVINCE ME THAT A PERSONS SEX
DOESNT MATTER!
7
MALTHUSIAN THEORY
  • MALTHUSIAN THEORY
  • THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS (1766-1834), WARNED OF
    IMPENDING DOOM BASED ON POPULATION PROJECTIONS
  • POPULATION GROWTH WOULD APPROXIMATE GEOMETRIC
    PROGRESSION (E.G., 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, AND SO ON)
  • FOOD PRODUCTION WOULD INCREASE ONLY IN ARITHMETIC
    PROGRESSION (E.G., 2, 4, 6, 8, AND SO ON)
  • RESULT PEOPLE REPRODUCING AT RATES THAT
    EXCEEDED THEIR ABILITY TO PRODUCE SUFFICIENT FOOD
  • IT DIDNT HAPPEN, BUT COULD IT?

8
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORYLINKING POPULATION
PATTERNS TO A SOCIETYS LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL
DEVELOPMENT
  • STAGE ONE (PREINDUSTRIAL)
  • HIGH BIRTH RATES DUE TO ECONOMIC VALUE OF
    CHILDREN AND LACK OF BIRTH CONTROL
  • STAGE TWO (EARLY INDUSTRIAL)
  • HIGH BIRTH RATE AND LOWERED DEATH RATE GIVE BOOST
    TO POPULATION GROWTH (MANY OF THE DEVELOPING
    NATIONS TODAY MIRROR THIS STAGE)
  • STAGE THREE (MATURE INDUSTRIAL)
  • BIRTH RATES BEGIN TO MASK DEATH RATES AS
    POPULATION SURGE DROPS AS AFFLUENCE TRANSFORMS
    CHILDREN INTO ECONOMIC LIABILITY
  • STAGE FOUR (POSTINDUSTRIAL)
  • ECONOMIC REALITIES FORCE DROP IN BIRTH RATES TO
    THE POINT WHERE GROWTH IS STAGNANT OR VERY SLOW

9
DEPENDS UPON WHICH SIDE OF THE EQUATOR ONE IS
DISCUSSING
  • THE LOW-GROWTH NORTH
  • ZERO POPULATION GROWTH
  • A LEVEL OF REPRODUCTION THAT MAINTAINS POPULATION
    AT A STEADY STATE
  • POSTINDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES
  • HAVE SHOWN SLOW DOWNS IN BIRTH RATES
  • UNDERPOPULATION MAY BE A PROBLEM!
  • THE HIGH-GROWTH SOUTH
  • POPULATION GROWTH IS A CRITICAL PROBLEM IN
    SEVERAL POOR COUNTRIES
  • WHILE BIRTH RATES HAVE FALLEN (SIX TO FOUR
    CHILDREN PER WOMAN), 180 NATIONS ARE IN TROUBLE
    OF OVERPOPULATION
  • IN SHORT,
  • FOR THE WORLD, FERTILITY IS DROPPING, BUT SO IS
    MORTALITY AMONG CHILDREN
  • CHALLENGE IS TO CONTROL BIRTH RATES IN POOR
    COUNTRIES AS WE DID DEATH IN THE PAST

10
A 0 indicates that the city did not fit in
1980, or it fell out in projecting year 2000
11
GROWTH IN U.S. CITIES
  • COLONIAL SETTLEMENT (1624-1800)
  • CAPITALISMS IMPACT UPON SMALL VILLAGES ENSURED
    TRANSFORMATION
  • URBAN EXPANSION (1800-1860)
  • TOWNS RISE UP ALONG TRANSPORTAT ROUTES
  • THE GREAT METROPOLIS (1860-1950)
  • FACTORY GROWTH) USHERED IN GROWTH
  • ONE-FIFTH OF THE POPULATION LIVED IN CITIES
  • URBAN DECENTRALIZATION (1950- TO PRESENT)
  • MOVEMENT TOWARDS OUTLYING SUBURBS

12
  • METROPOLIS AND CENTRALIZATION
  • A LARGE CITY THAT DOMINATES THE AREA
  • THE SUBURBS AND DECENTRALIZATION
  • URBAN AREAS BEYOND THE POLITICAL BOUNDARIES OF A
    CITY
  • URBAN RENEWAL EFFORTS HAVE GONE ON IN ATTEMPTS TO
    REVITALIZE CENTRAL CITIES
  • MEGALOPOLIS
  • A VAST URBAN AREA CONTAINING A NUMBER OF CITIES
    AND THEIR SURROUNDING SUBURBS SUPERCITIES

13
LIFE IN THE BIG CITY
  • URBAN LIFE CAN BE CHALLENGING AND VERY DIFFERENT
    FROM EARLY RURAL SETTINGS
  • FERDINAND TONNIES
  • GEMEINSCHAFT AND GESELLSCHAFT
  • EMILE DURKHEIM
  • MECHANICAL TO ORGANIC SOLIDARITY
  • GEORG SIMMEL
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BLASÉ ATTITUDE
  • ROBERT PARK AND LOUIS WIRTH
  • URBAN ORGANIZATION BASED ON DISTINCTIVE ETHNIC
    COMMUNITIES, COMERICAL CENTERS, AND INDUSTRIAL
    DISTRICTS

14
JUNK FOOD IN JUNK FOOD OUT
15
ECOLOGYREFERS TO THE STUDY OF THE INTERACTION OF
LIVING ORGANISMS AND THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
  • THE CULTURAL PATTERNS OF RICH SOCIETIES
  • HAVE EVOLVED IN A WAY THAT ENDANGERS THE PLANET
    AND ALL LIFE ON IT
  • ECOSYSTEMS
  • THE INTERDEPENDENCE AND INTERACTION BETWEEN
    LIVING ORGANISMS AND THEIR NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS

THE CONNECTION BETWEEN HUMAN LIFE AND
THE ENVIRONMENT CANNOT BE DENIED
16
The Natural Environment
  • REFERS TO THE EARTHS SURFACE AND ATMOSPHERE,
    INCLUDING VARIOUS LIVING ORGANISMS, AS WELL AS
    THE AIR, WATER, SOIL, AND OTHER RESOURCES
    NECESSARY TO SUSTAIN LIFE

17
REASONS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEFICIT
  • TECHNOLOGY
  • INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES AND THE REQUIREMENT TO
    BURN FOSSIL FUELS WREAK HAVOC ON THE ENVIRONMENT
  • HUMANS ALSO DAMAGED THE ENVIRONMENT MORE DIRECTLY
  • TUNNELING, WATER MANAGEMENT, MINING, OIL
    DRILLING, AND SO ON
  • POPULATION GROWTH
  • FEAR OF OVERWHELMING NATURAL RESOURCES
  • POVERTY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES RESULTS IN
    OVER-USE OF LAND, AS IN SLASH AND BURN
    HORTICULTURE DEFORESTATION
  • CULTURAL PATTERNS
  • EMPHASIS ON MATERIAL COMFORT AND MARKETING
    STRATEGIES
  • MODIFICATION OF NATURE THROUGH SCIENCE AND
    TECHNOLOGY
  • RESPONSE
  • LIMITS TO GROWTH THESIS
  • WITHOUT CHANGE, WE ARE CONSUMING THE EARTHS
    FINITE RESOURCES LIKE OIL, NATURAL GAS, AND OTHER
    ENERGY SOURCES

18
10HIGH 0 LOW
BASED UPON COMPUTER PROJECTIONS OF THE LIMITS TO
GROWTH MODEL
19
ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL DEFICIT
  • PROFOUND AND NEGATIVE LONG-TERM HARM CAUSED BY
    HUMANITYS FOCUS ON SHORT-TERM MATERIAL AFFLUENCE
  • IMPORTANT FOR THREE REASONS
  • THE ENVIRONMENT IS A SOCIAL ISSUE
  • IT SUGGESTS THAT DAMAGE DONE IS UNINTENDED
  • SUCH A DEFICIT IS REVERSIBLE

20
CULTURAL PATTERNS
  • THE LOGIC OF GROWTH
  • AN OPTIMISTIC VIEW OF THE WORLD
  • FIRST, DIVISE MORE PRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, AND
  • SECOND, CONTINUE TO DO SO INTO THE FUTURE
  • KEY POINT PEOPLE ARE INNOVATIVE AND CLEVER AND
    WILL CONTINUE TO SEEK OUT WAYS TO IMPROVE THE
    QUALITY OF THEIR LIVES
  • LIMITS TO GROWTH
  • WE MUST IMPLEMENT POLICIES
  • CONTROL GROWTH OF POPULATION
  • CONTROL GROWTH OF PRODUCTION
  • USE RESOURCES IN A SMART WAY AS TO AVOID COLLAPSE

LOOK WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO TELL YOU GUYS! WE
EVEN KNOW THERE ARE LIMITS!
21
IS OUR PERCEPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL DANGERS A
REALITY?
  • SOLID WASTE DUMPING
  • PLENTIFUL AND CLEAN WATER
  • CLEAN AIR
  • ACID RAIN
  • THE RAIN FORESTS
  • GLOBAL WARMING

HERES OUR LAUNDRY LIST OF IMPORTANT ITEMS.
22
SOLID WASTE
MOM IS GOING TO BE SO PROUD OF ME. IM
HELPING TO REUSE RESOURCES!
  • IN THE U.S.A., A BILLION POUNDS OF SOLID WASTE IS
    PRODUCED EACH DAY
  • THE DISPOSABLE SOCIETY
  • FAST FOOD
  • THINK OF WORDS WE USE TO DESCRIBE WHAT WE THROW
    AWAY
  • IMPRESSION IS THAT WE SHOULDNT CARE ABOUT IT,
    ITS JUST RUBBISH
  • REUSE RESOURCES

23
  • THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
  • SEA WATER, HEAT, RAIN, AND BACK TO THE SEA
  • IRRIGATION USES WO-THIRDS OF ALL WATER USAGE
  • 500 MILLION POUNDS OF TOXIC WASTE IS ABSORBED BY
    OUR WATER SUPPLY EACH YEAR
  • LANDFILL AND DUMP SITES THREATEN DRINKING WATER

24
  • PRIMARY CAUSES OF SMOG (SMOKE/FOG)
  • FACTORIES AND MOTOR VEHICLES
  • IMPROVEMENTS
  • MANDATED LOW-POLLUTION FUEL USAGE
  • NEW TECHNOLOGIES REDUCE EMISSIONS
  • UNLEADED GASOLINE
  • DEVELOPING NATIONS NOW BEGINNING TO EXPERIENCE
    POOR AIR QUALITY
  • RELIANCE ON WOOD AND COAL FOR FIRE
  • LESS RESTRICTIVE LAWS DUE TO NEED TO ATTRACT NEW
    INDUSTRIES

25
ACID RAIN
TREES ARE A VERY IMPORTANT PART OF THE
ECOSYSTEM AND ARE IMPACTED BY ACID RAIN!
  • ACIDIC PRECIPITATION THAT DESTROYS PLANT AND
    ANIMAL LIFE
  • OIL AND COAL BURNING
  • AIR POLLUTION ENDS UP CONTAMINATING THE WATER
    SYSTEMS
  • AT HOME, WESTERN STATES HAVE POLLUTED EASTERN
    STATES VIA ACID RAIN

26
RAIN FORESTSREGIONS OF DENSE FORESTATION, MOST
OF WHICH CIRCLES THE GLOBE CLOSE TO THE EQUATOR
  • 2 BILLION ACRES THAT COVER 7 OF THE EARTHS
    SURFACE
  • IF DEFORESTATION PRACTICES DO NOT CHANGE, THE
    RAINFOREST IS PREDICTED TO BE A THING OF THE PAST
    BY THE END OF THE 21ST CENTURY
  • GLOBAL WARMING IS JUST ONE OF THE CONSEQUENCES

27
WHEN RAIN FORESTS FAIL TO REMOVE SUFFICIENT
AMOUNTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE
  • CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS ARE INCREASING, WHILE
    THE AMOUNT OF PLANT LIFE IS DECREASING
  • BURNING OF RAIN FORESTS ADDS EVEN MORE CARBON
    DIOXIDE INTO THE AIR
  • GREENHOUSE EFFECT
  • A RISE IN THE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE ON EARTH FROM
    THE CURRENT MEAN OF 58 DEGREES
  • THE PLANET COULD WARM BY FIVE TO TEN DEGREES
    RESULTING IN
  • POLAR ICE CAPS WOULD BEGIN MELTING
  • FLOODING OF MANY COUNTRIES WOULD TAKE PLACE
  • NOT ALL AGREE WITH THIS THEORY, BELIEVING THAT
    NATURE WILL SELF-CORRECT

28
ENVIRONMENTAL RACISM
  • THE PATTERN BY WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS ARE
    GREATEST IN PROXIMITY TO POOR PEOPLE
  • WHY?
  • NOT MY NEIGHBORHOOD
  • POOR ARE DRAWN TO FACTORIES FOR WORK
  • ONCE HIRED, INCOMES ARE LOW
  • OFTEN LOW COST HOUSING IS NEXT TO FACTORIES

POOR PEOPLE OFTEN HAVE NO CHOICE BUT TO LIVE NEXT
TO FACTORIES
29
SUSTAINING THE ECOSYSTEMS
THE GOOD NEWS IS WE ARE NOT TOO LATE. THERES
HOPE!
  • THE HOPE LIES IN THREE AREAS
  • NEW TECHNOLOGIES
  • ALTERNATIVE FUEL SOURCES
  • REDUCE WASTEFUL TENDENCIES
  • USE LESS AND RECYCLE EVERYTHING
  • CURB WORLD POPULATION GROWTH
  • MUST HOLD THE LINE AT 7 BILLION PEOPLE
  • START TO EVALUATE SHORT-TERM SOCIAL NEEDS FROM A
    LONG-TERM CONSEQUENCE PERSPECTIVE
  • ALL FORMS OF LIFE ARE DEPENDENT UPON THE ACTIONS
    OF HUMAN BEINGS
  • NEED FOR GLOBAL COOPERATION
  • KEEP PRESSURE UP ON CHANGING GLOBAL ATTITUDES

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