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Child Development


For the first year of a baby s life, growth and development are rapid. 5 senses are functional at birth Certain reflexes exist at birth ... Two years Toddlers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Child Development

Child Development
  • Edmiston, M.
  • FCS 7th Grade
  • Human Development

10 Things Every Child Needs
  • Interaction
  • Stable Relationships
  • Safe, Healthy Environment
  • Play
  • Music
  • Self-esteem
  • Quality Child Care
  • Communication
  • Loving Touch
  • Read, Read, Read

  • Is similar for everyone
  • Builds on earlier learning
  • The skills and abilities that are acquired as a
    person grows
  • Works at an individual rate
  • Continues throughout life

Areas of Development
  • Physical
  • Intellectual
  • Emotional
  • Social
  • Moral

Physical Development
  • grow in size and muscle coordination.
  • Motor Skills skills needed for control over the
    bodys muscles.
  • Gross-Motor Skills skills requiring use of the
    large muscles of the body. (Ex roll over, climb
    a tree, jump rope)
  • Fine-Motor Skills skills requiring the use of
    small muscles of the body. (Ex eat with a spoon,
    hold a spoon, fasten a button)
  • Fine-Motor Skills skills requiring the use of
    small muscles of the body. (Ex eat with a spoon,
    hold a spoon, fasten a button)
  • Gross-Motor Skills skills requiring use of
    the large muscles of the body. (Ex roll over,
    climb a tree, jump rope)

Intellectual Development
  • ability to learn, think, and judge
  • Relates to thinking and speech
  • Also known as mental development
  • Ex learning how to play a game, reading

Emotional Development
  • learning to control emotions and express them in
    acceptable ways
  • Relates to our feelings
  • Ex being afraid of thunder and
  • lightning

Social Development
  • learning to interact and get along with people in
    acceptable ways
  • Ex playing together, sharing,
  • and considering the
  • feelings of others.

  • Social Learning development or behavior that
    occurs when individuals imitate and observe

Can be positive OR negative
Moral Development
  • Generally accepted guidelines for right and wrong
  • Test new behaviors and observe the results
  • Behave well to avoid punishment and gain rewards
  • Care what others think, and most want to be
    thought of as good
  • Consciences develops

Stages of Development
  • Infant (birth to one year)
  • Toddler (1 3 yrs.)
  • Preschooler (3 5 yrs.)
  • School-Age (5 10 yrs.)

Infants (Newborn) Birth to 1 yr.
  • For the first year of a babys life, growth and
    development are rapid.
  • 5 senses are functional at birth
  • Certain reflexes exist at birth
  • Reflex automatic, involuntary response
  • Crying Different cries for different needs
  • By having their needs met they develops trust in
    primary caregivers
  • Smiles immediately
  • Before they can control the other parts of their
    body, infants must first learn to control the
    movement of their head

  • Communicates through sounds cooing
  • and babbling ahh ooh ba da
  • Stranger Anxiety - Recognizes familiar
  • and unfamiliar faces, may become afraid of
    new people (7 months)
  • Plays Peek-a-boo
  • Object Permanence - A childs realization that
    an object exists when he or she cannot see or
    touch it (8 18 months)

Major Milestones
  • Cruising baby is moving around while holding
    onto things for support.
  • Walking on their own is their biggest
    development towards independence (opens up new
    dangers for infants)

Benefits of Breastmilk for Child
  • Nutrition protein, balance of amino acids and
    minerals, and cholesterol
  • Most easily digested (less crying, spit up, and

Benefits of Breastmilk for Child
  • Protective Benefits
  • Reduce Infections ear, upper respiratory, and
    immune systems are stronger.
  • Reduce heart disease, allergies, and diabetes
    later in life.
  • Minimizes obesity.
  • Higher I.Q. and reading comprehension scores
    (nutrition interpersonal interactions)

Benefits for the Mother
  • Closeness during feeding
  • Convenient
  • Inexpensive (cost of formula is about 2,300.00
    per year)
  • Women breastfeed from 9 months to 2 years on

Introducing Foods
  • Start introducing foods from 4 6 months
  • First soft rice cereals, then veggies, then
  • Give the child the same food for 10 straight days
    to be sure the child does not develop an allergy
    to the food.

  • Foods to avoid Birth to 4 to 6 months
  • All food and beverages except breast milk or
  • Foods to avoid 4 to 12 months
  • Honey can harbor spores of Clostridium
    botulinum, which causes botulism. An adult's
    intestinal tract can prevent the growth of these
    spores, but in a baby the spores can grow and
    produce life-threatening toxins.
  • Cow's milk and soy milk Baby can't digest the
    protein in cow's milk and soy milk for the first
    year, they don't have all the nutrients he needs,
    and they contain minerals in amounts that can
    damage his kidneys.

Choking hazards to watch for Large chunks A
chunk of food larger than a pea can get stuck a
child's throat cut, (cook to make softer), or
shred foods Small, hard foods Hard candies,
cough drops, nuts, and popcorn Soft, sticky
foods marshmallows,jelly,or gummy candies Peanut
butter The sticky consistency of peanut butter
and other nut butters can make it tough for a
young child to swallow safely. 
  • Choking prevention
  • Avoid letting the child eat in the car. It's too
    hard to supervise while driving.
  • Do not allow child to run around with food or
    candy in their mouth.
  • When using a rub-on teething medication, keep a
    close eye on the baby as it can numb his throat
    and interfere with swallowing.

Test Your Knowledge
  • Which of the following is NOT a developmental
  • Walking C. Talking
  • Hearing D. Drawing
  • Until what age does the infant stage last?
  • Six months C. Nine months
  • One year D. Two years

Toddlers Age 1 to 3
  • Walking, Climbing, Running EVERYWHERE
  • Single words develop into short phrases then into
    whole sentences
  • Self-esteem grows I can do it attitude
  • Still play alone instead of with other children
  • Favorite word no (Terrible twos)
  • Moral Development begins as they start to
    understand the difference between what is right
    and wrong.
  • Limited social understanding
  • waiting, sharing, how to deal
  • with being hungry, bored, and
  • tired

  • Toilet Training
  • By 1 ½ years, many children are ready to start
    potty training.
  • Signs of readiness
  • Pick up a raisin between the thumb and
    forefinger. Control of the small muscles in the
    hands indicates the bowel and bladder muscles
    have also developed children cannot control
    their bowels and bladder if they do not have this
    finger control
  • Set of words for going the bathroom
  • Dry for periods of at least two hours at a time
  • Good at undressing and dressing
  • Understands and follows directions

  • 60 of toddlers in the U.S. are toilet trained
    by age 3
  • Dont punish or force the child.
  • Try encouraging with different techniques.

Toddler Care
  • Feeding small pieces, relaxed setting
  • Toilet ask frequently, help if needed
  • Bathing never leave alone, do not let them fill
    tub up on their own or turn water on alone
  • Sleeping
  • may still nap
  • stick to a routine

Preschooler Age 3 to 5
  • Look different from toddlers because their arms,
    legs, and trunk lengthen giving the body
    different proportions
  • Create words to better express themselves
  • Dont understand meaning of words yet (Im going
    to fork this piece of meat)
  • Can hop, ride a tricycle, cut with scissors, and
    dress themselves fairly well becoming more
  • Learn to count, name colors, and identify letters
    of the alphabet
  • Difficulties with playmates, they understand
  • the rules of sharing and dont like when
  • violate them (understands fairness)
  • Love to be the little helper

  • World of make-believe and pretend play
  • Not completely able to distinguish fantasy from

  • Experience a full range of emotions from fear and
    anxiety to joy and pride
  • Beginning of empathy (put yourself in someone
    elses shoes)
  • Plays in groups with other children
  • Can anticipate routines
  • Find burping, spitting, and
  • bad language particularly funny
  • Begin to question everything
  • and start to make connections
  • about the world they live
  • in

Test Your Knowledge
  • A preschool child identifying objects in a
    picture shows that they are improving their
    __________ development?
  • Physical C. Social
  • Intellectual D. Moral
  • What is the common favorite word of 3-to-5 year
    old children?
  • No! C. Why?
  • Mine! D. Stop!

School-Age Age 5 to 10
  • Beginning the process of figuring out what they
    like and dont like
  • Average weight gain 5 7 lbs. a year
  • Average height gain 2 3 in. a year
  • Loss of baby teeth to now permanent teeth
  • Apply logic to solve problems, they are flexible
    with their thinking
  • Creativity develops

  • By 5th grade, most children have 40,000 words
  • They learn that words have double meanings (bat,
    case, trip)
  • They understand idioms Its raining cats and
    dogs, Im so hungry I could eat a horse, etc.
  • There is an emphasis on academics (PSSAs)
  • Social circle is much bigger
  • A lot of social interaction in school, sports,
    with neighbors, etc.
  • Stress from school, peers, and family problems
  • Figuring out their role in the world around them

True or False?
  1. Babies have different kinds of cries for
    different needs.
  2. Toddlers are not able to feed themselves.
  3. It is better for babies to sleep on their
  4. Toddlers demand more attention than preschoolers.
  5. If you read to children before bedtime, any story
    is appropriate.

Communication With Children
  • Two words to avoid
  • 1. No
  • 2. Dont
  • .Tell the child what they can rather than what
    they cant do.

Communication With Children
  • Poor Examples
  • Stop running in the house right now!!
  • Dont hit your sister with the ball.
  • Get out of here with that noisy toy!
  • Good Examples
  • If you want to run, you can go outside. If you
    want to stay inside, you can read a book or play
    a game.
  • See if you can throw the ball in the box.
  • Would you like me to read a book? Put the toy in
    your room and bring a book.

Whats Wrong Here?
  • I said that I would take that away, if you threw
    it again! Now stop throwing it!!
  • If you dont clean up your dinner, youll never
    eat dessert again!!
  • Okay, okay, if you stop crying you can have
    another cookie.
  • Dont draw all over the wall with crayons!!

Why do children play?
Purpose of Play
  • To have fun
  • Learn about themselves
  • Learn about their world
  • For entertainment

Active and Quiet Play
  • Active Play activities that are primarily
    physical and use the large-motor skills.
  • Climbing a tree, playing tag, etc.
  • Quiet Play activities that engage the mind and
    small-motor skills and do not call for much
  • Reading a book, playing with clay, coloring, etc.

Play of Infants
  • Learn about the world through their senses
  • Put things into their mouths
  • Eye-Hand Coordination the ability of the eyes
    and the hand and arm muscles to work together to
    make complex movements
  • Be sure that there are no sharp edges or small
    parts that
  • could be swallowed

Infants and Play
  • Sensory toys objects that stimulate the senses
    with different textures, shapes, sounds, and
  • Mobiles, teething rings, toys that squeak or

  • Solitary Play when a child plays by themselves.
    Seen often in infants and young toddlers.

  • 3 months roll over and grasp rattle
  • 6 months play pat-a-cake and peek-a-boo
  • They love to drop toys and watch you pick them up
  • Very short attention span
  • Talk to baby to develop language skills, they
    need stimulation to learn

Play of Toddlers
  • Allow room for running
  • Alternate between active
  • play and quiet play
  • Can undress self
  • Parallel Play play next to each other, but not

Play of Preschoolers
  • Proud of their abilities (Watch me!)
  • Rides a tricycle with ease
  • Loves to climb around the jungle gym
  • Able to throw and catch a ball
  • Enjoys crafts finger paints, clay
  • Learning to use blunt scissors
  • Love to explore
  • Asks a lot of questions (Why? Why?)
  • Enjoy role-play and dress up
  • Able to use a fork and knife by age 5

  • Cooperative Play when children actually play
    together and share things
  • Ages 3 and up

  • Pretend Play a type of play which allows
    children to learn about their world. It may
    include things like playing house, store, school,
    post office and so on.

Play of School-Age Children
  • Better at playing on their own
  • Enjoy organized games and sports

Guidelines for Choosing Toys
  • Safety
  • Bright colors
  • The development stage of a child
  • Allows child to learn or enhance skills
  • Allows child to use their imagination
  • What guideline for choosing toys do you think is
    most important? Why?

Is The Toy Safe?
  • Is the toy or any removable part large enough so
    it cannot be swallowed or lodged in the ears or
  • Are small parts securely attached?
  • Is it free of sharp edges and points? (Avoid toys
    made from glass or brittle plastic)
  • Is non-toxic paint used on painted toys?

Age-Appropriate Toys (Babies/Toddlers)
  • Can be chewed on.
  • Moving parts can be pushed, pulled, or turned
    that are securely attached.
  • Can be used for banging on things.
  • Stimulates their senses sight, hearing, touch,
    and smell.
  • Helps to develop their large muscles and provide
    opportunities to run, jump, climb, crawl, or push
    and pull.
  • Large enough for inexperienced hands and fingers
    to use.

Age-Appropriate Toys (Babies/Toddlers)
  • Examples sturdy, colorful rattles, mobiles, soft
    washable toys, rubber balls, blocks, pots and
    pans, small balls, plastic measuring cups, push
    and pull toys, tyke bikes, large screws and nuts,
    books with rhymes and pictures to identify,
    stacking toys, and very simple puzzles with large

Age-Appropriate Toys (Preschoolers)
  • Children use their imagination.
  • Satisfies their urge to be active.
  • Provides opportunity to imitate adult roles.
    (Playing house, doctor, etc.)
  • Social interaction.
  • Easy handling.

Age-Appropriate Toys (Preschoolers)
  • Examples large crayons, paint brushes, puzzles
    with large pieces, building blocks, playdough and
    clay, a telephone, tricycles, sturdy wagons,
    wooden animals, dolls, store and housekeeping
    toys, and trains..

Age-Appropriate Toys (Middle Childhood)
  • Teaches new skills.
  • Can be shared and enjoyed with peers.
  • Developing interest in a future hobby or career.
  • Provides a realistic challenge.
  • Practice in reasoning and imagination.

Age-Appropriate Toys (Middle Childhood)
  • Examples carpenter benches with light-weight
    tools, model construction sets, dolls and
    accessories, marbles, kites, hobby materials
    stamp or coin collections, sports equipment,
    games, picture puzzles, cameras, and bicycles.

Age-Appropriate Toys (Later Childhood)
  • Challenging.
  • Helps to strengthen relationships with peers and
  • Provides opportunity to pursue special interests
    and hobbies.

Books read, read, read!!!
  • Good Night Moon
  • Dr. Seuss Cat in the Hat
  • The Hungary Caterpillar
  • Corduroy

Songs and Finger Play
  • Wheels on the Bus (Tune Here We Go Round The
    Mulberry Bush)
  • The wheels on the bus go round and round, round
    and round, round and round
  • The wheels on the bus go round and round, all
    through town.
  • The horn on the bus goes beep, beep, beep
  • The baby on the bus goes wah, wah, wah
  • The people on the bus go up and down, up and
  • The drive on the bus says, Move on back
  • The dog on the bus goes woof, woof, woof

Songs and Finger Play
  • Five Little Monkeys
  • Five little monkeys jumping on my bed
  • (hold up 5 fingers)
  • One feel off and broke his head (point to head)
  • Momma called the doctor, and the doctor said,
    (pretend to hold phone to ear)
  • No more monkeys jumping on the bed.
  • (shake finger to discipline)
  • Continue 4, 3, 2, 1 little monkey

Songs and Finger Play
  • Where is Thumbkin?
  • Where is thumbkin? Where is thumbkin? (hands
    behind back)
  • Here I am. Here I am. (thumb standing up)
  • How are you today sir? (one thumb bows)
  • Very well I thank you. (other bows)
  • Run away, run away. (behind back again)
  • Continue with each finger pointer, tall man,
    ring man, and pinky

Songs and Finger Play
  • Teensy, Weensy Spider
  • A teensy, weensy spider climbed up the water
    spout (fingers climb upward atop each other)
  • Down came the rain (wiggle fingers to make
  • And washed the spider out (hands and arms flung
  • Out came the sun (hands form circle)
  • And Dried up all the rain (hands open wide)
  • And the teensy, weensy spider climbed up the
    spout again.