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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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Title: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


1
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland
2
Part One A Brief Introduction
  • I. The Effects of its Imperial Role
  • the fifty or more countries through a loose and
    voluntary organization called the Commonwealth of
    Nations

3
  • Multiracial population 1 in 20 are of
    non-European ethnicity ( India, Parkistan, the
    Caribbean)
  • II. Differences that divide the United Kingdom

4
  • the distinction between the 4 constituent parts
    England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland
  • Religious differences
  • Economically divided a society with a class
    structure

5
  • Regional differences the highland and
    lowland Scots cultural distinction between
    north and south England ( the south is more
    wealthy)
  • The difference between the capital and the
    provinces ( the role of London)

6
  • III. The UK has been a member of the EU since
    1973, and it is a member of the Group of Seven
    (the United States, Britain, Germany, France,
    Japan, Italy and Canada)

7
  • IV. Basic facts about England
  • 1. Cultural and economic dominance of England
    largest in size, the largest population

8
  • 2. British history has been a history of
    invasions
  • 1) Before the 1st century AD British was made up
    of many tribal kingdoms of Celtic people

9
  • 2) In 43 AD British was invaded by the Roman
    Empire, and became part of the Roman Empire for
    nearly 400 years

10
  • 3) Then it came under threat from Germanic
    peoples --- the Angles, and the Saxon king
    Arthur and his Excalibur roundtable knights

11
  • 4) From the late 8th century on, raiders from
    Scandinavia, the ferocious Vikings threatened
    Britains shores King Alfred the great turned in
    the tide in the south against the Vikings

12
  • 5)The next invaders were the Normans, from
    northern France, who were descendants of
    VikingsWilliam the Conqueror in 1066 crossed the
    English Channel, and became William the First of
    england the Tower of London

13
  • 3. The next few hundred years following the
    Norman invasion can be seen as a process of
    joining together the various parts of the British
    Isles under English rule. At the same time power
    was gradually transferred from the monarch to the
    parliament.

14
  • 1) Charles the Firsts attempt to overrule
    parliament in the 1640s led to a civil war in
    which parliamentary forces were victorious, and
    the king was executed in 1649.

15
  • 2) England was ruled by parliaments leader,
    Oliver Cromwell for 11 years, and then the
    monarchy was restored.

16
  • 3) Further conflict between parliament and the
    king led to the removal of the Scottish house of
    Stuart from the throne, and William and Mary were
    imported from Holland to take the throne (1688,
    the Bloodless Revolution), thus finally
    establishing parliaments dominance over the
    throne.

17
  • 4. The British character a richly unconventional
    interior life hidden by an external conformity.
  • V. Basic facts about Scotland

18
  • 1. Scotland is the most confident of its own
    identity because it has previously spent a
    substantial period of history as a unified state
    independent of the UK.

19
  • 2. The largest city is Glasgow, and its capital
    is Edinburgh. Both cities have ancient and
    internationally respected universities dating
    from the 15th century.

20
  • 3. Hadrians Wall a stone wall which the Roman
    emperor Hadrian ordered to be built acoss the
    north of England in 122 AD from the east coast to
    the west, in order to defend Roman Britain from
    attack by northern tribes such as Picts, the
    original Scottish celts.

21
  • 4.The Highlands and the Lowlands --- a cultural
    divide
  • 1) The Highlands mountainous areas, esp. those
    in the north of Scotland people speak both
    English and Scottish Gaelic, the old celtic
    language.

22
  • 2) The Lowlands the central part of Scotland
    which is lower than the land surrounding it
  • 5. The Battle of Bannockburn (1314) led to the
    independence of Scotland for 300 years.

23
  • 6. In 1707 Scotland joined the Union, which was
    followed by two rebellions in 1715 and 1745, and
    Scottish highland clan culture was effectively
    destroyed at this time.

24
  • VI. Basic facts about Wales
  • The capital of Wales is Cardiff. 19 of the Welsh
    population speak Welsh, a Celtic tongue. They are
    also fluent in English.

25
  • Coal-mining and steel used to the key industries
    for Wales. South Wales has been very successful
    in attracting investment from abroad ---
    particularly Japan and the US.

26
  • In 1536, Wales was brought into the UK.
  • VII. Basic facts about Northern Ireland

27
  • 1. Northern Ireland (often called Ulster after
    an ancient Irish kingdom) is small, but it is
    significant because of the political troubles
    there. Its capital is Belfast.

28
  • 2. Ireland has been divided by a long and bloody
    conflict as a result of its colonial history.
    Until 1921 the full name of the UK was The
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

29
  • 3. One of the key issues in late 19th century
    British politics was a campaign in parliament for
    what was called home rule --- Irish political
    control of Irish affairs.

30
  • 4. The Easter Rising in 1916
  • 5. The Provisional IRA( Irish Republican Army)
  • 6. Sinn Fein(Ourselves Alone)

31
  • 7. Religious conflicts between the Irish and the
    British
  • 1) The majority of Irish people were descendants
    of the original Celtic people.

32
  • 2) Most Irish people remained Catholics, while
    most British people had become Protestants.

33
  • 3) People from Scotland and Northern England, who
    were Protestants, were encouraged to emigrate to
    the troublesome north of Ireland in the 17th
    century, and they thought of themselves British
    and wished to remain a part of the British state.

34
  • 8. Partition of Ireland in 1921 The southern 26
    counties would form an independent free state,
    while the 6 north-eastern counties would remain a
    part of the UK. This ended 700 years of British
    rule in southern Ireland.

35
  • 9. Northern Ireland had its own parliament to
    deal with Northern Irish affairs. About a third
    of the Northern population was Roman Catholic,
    and they were discriminated.

36
  • 10. IRAs violence in the 1970s The IRA carried
    out a campaign of bombing and shooting. The
    Protestants formed their own illegal paramilitary
    groups and took revenge on Catholics, often
    murdering individuals at random.

37
  • 11. Bloody Sunday On Jan. 30, 1972, 468 people
    were killed in Northern Ireland, including 13
    Catholics, by British soldiers.

38
  • 12. The Good Friday Agreement As a result of
    multi-party negotiations, the Good Friday
    Agreement was approved on 10 April 1998.

39
  • This agreement assures the loyalist community
    that Northern Ireland remains part of the UK and
    it wont change its political status unless the
    majority of the people of Northern Ireland agree.

40
  • Under the terms of the agreement, Northern
    Ireland should be governed by 3 separate
    jurisdictions that of the republic of Ireland,
    that of Great Britain and that of its own elected
    executive governent of 10 ministers.

41
Part Two The Government and Politics of the UK
  • I. The Government
  • 1. The Monarchy the ancient doctrine of the
    divine right of kings.

42
  • 1) For a thousand years, Britain has had a
    hereditary king or queen as the head of state
    with one brief exception, when the Roundheads
    succeeded in ousting the monarch, Charles I in
    1642.

43
  • 2) The monarchs unwillingness to receive advice
    from prominent men led to many battles between
    the king and other powerful groups like the
    Church and powerful land-owning feudal barons.

44
  • 3) In 1215, King John granted the feudal barons
    and the Church a charter of liberty and political
    rights, still known by its medieval Latin name of
    Magna Carta,

45
  • 4) The role of the monarch today is primarily to
    symbolize the tradition and unity of the British
    state.

46
  • The Queens other roles head of the executive,
    an integral part of the legislature, head of the
    judiciary, commander in chief of the armed forces
    and supreme governor of the Church of England.

47
  • 2. The Parliament
  • 1) Traditionally, medieval kings were supposed to
    meet their own royal expenses out of their own
    wealth.

48
  • 2) By the 13th century, kings found they could
    not make ends meet in this way, and so they
    widened the Great Council to include
    representatives if counties, cities and towns to
    get them to give him money.

49
  • 3) In 1407 Henry IV decreed that all money grants
    should be considered and approved by the Commons
    before considered by the Lords, a formula which
    is almost the same today.

50
  • 4) In 1689 Parliament passed the Bill of Rights
    which ensured that the King would never be able
    to ignore Parliament.

51
  • 5) The House of Lords consists of the Lords
    Spiritual (the Archbishops and bishops), and the
    Lords Temporal.

52
  • Peers speak and vote as individuals, not as
    representatives of the greater interests of the
    country, and they do not receive salaries.

53
  • 6) The house of Commons consists of about 650
    Members of Parliament (MPs). MPs receive a salary
    of about 31000 a year.

54
  • 7) The functions of Parliament to pass laws, to
    vote for taxation, to scrutinize government
    policy, administration and expenditure, and to
    debate the major issues of the day.

55
  • 3. The Constitution Britain has no written
    Constitution. There are statute law, the common
    laws and conventions.

56
4.The Prime Minister and Cabinet
  • 1) While Cabinet ministers were appointed by the
    sovereign, they had to have enough support in the
    House of Commons to enable them to persuade
    Parliament to pass laws and vote for taxes.

57
  • 2) In 1832, when a system for choosing the House
    of Commons by popular election replaced the
    monarchs job of appointing representatives, the
    modern political system was born.

58
  • 3) MPs assmebled themselves into groups which
    eventually would become political parties,
    organised groups which presented their policies
    and ideas to the electorate for approval.

59
  • 4) The party with the most supporters in the
    Commons forms the government, and by tradition,
    the leader of that party becomes Prime Minister.

60
  • II. Politics
  • 1. General Elections

61
  • 1) General elections are very important because
    they provide opportunities for people to
    influence future government policies and to
    replace those incompetent political leaders.

62
  • 2) Anyone who is eligible to vote with 500 pounds
    as deposit can stand as an MP. British people are
    represented in parliament by one of 651 members
    of parliament representing the 651 geographical
    areas or constituencies into which the UK is
    divided.

63
  • 3) After a government has been in power for 5
    years it has to resign and hold a general
    election.

64
  • 4) The electoral campaigns before a general
    election, in order to make their ideologies and
    policies known to the public, the political
    parties would start their electoral campaigns.

65
  • 2. The Political Parties
  • 1) The Labour party is the newest of the three,
    created by the growing trade union movement at
    the end of the 19th century.

66
  • It believes that the role of a government is to
    transfer wealth from richer to poorer by means of
    taxing the richer and providing support the
    poorer.

67
  • 2) The Conservative Party spent most time in
    power. Basically the Conservatives are seen as
    the party of the individuals

68
  • It protects the individuals right to acquire
    wealth and to spend it how they choose, and so
    favouring economic policies such as low taxes.
    They receive their funding from big companies.

69
  • The difference between the labour party and the
    Conservative Party is one of degree, not an
    absolute.

70
  • 3) The Liberal Democratic Party is the third
    biggest, and may be seen as a party of the
    middle, occupying the ideological ground
    between the two main parties.

71
  • 3. Class system in British society
  • 1) Most of the British population would claim
    themselves to be either of middle-class or
    working-class

72
  • 2) Class divisions are not simply economic, they
    are cultural as well. People of different classes
    may differ in the kind of newspapers they read,
    in the way they speak, and in the kind of
    education they receive.

73
  • 3) What is distinctive about the British
    class-system, and what marks it as different from
    the American social structure, is that it has
    retained a hereditary aristocracy.

74
  • 4. Ethnic relations in the UK
  • 1) Around 5 of British citizens are from
    non-European ethnic groups. South Asia and
    Caribbean countries

75
  • 2) The immigrants from other parts of the world
    has greatly enriched British culture. But ethnic
    relations are also sometimes tense

76
  • 3) The immigrant population is not well-off
    economically. They face problems of unemployment,
    under-representation in politics and unfair
    treatment by police and by the justice system.

77
Part Three The UK Economy
  • I. Absolute Decline and Relative Decline
  • 1. By the 1880s the British economy was dominant
    in the world, producing one third of the worlds
    manufactured goods, half its coal and iron, half
    its cotton.

78
  • 2. The UK has experienced an economic decline
    since 1945. But this is a relative decline rather
    than an absolute one.

79
  • 3. The reasons for the decline
  • 1) Britain had gone heavily into debt in order to
    finance the war.

80
  • 2) The former British colonies became independent
    one after another, leaving Britain as just a
    medium-sized European country, with a population
    only one fifth the size of the US.

81
  • 3) Before the process of decolonisation was
    completed, Britain had to maintain an expensive
    military presence in many overseas locations.

82
  • 4) During the war Britains industry survived
    comparatively unaffected, which means there were
    low rates of investment.

83
  • II. Recent history
  • 1. A particularly bad period in the 1970s high
    rates of inflation (25) many workers strikes
    the fall in the value of the UK currency

84
  • 2. In the 1980s, when the Conservative party
    under Margaret Thatcher was in power, an
    extensive program of privatisation was carried
    out.

85
  • 3. Overall it is second only to the US as a
    destination for international direct investment,
    and it is the second biggest international
    investor in the world (1995).

86
  • III. Main sectors of the UK economy
  • 1. primary industries, such as agriculture,
    fishing, and mining

87
  • 2. secondary industries, which manufacture
    complex goods from those primary products (
    producing 22 of national wealth)

88
  • 3. tertiary industries (services), such as
    banking, insurance, tourism, and the selling of
    goods( producing 65 of national wealth)

89
  • IV. The City
  • It refers to the historic area at the center of
    London.It is one of the biggest financial centers
    in the world with the greatest concentration of
    banks, insurance companies and businesses

90
  • V. The aerospace industry in the UK
  • It is the third largest in the world,
    producing the full range of aerospace products
    from civil and military aircrafts to missiles,
    satellites and jet engines.

91
  • Part Five British Education System
  • I. The purpose of the British education system

92
  • Not only to provide children with literacy and
    other basic skills they will need to become
    active members of society, but also to socialise
    children.

93
  • Children are taught practical skills, but they
    also learn the rules and values they need to
    become good citizens, to participate in the
    community, and to contribute to the economic
    prosperity of an advanced industrial economy.

94
  • II. The relationship between education and social
    class
  • 1. Class inequality can be erased or continued
    according to educational policy.

95
  • 2. Educational opportunities for working-class
    and middle-class people can be very different.
  • 3. In Britain, the accent you speak with, the
    clothes you wear, and the schools you attend are
    all markers that identify your social class.

96
  • 4. To attend the right schools (the famous
    boys public schools like Eton and Winchester)
    and the right universities (Oxford and
    Cambridge) is still the single best way to
    guarantee a successful career.

97
  • III.The major changes that have taken place to
    the British education system
  • 1.The governments decision to become
    increasingly invloved in taking responsibility
    for the education of children.

98
  • 2. During WWII, the government began planning to
    reconstruct the education system, which would
    emphasize equality.

99
  • 3. In the 1960s, comprehensive schools were
    introduced all over the country, which ended the
    division between grammer schools and vocational
    schools.

100
  • 4. In 1976 British education was the focus of a
    new controversy when thw Labor party started the
    Great Education Debate about national stansards
    and styled of teaching.

101
  • 5. In 1989 the Conservative Government of
    Margaret Thatcher intriduced a National
    Curriculum, which has reintroduced competition
    between schools.

102
V.The present education system
  • 1. The function of the British education system
  • It is run by the state, which provides funding,
    oversees standards, and tries to make sure that
    all British children receive a quality education.

103
  • 2. State schools
  • They are funded by local and central
    government. About 93 of pupils receive free
    education from this sector.

104
  • 3. Independent schools
  • They are commonly called public schools,
    which are actually private schools that receive
    funding through the private sector and tuition
    rates, with some government assistance.

105
  • 4. Grammar schools select children at the age of
    11, through an examination called the 11-plus.
    Those children with the highest marks go to
    grammar schools.

106
VI. Higher education
  • 1. British universities are public bodies which
    receive funds from central government. This
    differs from the US

107
  • 2. The UK has only one privately funded
    university, the University of Buckingham.

108
  • 3. Oxford and Cambridge date from the 12th and
    13th centuries. In Oxford and Cambridge the BA
    converts to an MA several years later, upon
    payment of a fee.

109
  • 4. Universities, reflecting the trend throughout
    the education system, have traditionally been
    rather elitist.

110
  • 5.The Open University was founded in 1960s for
    people who might not get the opportunity for
    higher education for economic and social reasons.

111
Part Six British Foreign Relations
  • I. Factors that influence British foreign policy
  • its history
  • its geopolitical traits long-term physical
    separation from the European continent

112
  • 3. its relationship with the United States
  • II. How foreign policy is made
  • 1. The Prime Minister and Cabinet decide on the
    general direction of Britains foreign policy.

113
  • 2. The Ministry of of Defence is responsible for
    ensuring Britains defence and maintaining
    Britains involvement in its military treaty
    commitments.

114
  • 3. The Department of Trade and Industry is
    concerned with formulating international trade
    policy and managing British commercial relations
    with other countries.

115
  • 4. The Treasury makes decisions on how much money
    other departments can have each year.

116
  • III. Britain and International Institutions
  • 1. Britain is one of the five permanent members
    of the United Nations Security Council. It is the
    sixth largest contributor to the UNs budget.

117
  • 2. Britain is the member of the EU. It joined the
    EEC in 1973, given that British economic,
    political and military interests were already
    deeply bound up with other European countries.

118
  • 3. Britain is also a member of the Commonwealth,
    a voluntary association of states which is made
    up of mostly former British colonies. There are
    50 members of the Commonwealth.

119
  • 4. The keystone of British defence policy is its
    participation in the NATO. 95 of Britains
    defence expenditure goes to meeting NATO
    requirements.

120
Part Seven The British Media
  • I. Popularity and functions of the media
  • 1. The media are central to British leisure
    culture.

121
  • 2. The functions of the media
  • entertainment
  • providing people with information about political
    and social issues

122
  • providing weather reports
  • carrying advertisements
  • for educational purposes

123
  • providing a forum for people to write letters or
    phone in to express their views or seek advice
  • engendering a national culture

124
  • II. British newspapers
  • 1. In the late 18th and early 19th century,
    more and more newspapers began to appear

125
  • 2. The Observer, first appeared in 1791, is the
    worlds oldest national weekly newspaper.
  • 3. The Times, began publishing in 1785, is the
    UKs oldest daily newspaper.

126
  • 4. The watchdog function, keeping an eye on the
    government, is one of reasons why a free press is
    considered so important to the functioning of
    parliamentary democracy.

127
  • 5. This role is frequently criticised because the
    power of the press has usurped the power of
    parliament. ( favorable coverage not objective)

128
  • 6. Business people were quick to realize the
    power of the press to inform potential customers
    about their products and services, and so the
    advertising business was born.

129
  • 7. Newspapers are businesses that exist to earn
    money, not public services designed to inform the
    population.

130
  • 8. British newspaper culture is unusual in the
    extent to which class and educational differences
    are reflected in the newspapers people read.

131
  • 9.The quality press they refer to some of the
    daily national papers. They carry more serious
    and in-depth articles of particular political and
    social importance.

132
  • 10. The tabloids (the gutter press) they refer
    to small format newspapers with color photos and
    catchy headlines. They are interested in scandals
    and gossip usually about famous people.

133
  • 11. Fleet Street Until 1980s, almost all the
    national newspapers had their headquarters on or
    around Fleet Street in London,

134
  • III.The broadcast media --- television and radio
  • 1. The messages and information which are sent
    over the airwaves into peoples homes, cars and
    workplaces reach virtually everyone.

135
  • 2. British people watch news, entertainment, and
    sports they also watch comedy, drama and game
    shows, and weather forecasts.

136
  • 3. American soap operas feature improbaly rich,
    famous and exciting characters, while British
    soap operas present gritty and realistic accounts
    of the everyday life of Britons.

137
  • 4. There are still only five television channels
    and satellite TV is still not as popular or as
    widely available as in the US.

138
  • 5.The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC, or
    the Beeb), which was founded in 1927 as a
    public service radio station, and later moved
    into TV, is Britains main public service
    broadcaster.

139
  • 6. Given the vast amounts of coverage in British
    homes, TV, like the press, is very important to
    British politics.

140
Part Eight Sports, Hoilidays and Festivals
  • I. Sports
  • 1. Football it is a boisterous sport still
    played in winter and early spring when the
    weather is cool and often wet.

141
  • 2. Football hooligans they are supporters of
    rival teams, sometimes clash before, during and
    after matches and occasionally run riot through
    the town, breaking windows and beating each other
    up.

142
  • 3. Tennis and Wimbledon tennis is played in
    summerthe worlds best players gather to compete
    on grass courts in Wimbledon, a London suburb.

143
  • 4. Cricket and fair play Cricket was one of
    the very first team sports in Britain to have
    organized rules and to be played according to the
    same rules nationally.

144
  • 5. Golf The game of golf was invented by the
    Scottishand today avid golfers around the world
    dream of playing on the famous and ancient golf
    course at St Andrews, not far from Edinburgh.

145
  • 6. Horse racing the true sport of British Kings
    (and Queens) is horse racing. There are two kinds
    of horse racing flat racing, and steeplechasing

146
  • II. Holidays and festivals
  • Religious holidays
  • 1) Christmas is the biggest and best loved
    British holiday.

147
  • 2) Easter is the most important Christian
    festival for church goers. It commemorates the
    crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus Christ.

148
  • 2. National holidays
  • 1) Trooping the Color (????????)around
    Buckingham Palace in London on the second
    Saturday in June.

149
  • 2) One truly English holiday is Bonfire Night, or
    Guy Fawkes Night, celebrated in the early autumn.
    The biggest Bonfire Night celebration is held in
    the small medieval town of Lewes.

150
  • 3) In Scotland, New Years Eve called Hogmany is
    the major winter celebration with its widely
    practised custom first footing

151
  • 4) Halloween is a Scottish festival that comes
    from the great feast of the pagan Celts, which
    marked the arrival of the winter half of the
    year.

152
Ireland
  • Part One Land, People and History
  • I. Geograpgy, land and environment

153
  • 1.The border between the Republic of Ireland and
    Northern Ireland, drawn up in 1920, was
    constructed along the political and religious
    fault lines (???)

154
  • 2. Geographically, Ireland is situated in the
    extreme northwest of Europe with a temperate
    climate.

155
  • 3. For most of its history Ireland has been an
    agricultural country, and one in which cattle are
    particularly valued.

156
II. Population
  • 1. As the result of starvation and consequent
    mass emigration from the mid-1840s onwards, that
    part of the island that is now the Republic of
    Ireland lost about half of its people.

157
  • 2. Emigrants before the Great Famine (1845-48)
    were often young farmers who were seeking to
    better their economic position by seeking land in
    the areas of the New World

158
  • 3. Emigrants after the Great Famine made their
    passage to the New World on what were called
    coffin ships because of the huge mortality
    among the passengers

159
  • 4. The Great Fmine (1845-1848) became a watershed
    in Irish history

160
  • 5. The population of the Republic of Ireland is
    surprisingly stable and homogeneous, with 93 of
    the population born there. More than half of the
    4 million Irish people in the RI were declared to
    be under the age of 25.

161
III. History
  • 1. The earliest settlers arrived around 7000 BC
    in the Mesolithic or middle Stone Age period. It
    is believed that the Celtic invaders may have
    come to Ireland as early as the 6th cenruty BC.

162
  • 2. By order of the government of the RI, the
    language of Irish must be learned by all Irish
    children up to the age of 16.

163
  • 3. Along with their language, the Celts also
    brought a legal system, the Brehon law. Under
    this law, the primal unit was the fine, or the
    family unit comprising all relations of the male
    descent for five generations.

164
  • 4. Christianity was introduced into Ireland some
    time in the 5th century by Saint Patrick, who
    became the patron saint of Ireland.

165
  • 5. From around 800 onwards the Vikings attacked
    ireland as well as England. They are credited
    with founding most of the major towns, including
    Dublin, Coek, Limerick, and Waterford.

166
  • 6. In 1541, Henry VIII declared himself king of
    Ireland --- the first English monarch to do so.
  • 7. In 1601, the army of Queen Elizabeth I
    defeated the Irish at the Battle of Kinsale, and
    a new order began.

167
  • 8. Throughout the 18th century the British
    government enforced a severe code of penal
    legislation against Catholics, preventing them
    from pwning land, attending university, or
    entering the professions.

168
  • 9. After the defeat of the 1789 rebellion by the
    united Irishmen, the Irish parliament came out of
    existence, which ended the hopes of the Irish for
    a nation of their own separate from that of Great
    Britain.

169
  • 10.Home Rule a slogan put forward by Isaac Butt
    for the Irish nationalist movement from 1870 to
    1914, which sought a separate Irish parliament
    subordinate to London.

170
  • 11.Sinn Fein Arthur Griffith developed a
    political party in the period of 1905-1908 known
    as Sinn Fein, meaning we ourselves in the
    Irish language.

171
Part Two Politics and Economy
  • I. Politics
  • 1. Ireland is a representative democracy, i.e.
    most of its offices are filled through election,
    either direct or indirect, by the Irish people.

172
  • 2.The president the president is elected by the
    direct vote of the people. The term of office is
    7 years, and a president can be reelected only
    once. The president acts as a symbolic Head of
    State only and does not have executive functions.

173
  • 3.The government The Government has the
    executive powers of the State, and shall consist
    of 7 to 15 elected members of the Irish
    Parliament. The Prime Minister is appointed by
    the President on the nomination of the
    Parliament.

174
  • 4. Parliament The sole of making laws for the
    State is vested in the Irish Parliament, which
    consists of two houses --- the Dail and the
    Senate, but the Government is responsible to the
    Dail alone.

175
  • 5.Voting in elections and referenda (????) The
    electoral system used in Ireland is called
    proportional represnetation

176
  • 1) the election of the President (every 7 years)
  • 2) Dail elections (at least every 5 years)
  • 3) Referenda on proposed Constitutional
    amendments (as they are called)

177
  • 4) The election of representatives to the
    European Parliament (every 5 years)
  • 5) Elections to local authorities (every 5 years)

178
  • 6. The civil service the civil service is
    divided into 16 Government Departments, each
    headed by a ,Minister appointed by the Prime
    Minister.

179
  • 7. The hierarchy of the Irish legal system The
    District Court --- the Circuit Court --- the High
    Court --- the Supreme Court

180
II. Economy
  • Ireland is a small, open, trade-dependent
    economy.
  • From its founding in 1922 until the 1970s,
    Ireland as an economy tended to be
    inward-looking, and tried to be self-sufficient.

181
  • 3.What changed this stagnant economy into one of
    the most vital in Europe?
  • First, there was a population boom, with large
    numbers of young people.

182
  • Secondly, the reform of education meant that
    young people were better educated and more aware
    of their options in life. Finally, the government
    had a conversion to market economics.

183
  • 4. What benefits has Irelands entrance to the EU
    in1971 provided to ireland?
  • 1) EUs funds for agriculture, infrastructure,
    education, etc.

184
  • 2) Mobility of Irish people to the other EU
    countries( more racially mixed)
  • 3) Further opening up of the Ireland market and
    its accession to the EU market
  • 4) Faster economic development

185
  • 5) Growing wealth of the Irish people
  • 6) The change in the status of women
  • 7) The change in Irelands labor market.

186
  • 5. The existing problems after its entrance to
    the EU
  • 1) The demise of the family farm
  • 2) Inequality in wealth distribution

187
  • 3) A wide variety of corruption (tax avoidance
    and evasion)
  • 4) Overcrowding, pollution, rising house prices
    in urban areas, esp. in Dublin
  • 5) The lack of adequate public facilities and
    programs to tackle thses problems.

188
Part Three Irish Culture
  • I. How the Irish Live Now
  • 1. Rapid social change in the past 30 years,
    Ireland has passed from being a traditional
    culture to a post-industrial one.

189
  • 2. Paradoxical or contradictory attitudes to the
    English
  • 1) On the one hand, the English has left the
    Republic of Ireland with a secure and workable
    administrative, educational, and judicial system.

190
  • 2) On the other hand, the Irish ar proud they do
    not have a monarchy. They think of themselves as
    citizens, not as subjects.

191
  • 3) This ambivalence frequently takes the form of
    a full-blown love/hate relationship, and
    admiration/condemnation attitude.

192
  • 3. The power of the Roman Catholic Church began
    to decline in the past 30 years.
  • 1) It has lost its dominanceas a value in Irish
    culture. Irish Catholicism concentrated on what
    it saw as matters of sexual purity

193
  • 2) The Catholic Church also exercised a firm hold
    over educational structures, over hospitals, over
    the media, and over the way people thought about
    themselves and their lives.

194
  • 4. The family
  • 1) Traditionally, Irish family were large, with
    up to 16 or more children.

195
  • 2) the birth rate has now dropped from 3.76 in
    1960 to 1.98 in 2001
  • 3) In the last 30 years, the structure of Irish
    family life has changed dramatically.

196
  • 4) Beginning in the early 1970s, the womens
    movement concentrated first on gaining control of
    their own fertility, deamnding bith control,
    divorce, and the right to have an abortion if
    necessary.

197
  • 5. Pub culture The communal facility in both
    city and countryside that is patronized is the
    public house or pub.

198
  • 6. Work culture The Irish pay less attention to
    schedule than to completing a task, so their work
    style can be described as informal.

199
  • 7. Education
  • 1) In the last 30 years, the Irish government
    applied significant resources to reform the
    educational system.

200
  • 2) First-level schools the vast majority of
    children receive their primary education in
    national schools --- state-aided promary
    schools.

201
  • 3) Second-level schools they are designed for
    students from 12 years of age upward.

202
  • 4)Third-level education there are 4 universities
    in the State. Many of the third-level
    institutions expanded rapidly in the 1970s to
    meet the governments demand for more inclusive
    university education for the Irish people.

203
  • 8. Language
  • 1) Traditionally, the Irish people spoke their
    own language, called Irish or Erse. The death
    blow to the Irish language was the Great Famine
    of 1845-48.

204
  • 2) After the Republic of Ireland was set up in
    1922, a concerted, official attempt was made to
    make Irish once again the national language. All
    Irish children are taught the Irish language from
    4 to 15.

205
  • 3) Despite of this, the language that is
    universally spoen in the republic of Ireland is a
    version of standard Englis known as
    Hiberno-English (??????).

206
  • 9. Oral culture
  • The Irish retain one element of their native
    culture they talk. The basis for this is in the
    original peasant culture

207
  • 10. Art culture
  • Ireland is a traditional culture and it is true
    to say virtually every art form in Ireland
    derives from its rich folk heritage.

208
  • Ireland is famous for its fine traditional music
    culture, and the intricacy and fervor of its folk
    dances ( the stage production of Riverdance),
    andfancy footwork in intricate patterns.

209
  • 11. Literature
  • 12. Sports
  • The Irish team of soccer made its first
    appearance in the World Cup Finals in Italy in
    1990.

210
  • Rugby football, imported form England, is also
    very popular with the Irish.
  • Hurling is the most natively Irish game.
  • The newset and most fashionable ball game in
    Ireland is golf.

211
  • 13. Science and technology
  • 14. About Irish culture
  • 1) Ireland is a culture where art flourishes,
    mostly associated with the ear, not the eye.

212
  • 2) Ireland is also a very people-oriented
    society, which regards the family as central to
    its values.
  • 3) It is a very congenial society, which loves
    talk and outings and drinking.

213
  • 4) The work culture is also very sociable, with
    little distinction being between peoples public
    and private lives.

214
  • 5) Th Irish identify with the under-dogs, with
    oppressed nations --- with those they see as
    having been denied their rights as a people.
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