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Domestic Concerns (1950-1980) APUSH Ms. Weston 4/5/06 Roots

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Domestic Concerns (1950-1980) APUSH Ms. Weston 4/5/06 Roots of the Civil Rights Movement WWII Frustrations of blacks during war Double Victory campaign and increased ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Domestic Concerns (1950-1980) APUSH Ms. Weston 4/5/06 Roots


1
Domestic Concerns (1950-1980)
  • APUSH
  • Ms. Weston
  • 4/5/06

2
Roots of the Civil Rights Movement
  • WWII
  • Frustrations of blacks during war
  • Double Victory campaign and increased activism
    (Ex. A. Philip Randolph Washington March)
  • Some post-war victories for blacks in North
  • End of public segregation
  • Jackie Robinson in Major leagues
  • Gunner Myrdal An American Dilemma increased
    awareness of problem of racism
  • --Truman ends segregation in federal civil
    service and military

3
Key Victories of the Civil Rights Movement
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • Chief Justice Earl Warren and Supreme Court ruled
    that segregation in schools was unequal and
    therefore unconstitutional
  • Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Massive Resistance in Deep South (Ex. Little
    Rocks Central High SchoolEisenhower sends
    National Guard)
  • 1957 Congress passed first Civil Rights Act since
    Reconstruction

4
Eisenhowers Domestic Policy
  • Main goal To make government small, combat
    socialism here in US (Ex. considered free vaccine
    socialized medicine)
  • Operation Wetback Eisenhower forced many
    undocumented Mexicans out of USsupposedly to
    save bracero program
  • Attacked Indian New Deal
  • Did increase government spending with Interstate
    Highway Act

5
Intellectual Developments
  • Fiction Hemmingway, more surrealist works from
    Joseph Heller and Kurt Vonnegut
  • Poetry Critical of American lifeSylvia Plath
    and Anne Sexton
  • Playwrights Dealt with social issuesTennessee
    Williams and Arthur Miller
  • Black writers Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison,
    James Baldwin
  • Beat Movement (1950s)Jack Kerouac, Allen
    Ginsberg criticized materialism and conformity of
    50s culture

6
Kennedy and the New Frontier
  • Glamour of Kennedy
  • Very qualified cabinetRFK and McNamara
  • New Frontier Inspiring people to do for America
    and the world (Ex. Peace Corps)
  • Difficulties getting his medical and educational
    bills passed
  • Tax cuts
  • Much government money into space program!

7
Civil Rights Under Kennedy
  • Reluctant to get involved
  • Took awhile to give government aid to Freedom
    Riders
  • Developed relationship with MLKalthough FBI was
    tapping his phone
  • Used federal troops to help integrate Ole Miss
  • Before he died, called for passage of Civil
    Rights Bill

8
JFKs Assasination
  • Nov. 22, 1963, Dallas
  • Alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, shot to
    death by Jack Ruby
  • Warren Commission still couldnt figure out
    exactly what happened
  • Shocked and saddened nation
  • Inspirational figure more for promise and image
    (Camelot) than for what he really accomplished

9
LBJ takes over
  • Senator from Texas
  • Supported New Deal programs, wanted to expand
    them
  • Passes Civil Rights Act of 1964banned
    discrimination in public facilities, strengthened
    government power to end segregation in schools,
    created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,
    provision for gender equality.

10
Johnsons Great Society
  • Saw as a War on Poverty
  • Economic and welfare measures inspired by New
    Deal
  • Flood of legislation after LBJs victory in 1964

11
Great Society Reforms
  • Expanded Office of Economic Opportunity
  • Created Dept. of Transportation and Dept. of
    Housing and Urban Dev., National Endowment for
    Arts
  • Aid to educationfederal money to students, Head
    Start program
  • Medical care for elderlyMedicare and Medicaid
  • Immigration reform1965 law abolished quota
    system, provisions for family unification

12
Voting Rights Act (1965)
  • 24th Amendment had abolished poll tax
  • Johnson passes this through after brutal attacks
    against civil rights workers and Selma campaign
  • Political victory for blacks
  • Now had political power
  • Whites began to court black vote
  • Did nothing to deal with economic conditions of
    African Americans

13
The Shift to Black Power
  • Increased focus on economic racism
  • Watts Riots (1965)highlights segregation,
    poverty and police brutality in ghetto
  • Increased focus on economic racism
  • Rise of militant black leaders
  • Goal is separatism, not integration

14
Malcolm X
  • Symbolizes radical shift in the movement
  • Leader in the Nation of Islam
  • Radical message of black separatism
  • Willingness to use violence against violent
    whites
  • Focused on structural racism
  • At end of his life, did move to more inter-racial
    cooperation
  • Killed in 1965

15
Black Panther Party
  • Founded in Oakland, CA
  • Inspired by Stokely Carmichaels call for Black
    Power
  • Original focus was police brutality in community
  • Became a political/social organizationdevoted to
    empowering blacks, also giving community
    important servicesbreakfast programs
  • Targeted by FBI, COINTELPRO

16
Racial Violence
  • Series of uprisings in 1967showed discontent and
    frustrations of African-Americans
  • Whites reacted with more fear and withdrawal
  • 1968 Martin Luther King assassinated
  • Violence and rioting again in inner city

17
Legacies of Civil Rights Movement
  • Many more voters and black government officials
  • School integration
  • More blacks in middle class
  • Still much room for improvement
  • No more de jure segregation, but de facto
    persists!

18
The Chicano Movement
  • Desegregation of schools
  • Mendez v. Westminster (1946)
  • Cesar Chavez and foundation of UFW
  • Adoption of term Chicano
  • Fight for ethnic studies and Chicano studies at
    universities
  • Brown Berets
  • 1968 Walkouts to protest biased curriculum and
    tracking
  • 1970 Chicano Moratorium against Vietnam

19
Other Movements
  • Native American Movement
  • 1968 Founded American Indian Movement (AIM)
  • 1969 Occupied Alcatraz to unify Native Americans,
    voice discontent
  • 1973 Occupied Wounded Knee
  • Some victories more control over reservation
    schools, some land
  • Asian American Movement
  • LGBT Movement

20
Protest and Counterculture in the 1960s
  • Rooted in 3Ps Youthful population, protest, and
    prosperity
  • Negative attitude towards authority
  • Free Speech MovementUC Berkeley, led by Mario
    Savio
  • Counterculture Challenge to conformity of 50s
  • Drugs, acid rock, communes, hippies
  • Sexual Revolution Birth control, gay rights
  • Declined by 1970s

21
Economic Decline in 1970s
  • Women and teenage workers brought down wages
  • New government health and safety regulations
    expensive
  • Shift from manufacturing to service sector
  • Inflation Vietnam War, rising oil prices, LBJs
    spending on Great Society and military build-up

22
Judicial Activism of the Warren Court
  • From 1953, Earl Warren led court in decisions
    affecting sexual freedom, civil rights and
    political representation.
  • All reflected deep concern for individual
  • Ensured right to privacy, right to legal
    counsel, right to remain silent (Miranda rights),
    no prayer in public schools
  • Nixon tried to install conservative judges,
    largely fails.

23
Nixons Domestic Policy
  • Expanded some welfare programs Food Stamps,
    Medicaid, AFDC
  • Encouraged integration of industry through quotas
  • Development of affirmative action for groups
    Admit or hire women and minorities in proportion
    to presence in pop.
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and
    Occupational Health and Safety Administration
    (OSHA)
  • Progress with environment because of Rachel
    Carson's Silent Spring

24
The Watergate Scandal
  • Begins with break-in to Democratic party
    headquarters in 1972.
  • Men responsible worked for CREEP Committee to
    re-elect Nixon
  • Made worse when V.P. Spiro Agnew resigned for
    taking bribesreplaced with Gerald Ford.

25
The Scandal Worsens
  • Nixon denied any prior knowledge of break-ins
  • Became evident Nixon was covering up
  • Senate Committee investigating asked Nixon to
    turn over tapes from White House, Nixon refused
  • Saturday Night Massacre Nixon fires prosecutor
    involved in investigating
  • Nixon starting to look more suspicious

26
The End of Nixon
  • Finally handed over tapes in 1974
  • Showed Nixon had obstructed the investigation of
    the Watergate Scandal and that he had been
    involved in the cover-up
  • Senate began plans to impeach Nixon
  • August 8, 1974 NIXON RESIGNS
  • First president ever or since to resign
  • Shows power of impeachment, President must be
    held to the law

27
Ford The Unelected President
  • Took over in 1974
  • Public had no faith in him
  • Granted total pardon to Nixon Democrats
    outraged!
  • Signed Helsinki Accords Toward détente, but many
    argued Soviets not doing enough

28
Feminism in 60s and 70s
  • Second-wave feminism In 1960s, much more
    activist, focused on equal rights
  • NOW National Organization for Women
  • Some victories in 1970s
  • 1972 Title IX Prohibits sex discrimination in
    any federally assisted educational program or
    activity
  • Helped female athletics
  • Roe v. Wade Legalization of abortion

29
Feminist Defeats
  • Nixon vetoed nationwide public day care
  • Rise of antifeminists
  • Equal Rights Amendment defeated in 1982
  • Had been passed by Congress
  • Not ratified by enough states

30
Racial Controversies in 1970s
  • End to school busing
  • Attacks on affirmative action
  • Regents of University of California v. Bakke
  • Preference in admission may not be granted on
    basis of ethnic or racial identity alone
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