Play and Child Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 51
About This Presentation

Play and Child Development


Watch television. Read. Got to a dance. Listen to music. Watch music videos. Hang around with friends. Unstructured activities ' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:21079
Avg rating:5.0/5.0
Slides: 52
Provided by: theshe


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Play and Child Development

Play and Child Development
Definition of Play
  • To engage in activity for amusement
  • New Websters Dictionary (Canadian Edition)
  • work of childhood

  • Play has a legitimate and important role to play
    in Kindergarten and can be used to further
    childrens learning in all areas of the
    Kindergarten program.
  • The Kindergarten Program Ministry Document

Play is
  • Intrinsically motivated
  • Freely chosen
  • Pleasurable
  • Non-literal
  • Actively engaged

Through play children can develop
  • Creativity
  • Convergent thinking
  • Divergent thinking
  • Problem solving
  • Representational skills and concept development
  • Language and literacy development
  • The Kindergarten Program Ministry Document

Types of Play
  • Sensory play
  • Play with motion
  • Rough and tumble play
  • Language play
  • Dramatic play
  • Constructive play (play with games and rituals)

  • Play provides opportunities for learning in a
    context in which children are at their most
    receptive. During play with others and with
    materials and equipment in their environment,
    children become immersed in activities through
    which they learn about themselves and explore
    their world.
  • The Kindergarten Program Ministry Document

The Teachers Role
  • Create a developmentally appropriate environment
    to facilitate childrens exploration and
    interaction with the environment
  • Promote active engagement between child and
    classroom environment
  • Provide scaffolding if needed
  • Promote independence and a self-extending system
    of learning
  • Ensure students are working at an appropriately
    challenging level and adjust the amount of
    support based on each childs ability

  • It is important that teachers develop an
    understanding of how children learn through play
    by observing and analyzing childrens play. Such
    an understanding will allow them to plan
    productive play activities that have specific
    learning goals and to provide appropriate and
    stimulating resources. Teachers should monitor
    play activities carefully and be available to
    assist with or extend the activities as
  • The Kindergarten Program Ministry Document

Observe, Observe, Observe!
  • Selection, approaches, and completion of task
  • Routines
  • Interactions in groups, on playground, in gym, on
    field trips, etc.
  • Originality, creativity, curiosity
  • Use of manipulatives

Assess for
  • Strengths
  • Needs
  • Interests
  • Growth over time
  • Planning
  • Evaluating
  • Celebrating

Diagnostic Assessment
  • Direct observation
  • Interacting/conferencing with the child
  • Talking with parents
  • Early and ongoing identification information
  • Portfolios
  • Previous report cards
  • Developmental profiles
  • Self evaluation
  • Anecdotal notes
  • Checklists
  • Rubrics

Play and Cognitive Development
Exploratory/Functional Play
  • Children are able to actively explore materials
    and environments
  • Develop sense of accomplishment and independence
  • Do something over and over until they have
    mastered it, feel good about their newly acquired
  • Examples
  • -pounding playdough
  • -running fingers through sand or water
  • -mixing paint to find primary/secondary colours
  • Children are more likely to learn if they are
    able to be involved in hands on learning

Constructive Play
  • Child uses objects or materials to create a
    representation of something
  • Symbolic thinking and elements of pretend
  • Hands on experiences once again
  • Examples
  • -building a fort with blocks
  • -building a sand castle
  • -building a car for unit on structures
  • Good outlet for emotional energy

Dramatic Play
  • Child uses objects, actions, and language to
    create imaginary roles and situations
  • Connection between real and pretend
  • Emotional outlet, creativity development
  • Examples
  • Playing house
  • Re-enacting a story/drama activities
  • Puppets

  • Cognitive Skills Enhanced During Play
  • Measurement
  • Equivalency
  • Balance
  • Spatial concepts
  • Conservation
  • Decentration
  • Reversibility
  • Logical classification

  • Play and Social Development

Solitary Play
  • Independent activities
  • Examples
  • -Puzzles
  • -lining up toys
  • -dolls
  • Early form of play
  • Teaches children to be creative, and amuse
  • Development of independence

Parallel Play
  • Children use similar toys or engage in similar
    activities but do not play together
  • Child will notice what other child is doing and
    may mimic what they see
  • May work their way into other persons play
  • Can help child understand that everyone is
    different and everyone has their own ideas and
    way of doing things
  • Example
  • -two child sitting side by side lining up
    different animals

Associate Play
  • Children engaging in similar, somewhat organized
  • May talk about what they are doing, share toys
    and ask questions
  • Children do not engage in joint efforts
  • Teaches child to share and ask questions
  • Example
  • -two children playing side by side lining up
    toys, one child asks to borrow one of the other
    childs toys to continue on with own play

Cooperative Play
  • two or more children interacting with one another
    toward a common purpose
  • different roles and responsibilities,
    contributions made by all
  • child learns to work together, share roles,
    compromise, cooperate, etc.
  • Examples
  • two students working together on a puzzle
  • a group of students completing a science
  • -Children playing house and assigning roles to
    each person

  • Not all play activities should be initiated by
    the teacher, however. Children need
    opportunities to engage with their peers in play
    activities of their own devising, through which
    they can express themselves and explore things of
    special interest to them.
  • The Kindergarten Program Ministry Document

  • Decision making skills
  • Learn about themselves, and others in the world
  • Concentration skills
  • Rationalizing

  • Choosing Materials

  • Measurement
  • Unit iteration parts from a whole
  • Subdivision whole into parts
  • Equivalency
  • Balance

  • Spatial concept
  • Piaget and Inhelders Euclidean Spatial Concept
    (space is thought of as an overall network,
    independent of the number or the arrangement of
    elements within it)
  • Building up and out
  • Grid patterns
  • Logical classification
  • Sort by features
  • Putting things away by shape and size

  • Piaget (Conservation)
  • Regardless of change of appearance, the amount
    stays the same if nothing is added or subtracted
  • Dividing and combining

Water Play
  • Floatation
  • Bubbles
  • Measurement
  • Conservation of liquid (Piaget)
  • Decentration
  • Reversibility

C Mr oe va et mi ev ne t
  • Schemes (Piaget)
  • Consistent action patterns that are the childs
    earliest concepts
  • Enactive Representation (Bruner)
  • Information about the world can be encoded
    motorically instead of, or as well as, mentally
  • Any subject can be taught through the medium of

  • Fluid Construction Toys
  • Paints and clay to create unspecified product
  • Perceptual performance (drawing, block building,
    puzzle forming, right to left orientation)
  • Structured Construction Toys
  • Blocks, legos, puzzles
  • Verbal, perceptual, quantitative and memory
  • Microsymbolic Toys
  • Toy cars and trucks, dolls and toy buildings
  • Enhance memory
  • Macrosymbolic Toys
  • Child size play equipment
  • Memory, perceptual performance, quantitative

Free Play 10 Benefits to Children
  • Muscular development and control of large
    muscles, fine motor skills and eye-hand
  • Speech development
  • Social development
  • Language skill development
  • Problem solving and creative thinking
  • Increased consciousness of the cause and effect
    involved in a sequence of events.
  • Therapeutic value
  • Opportunities for self talk
  • Development of self-confidence
  • Learning cooperation and values
  • Sheila G. Flaxman (Play An Endangered Species)

What do others have to say about play?
  • Rousseau
  • Locke
  • Freud
  • Erikson
  • Bruner
  • Sutton-Smith
  • Vygotsky
  • Piaget

Classic Theories
  • (Hebert Spencer, G.T.W. Patrick, G. Stanley Hall,
    Karl Goos)
  • Play as instinctive mechanism that either
    promoted optimal physical development or
    reflected the evolutionary history of human
  • Discharge pent up energy
  • Renewal of energy
  • Natural way of preparing body for the tasks of
    adult life

Jean Jacques Rousseau(1712 1784)
  • Transformation position
  • Children are good but become corrupted through
    their contact with society
  • Philosophy of naturalism
  • Education should let the childs inner nature
  • Little harm would come from allowing children to
    play without excessive adult supervision
  • First twelve years of life should be a time of
  • Childhood glorified and innocence celebrated

John Locke(1632 1704)
  • Transmission position
  • The mind as a tabula rasa (blank slate)
  • Education is a process of habit formation
  • Repetition and drill important
  • Each child is unique and valuable, developmental
    needs need to be realized by adults
  • Knowledge comes through the senses
  • Gentle and respectful approaches to help children
    develop their own internal controls
  • Moral education
  • Did not condemn play, play helped child develop
    rationality and discipline

Sigmund and Anna Freud
  • Play is primarily emotional, reduction of stress
  • Objective anxiety
  • -fear of the external world (helplessness,
    abandonment, etc.)
  • -play gives the child the illusion of power and
  • Instinctual anxiety
  • -unwelcome feelings
  • -ego related
  • -play allows for the exploration of various
    feelings without adult repercussions

Erik Erikson
  • Play has an ego-building function
  • Development of physical and social skills which
    enhance self-esteem
  • Three main goals of play
  • Exploration of childs body (autocosmic play)
  • Mastery over objects (enhances the ego)
    (microsphere play)
  • Social interactions (understand culture and
    social roles) (macrosphere play)

Jerome Bruner and Brian Sutton-Smith
  • Play facilitates intellectual growth
  • Provides a comfortable and relaxed atmosphere
  • Learn to solve problems

Lev Vygotsky
  • Play is essential in the formation of the childs
    symbolic abilities
  • Role playing, stereotypes, rules of behaviour
  • Acceptance in social situations

Jean Piaget
  • Adapt to environment
  • Assimilation and accommodation
  • Play as a consolidation of newly learned
  • Play facilitates learning
  • Games of construction (area of transition between
    symbolic play and nonplayful activities)
  • Play facilitates learning in that it exposes a
    child to new experiences and new possibilities
    for dealing with the world.

School Age Children(Intellectual, Social, and
Personality Development)
  • Intellectual
  • Childs thinking is becoming more orderly, more
    structures and more logical
  • Play becomes more realistic and more rule
  • Reflect a developing need for order
  • Social
  • Peer group provides support
  • Acceptance is important
  • Play reflects a need for order
  • Personality
  • Self-concept development
  • Talents, skills, and abilities to be proud of
  • Play reflects need for industry

The Emergence of Logical Thinking Need for Order
  • Piaget children (age 5 or 6) enter concrete
    operational stage of development
  • Thinking is more logical and orderly
  • Ie. Sorting shapes according to size, colour, or
    number of lines
  • Cause and effect
  • Play becomes more realistic and characterized by
    need for order

The Childhood Peer Group A Need to Belong
  • School age children increasingly peer oriented
    and decreasingly family oriented
  • Belonging
  • Being different
  • Spend more time with peers than family

The Developing Self-Concept A Need for Industry
  • Applying themselves for the adult world
  • Eager to be productive, feeling of
  • Play as a component of healthy ego development

  • Adolescents
  • (Intellectual, Social, and Personality

  • Transition from thinking in concrete to thinking
    in formal operations
  • Uses logic
  • Problem solving skills
  • Hypothetical-deductive reasoning (use of
    if-then statements)
  • Sometimes forget about realistic limitations on
    their dreams
  • Adolescent egocentrism
  • Personal fable that no one else could possibly
    share or understand their thoughts or feelings,
    good things only happen to other people

  • The Redefinition of Friendship A Need for
  • The Growth of Self-Awareness A Need for Identity

Adolescent Play
  • Attend movies
  • Watch television
  • Read
  • Got to a dance
  • Listen to music
  • Watch music videos
  • Hang around with friends
  • Unstructured activities

  • Children are not empty vessels to be filled with
    knowledge but active builders of knowledge
    little scientists who are constantly creating and
    testing their own theories of the world.
  • Learning the multiplication tables and alphabet
    are very important. But those skills need to
    reside inside a mind that has been expanded by
    the imaginative and joyous exploration of our
    environment and the possibility that it offers
    for fun. (Jane Healy, Psychologist)
  • One thing we can bet on is that we will still
    need people who can solve problems, which is one
    benefit of play. The people who brought us the
    technology of today were obviously wonderful
    players. (Rhonda Clements, American Association
    for the Childs Right to Play)
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)