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Special Topics on Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

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Title: Special Topics on Wireless Ad-hoc Networks


1
Special Topics on Wireless Ad-hoc Networks
Lecture 6 Wireless Area Networks (WPANs WLANs)
  • University of Tehran
  • Dept. of EE and Computer Engineering
  • By
  • Dr. Nasser Yazdani

2
Covered topic
  • How to build a small wireless network?
  • Different current wireless technologies
  • References
  • Chapter 3 of the book
  • Bluetooth
  • Design alternative for Wireless local area
    networks,

3
Outlines
  • Some basic issues
  • Wireless area network standards
  • Bluetooth
  • ZigBee
  • 802.11 standard

4
Ideal Wireless Area network?
  • Wish List
  • High speed (Efficiency)
  • Low cost
  • No use/minimal use of the mobile equipment
    battery
  • Can work in the presence of other WLAN
    (Heterogeneity)
  • Easy to install and use
  • Etc

5
Wireless LAN Design Goals
  • Wireless LAN Design Goals
  • Portable product Different countries have
    different regulations concerning RF band usage.
  • Low power consumption
  • License free operation
  • Multiple networks should co-exist

6
Wireless LAN Design Alternatives
  • Design Choices
  • Physical Layer diffused Infrared (IR) or Radio
    Frequency (RF)?
  • Radio Technology Direct-Sequence or
    Frequency-Hopping?
  • Which frequency range to use?
  • Which MAC protocol to use.
  • Peer-Peer architecture or Base-Station approach?

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Computer Network
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7
Physical Layer Alternatives
  • IR
  • Simple circuitry, cost-effective, no regulatory
    constraints, no Rayleigh fading (waves are
    small), also nice for micro-cellular networks...
    (multiple cells can exist in a room providing
    more bandwidth)
  • RF
  • more complicated circuitry, regulatory
    constraints (2.4 GHz Industrial Scientific
    Medical, ISM, bands) in the U.S.

8
Physical Layer Alternatives
IR RF
Cost lt10 lt20
Regulation None No license on ISM bands
Interference Ambient Light Radiators
coverage Spot Wide Area
Performance Moderate Depends on Bandwidth
Multiple networks Limited Possible
9
Spread spectrum technology
  • Problem of radio transmission frequency
    dependent fading can wipe out narrow band signals
    for duration of the interference
  • Solution spread the narrow band signal into a
    broad band signal using a special code
  • Side effects
  • coexistence of several signals without dynamic
    coordination
  • tap-proof
  • Alternatives Direct Sequence, Frequency Hopping

signal
interference
spread signal
power
power
spread interference
detection at receiver
f
f
10
DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)
  • XOR of the signal with pseudo-random number
    (chipping sequence)
  • generate a signal with a wider range of
    frequency spread spectrum

11
FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum)
  • Discrete changes of carrier frequency
  • sequence of frequency changes determined via
    pseudo random number sequence
  • Two versions
  • Fast Hopping several frequencies per user bit
  • Slow Hopping several user bits per frequency
  • Advantages
  • frequency selective fading and interference
    limited to short period
  • simple implementation
  • uses only small portion of spectrum at any time

12
FHSS Example
13
Comparison between Slow Hopping and Fast Hopping
  • Slow hopping
  • Pros cheaper
  • Cons less immune to narrowband interference
  • Fast hopping
  • Pros more immune to narrowband interference
  • Cons tight synchronization ? increased complexity

14
Radio Technology
  • Spread Spectrum Technologies
  • Frequency Hopping The sender keeps changing the
    carrier wave frequency at which its sending its
    data. Receiver must be in synch with transmitter,
    and know the ordering of frequencies.
  • Direct-Sequence The receiver listens to a set of
    frequencies at the same time. The subset of
    frequencies that actually contain data from the
    sender is determined by spreading code, which
    both the sender and receiver must know. This
    subset of frequencies changes during
    transmission.
  • Non-Spread Spectrum requires licensing

15
Frequency Hopping versus Direct Sequence
  • DS advantages
  • Lower cost
  • FH advantages
  • Higher capacity
  • Interference avoidance capability If some
    frequency has interference on it, simply don't
    hop there.
  • Multiple networks can co-exist Just use a
    different frequency hopping pattern.

16
Wireless Standards
17
Distance vs. Data Rate
18
Mobility vs. Data Rate
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Computer Network
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19
Bluetooth
  • Goals
  • Ad-hoc wireless connectivity for everything!
  • Original goal
  • Low-cost replacement for annoying wire between
    cellphone and headset
  • Result Two modes of operation
  • Point to point (serial wire replacement)
  • Point to multipoint (ad-hoc networking)

20
Bluetooth devices
  • Cellphones
  • Headsets
  • PDAs
  • Laptops
  • Two-way pagers
  • Pads, tabs, etc

21
Bluetooth design Specs
  • Started with Ericsson's Bluetooth Project in 1994
    !
  • Named after Danish king Herald Blatand (AD
    940-981) who was fond of blueberries
  • Radio-frequency communication between cell phones
    over short distances
  • Intel, IBM, Nokia, Toshiba, and Ericsson formed
    Bluetooth SIG in May 1998
  • Version 1.0A of the specification came out in
    late 1999.
  • IEEE 802.15.1 approved in early 2002 is based on
    Bluetooth
  • Key Features
  • Lower Power 10 µA in standby, 50 mA while
    transmitting
  • Cheap 5 per device
  • Small 9 mm2 single chips

22
Bluetooth design Specs
  • Frequency Range 2402 - 2480 MHz (total 79 MHz
    band) 23 MHz in some countries, e.g., Spain
  • Data Rate1 Mbps (Nominal) 720 kbps (User)
  • Channel Bandwidth1 MHz
  • Range Up to 10 m can be extended further
  • RF hopping 1600 times/s gt 625 µs/hop
  • Security Challenge/Response Authentication. 128b
    Encryption
  • TX Output Power
  • Class 1 20 dBm Max. (0.1W) 100m
  • Class 2 4 dBm (2.5 mW)
  • Class 3 0 dBm (1mW) 10m

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Computer Network
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23
Piconet
  • Piconet is formed by a master and many slaves
  • Up to 7 active slaves. Slaves can only transmit
    when requested by master
  • Up to 255 Parked slaves
  • Active slaves are polled by master for
    transmission
  • Each station gets a 8-bit parked address gt 255
    parked slaves/piconet
  • The parked station can join in 2ms.
  • Other stations can join in more time.
  • A device can participate in multiple piconets gt
    complex schedule

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Computer Network
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24
Frequency Hopping Sequences
  • 625 µs slots
  • Time-division duplex (TDD) gtDownstream and
    upstream alternate
  • Master starts in even numbered slots only.
  • Slaves start in odd numbered slots only
  • lsb of the clock indicates even or odd
  • Slaves can transmit in one slot right after
    receiving a packet
  • from master
  • Packets 1 slot, 3 slot, or 5 slots long
  • The frequency hop is skipped during a packet.

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Computer Network
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25
Bluetooth Operational States
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Computer Network
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26
Bluetooth Operational States (Cont)
  • Standby Initial state
  • Inquiry Master sends an inquiry packet. Slaves
    scan for inquiries and respond with their address
    and clock after a random delay (CSMA/CA)
  • Page Master in page state invites devices to
    join the piconet. Page message is sent in 3
    consecutive slots (3 frequencies). Slave enters
    page response state and sends page response
    including its device access code.
  • Master informs slave about its clock and address
    so that slave can participate in piconet. Slave
    computes the clock offset.
  • Connected A short 3-bit logical address is
    assigned
  • Transmit

27
Bluetooth Packet Format
  • Packets can be up to five slots long. 2745 bits.
  • Access codes
  • Channel access code identifies the piconet
  • Device access code for paging requests and
    response
  • Inquiry access code to discover units
  • Header member address (3b), type code (4b), flow
    control, ack/nack (1b), sequence number, and
    header error check (8b) 8b Header is encoded
    using 1/3 rate FEC resulting in 54b
  • Synchronous traffic has periodic reserved slots.
  • Other slots can be allocated for asynchronous
    traffic
  • 54b 0-2754b

72b
Access Code Baseband/link Control Header Data Payload
Univ. of Tehran
Computer Network
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28
Bluetooth Energy Management
  • Three inactive states
  • Hold No ACL. SCO (Sync data) continues. Node can
    do something else scan, page, inquire
  • Sniff Low-power mode. Slave listens only after
    fixed sniff intervals.
  • Park Very Low-power mode. Gives up its 3-bit
    active member address and gets an 8-bit parked
    member address.
  • Packets for parked stations are broadcast to
    3-bit zero address.

Sniff
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Computer Network
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29
Bluetooth Protocol Stack
  • RF Frequency hopping GFSK modulation
  • Baseband Frequency hop selection, connection,
    MAC

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Computer Network
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30
Baseband Layer
  • Each device has a 48-bit IEEE MAC address 3
    parts
  • Lower address part (LAP) 24 bits
  • Upper address part (UAP) 8 bits
  • Non-significant address part (NAP) - 16 bits
  • UAPNAP Organizationally Unique Identifier
    (OUI) from IEEE
  • LAP is used in identifying the piconet and other
    operations
  • Clock runs at 3200 cycles/sec or 312.5 µs (twice
    the hop rate)

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Computer Network
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31
Bluetooth Protocol Stack
  • Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol
    (L2CAP)
  • Protocol multiplexing
  • Segmentation and reassembly
  • Controls peak bandwidth, latency, and delay
    variation
  • Host Controller Interface
  • RFCOMM Layer
  • Presents a virtual serial port
  • Sets up a connection to another RFCOMM
  • Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) Each device has
    one SDP which acts as a server and client for
    service discovery messages
  • IrDA Interoperability protocols Allow existing
    IrDA applications to work w/o changes

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Computer Network
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32
Bluetooth Protocol Stack
  • IrDA object Exchange (IrOBEX) and Infrared Mobile
    Communication (IrMC) for synchronization
  • Audio is carried over 64 kbps over SCO links over
    baseband
  • Telephony control specification binary (TCS-BIN)
    implements call control including group
    management (multiple extensions, call forwarding,
    and group calls)
  • Application Profiles Set of algorithms, options,
    and parameters. Standard profiles Headset,
    Cordless telephony, Intercom, LAN, Fax, Serial
    line (RS232 and USB).

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Computer Network
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33
Bluetooth Reality Frequencies
  • ISM band is not the same everywhere!
  • Smaller band in Japan
  • Defense band in France!
  • How does radio know where it is and local laws?
  • Airplanes and FAA
  • Conflicts with 802.11
  • More powerful 802.11 stomps on Bluetooth

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Computer Network
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34
More Bluetooth Realities
  • Cost
  • Hard to produce cheap single-chip radio
  • Mix of analog and digital circuits
  • Not meeting noise margin requirements
  • Currently requires two chips
  • Total redesign of boards/products!
  • Ad-hoc networking is hard
  • Still lots of issues about networking protocols
  • First Bluetooth deployments will be P-to-P

35
More Bluetooth Realities
  • Encryption
  • Bluetooth devices use short keys for link layer
    encryption (export issues)
  • Authentication
  • How do two Bluetooth devices exchange keys?
  • Push a button on both simultaneously
  • Small window of vulnerability
  • What about ceiling mounted base stations?

36
Bluetooth summary
  • Will be very cool when it arrives
  • Will enable low-cost ad-hoc wireless networking
  • Lots of problems to be worked out first

37
ZigBee
  • Ultra-low power, low-data rate, industrial
    monitoring and control applications requiring
    small amounts of data, turned off most of the
    time (lt1 duty cycle), e.g., wireless light
    switches, meter reading, patient monitoring
  • IEEE 802.15.4
  • Less Complex. 32kB protocol stack vs 250kB for
    Bluetooth
  • Range 1 to 100 m, up to 65000 nodes.
  • Tri-Band
  • 16 Channels at 250 kbps in 2.4GHz ISM
  • 10 Channels at 40 kb/s in 915 MHz ISM band
  • One Channel at 20 kb/s in European 868 MHz band
  • ! Ref ZigBee Alliance, http//www.ZigBee.org

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Computer Network
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38
ZigBee
Two types of devices Full Function Devices (FFD)
for network routing and link coordination Reduced
Function Devices (RFD) Simple send/receive device
s
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Computer Network
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39
LAN Industry
  • WANs are offered as service
  • Cost of infrastructure
  • Coverage area
  • LANs are sold as end products
  • You own, no service charge
  • Analogy with PSTN/PBX
  • WLAN vs. WAN Cellular Networks
  • Data rate (2 Mbps vs. 54 Mbps)
  • Frequency band regulation (Licensing)
  • Method of data delivery (Service vs. own)

40
LAN standard
41
Early Experiences
  • IBM Switzerland,Late 1970
  • Factories and manufacturing floors
  • Diffused IR technology
  • Could not get 1 Mbps
  • HP Labs, Palo Alto, 1980
  • 100 Kbps DSSS around 900 Mhz
  • CSMA as MAC
  • Experimental licensing from FCC
  • Frequency administration was problematic, thus
    abandoned
  • Motorola, 1985
  • 1.73 GHz
  • Abandoned after FCC difficulties

42
Architectures
  • Distributed wireless Networks also called Ad-hoc
    networks
  • Centralized wireless Networks also called last
    hop networks. They are extension to wired
    networks.

43
Base-Station Approach Advantages over Peer-Peer
  • No hidden terminal base station hears all mobile
    terminals, are relays their information to ever
    mobile terminal in cell.
  • Higher transmission range
  • Easy expansion
  • Better approach to security
  • Problem?
  • Point of failure,
  • Feasibility?

44
Wireless LAN Architecture
Ad Hoc
Laptop
Laptop
Server
DS
Pager
Laptop
PDA
Laptop
45
Access Point Functions
  • Access point has three components
  • Wireless LAN interface to communicate with nodes
    in its service area
  • Wireline interface card to connect to the
    backbone network
  • MAC layer bridge to filter traffic between
    sub-networks. This function is essential to use
    the radio links efficiently

46
Medium Access Control
  • Wireless channel is a shared medium
  • Need access control mechanism to avoid
    interference
  • MAC protocol design has been an active area of
    research for many years. See Survey.

47
MAC A Simple Classification
Wireless MAC
Centralized
Distributed
On Demand MACs, Polling
Guaranteed or controlled access
Random access
Our focus
SDMA, FDMA, TDMA, Polling
48
Wireless MAC issues
  • Half duplex operations difficult to receive data
    while sending
  • Time varying channel Multipath propagation,
    fading
  • Burst Channel error BER is as high as 10-3. We
    need a better strategy to overcome noises.
  • Location dependant carrier sensing signal decays
    with path length.
  • Hidden nodes
  • Exposed nodes
  • Capture when a receiver can cleanly receive data
    from two sources simultaneously, the farther one
    sounds a noise.

49
Performance Metrics
  • Delay ave time on the MAC queue
  • Throughput fraction used for data transmission.
  • Fairness Not preference any node
  • Stability handle instantaneous loads greater
    than its max. capacity.
  • Robust against channel fading
  • Power consumption or power saving
  • Support for multimedia

50
Wireless LAN Architecture, Cont
Logical Link Control Layer
MAC Layer Consist of two sub layer, physical
Layer and physical convergence layer
  • Physical convergence layer, shields LLC from the
    specifics of the physical medium. Together with
    LLC it constitutes equivalent of Link Layer of OSI

51
Power Management
  • Battery life of mobile computers/PDAs are very
    short. Need to save
  • The additional usage for wireless should be
    minimal
  • Wireless stations have three states
  • Sleep
  • Awake
  • Transmit

52
Power Management, Cont
  • AP knows the power management of each node
  • AP buffers packets to the sleeping nodes
  • AP send Traffic Delivery Information Message
    (TDIM) that contains the list of nodes that will
    receive data in that frame, how much data and
    when?
  • The node is awake only when it is sending data,
    receiving data or listening to TDIM.

53
802.11 Features
  • Power management NICs to switch to lower-power
    standby modes periodically when not transmitting,
    reducing the drain on the battery. Put to sleep,
    etc.
  • Bandwidth To compress data
  • Security
  • Addressing destination address does not always
    correspond to location.

54
IEEE 802.11 Topology
  • Independent basic service set (IBSS) networks
    (Ad-hoc)
  • Basic service set (BSS), associated node with an
    AP
  • Extended service set (ESS) BSS networks
  • Distribution system (DS) as an element that
    interconnects BSSs within the ESS via APs.

55
Starting an IBSS
  • One station is configured to be initiating
    station, and is given a service set ID (SSID)
  • Starter sends beacons
  • Other stations in the IBSS will search the medium
    for a service set with SSID that matches their
    desired SSID and act on the beacons and obtain
    the information needed to communicate
  • There can be more stations configured as
    starter.

56
ESS topology
  • connectivity between multiple BSSs, They use a
    common DS

57
Starting an ESS
  • The infrastructure network is identified by its
    extended service set ID (ESSID)
  • All APs will have been set according to this
    ESSID
  • On power up, stations will issue probe requests
    and will locate the AP that they will associate
    with.

58
802.11 Logical Architecture
  • PLCP Physical Layer Convergence Procedure
  • PMD Physical Medium Dependent
  • MAC provides asynchronous, connectionless service
  • Single MAC and one of multiple PHYs like DSSS,
    OFDM, IR
  • and FHSS.

59
802.11 MAC Frame Format
Bytes

342346
32
6
Preamble PLCP header MPDU
6
2
6
6
4
2
2
6
Bytes
Encrypted to WEP
Bits
2
1
2
4
1
1
60
802.11 MAC Frame Format
  • Address Fields contains
  • Source address
  • Destination address
  • AP address
  • Transmitting station address
  • DS Distribution System
  • User Data, up to 2304 bytes long

61
Special Frames ACK, RTS, CTS
bytes
2
2
6
4
Frame Control
Duration
Receiver Address
CRC
  • Acknowledgement
  • Request To Send
  • Clear To Send

ACK
bytes
2
2
6
6
4
Frame Control
Duration
Receiver Address
Transmitter Address
CRC
RTS
bytes
2
2
6
4
Frame Control
Duration
Receiver Address
CRC
CTS
62
IEEE 802.11 LLC Layer
  • Provides three type of service for exchanging
    data between (mobile) devices connected to the
    same LAN
  • Acknowledged connectionless
  • Un-acknowledged connectionless, useful for
    broadcasting or multicasting.
  • Connection oriented
  • Higher layers expect error free transmission

63
IEEE 802.11 LLC Layer, Cont..
  • Each SAP (Service Access Point) address is 7
    bits. One bit is added to it to indicate whether
    it is order or response.
  • Control has three values
  • Information, carry user data
  • Supervisory, for error control and flow control
  • Unnumbered, other type of control packet

64
IEEE 802.11 LLC lt-gt MAC Primitives
  • Four types of primitives are exchanged between
    LLC and MAC Layer
  • Request order to perform a function
  • Confirm response to Request
  • Indication inform an event
  • Response inform completion of process began by
    Indication

65
Reception of packets
  • AP Buffer traffic to sleeping nodes
  • Sleeping nodes wake up to listen to TIM (Traffic
    Indication Map) in the Beacon
  • AP send a DTIM (Delivery TIM) followed by the
    data for that station.
  • Beacon contains, time stamp, beacon interval,
    DTIM period, DTIM count, sync info, TIM broadcast
    indicator

66
Frame type and subtypes
  • Three type of frames
  • Management
  • Control
  • Asynchronous data
  • Each type has subtypes
  • Control
  • RTS
  • CTS
  • ACK

67
Frame type and subtypes, Cont..
  • Management
  • Association request/ response
  • Re-association request/ response transfer from
    AP to another.
  • Probe request/ response
  • privacy request/ response encrypting content
  • Authentication to establish identity
  • Beacon (Time stamp, beacon interval, channels
    sync info, etc.)

68
Frame type and subtypes, Cont..
  • Management
  • TIM (Traffic Indication Map) indicates traffic to
    a dozing node
  • dissociation

69
802.11 Management Operations
  • Scanning
  • Association/Reassociation
  • Time synchronization
  • Power management

70
Scanning in 802.11
  • Goal find networks in the area
  • Passive scanning
  • Not require transmission
  • Move to each channel, and listen for Beacon
    frames
  • Active scanning
  • Require transmission
  • Move to each channel, and send Probe Request
    frames to solicit Probe Responses from a network

71
Association in 802.11
1 Association request
2 Association response
AP
3 Data traffic
Client
72
Reassociation in 802.11
1 Reassociation request
New AP
3 Reassociation response
5 Send buffered frames
2 verify previous association
Client
6 Data traffic
Old AP
4 send buffered frames
73
Time Synchronization in 802.11
  • Timing synchronization function (TSF)
  • AP controls timing in infrastructure networks
  • All stations maintain a local timer
  • TSF keeps timer from all stations in sync
  • Periodic Beacons convey timing
  • Beacons are sent at well known intervals
  • Timestamp from Beacons used to calibrate local
    clocks
  • Local TSF timer mitigates loss of Beacons

74
Power Management in 802.11
  • A station is in one of the three states
  • Transmitter on
  • Receiver on
  • Both transmitter and receiver off (dozing)
  • AP buffers packets for dozing stations
  • AP announces which stations have frames buffered
    in its Beacon frames
  • Dozing stations wake up to listen to the beacons
  • If there is data buffered for it, it sends a poll
    frame to get the buffered data

75
Authentication
  • Three levels of authentication
  • Open AP does not challenge the identity of the
    node.
  • Password upon association, the AP demands a
    password from the node.
  • Public Key Each node has a public key. Upon
    association, the AP sends an encrypted message
    using the nodes public key. The node needs to
    respond correctly using it private key.

76
Inter Frame Spacing
  • SIFS Short inter frame space dependent on PHY
  • PIFS point coordination function (PCF) inter
    frame space SIFS slot time
  • DIFS distributed coordination function (DCF)
    inter frame space PIFS slot time
  • The back-off timer is expressed in terms of
    number of time slots.

77
802.11 Frame Priorities
  • Short interframe space (SIFS)
  • For highest priority frames (e.g., RTS/CTS, ACK)
  • PCF interframe space (PIFS)
  • Used by PCF during contention free operation
  • DCF interframe space (DIFS)
  • Minimum medium idle time for contention-based
    services

DIFS
PIFS
content window
Frame transmission
Busy
SIFS
Time
78
SIFS/DIFS
  • SIFS makes RTS/CTS/Data/ACK atomic
  • Example Slot Time 1, CW 5, DIFS3, PIFS2,
    SIFS1,

79
Priorities in 802.11
  • CTS and ACK have priority over RTS
  • After channel becomes idle
  • If a node wants to send CTS/ACK, it transmits
    SIFS duration after channel goes idle
  • If a node wants to send RTS, it waits for DIFS gt
    SIFS

80
SIFS and DIFS
DATA1
ACK1
backoff
RTS
DIFS
SIFS
SIFS
81
Energy Conservation
  • Since many mobile hosts are operated by
    batteries, MAC protocols which conserve energy
    are of interest
  • Two approaches to reduce energy consumption
  • Power save Turn off wireless interface when
    desirable
  • Power control Reduce transmit power

82
Power Control with 802.11
  • Transmit RTS/CTS/DATA/ACK at least power level
    needed to communicate with the receiver
  • A/B do not receive RTS/CTS from C/D. Also do not
    sense Ds data transmission
  • Bs transmission to A at high power interferes
    with reception of ACK at C

B
C
D
A
83
A Plausible Solution
  • RTS/CTS at highest power, and DATA/ACK at
    smallest necessary power level
  • A cannot sense Cs data transmission, and may
    transmit DATA to some other host
  • This DATA will interfere at C
  • This situation unlikely if DATA transmitted at
    highest power level
  • Interference range sensing range

Data sensed
B
C
D
A
Data
RTS
Ack
Interference range
84
  • Transmitting RTS at the highest power level also
    reduces spatial reuse
  • Nodes receiving RTS/CTS have to defer
    transmissions

85
Bridge Functions
  • Speed conversion between different devices,
    results in buffering.
  • Frame format adaptation between different
    incompatible LANs
  • Adding or deleting fields in the frame to convert
    between different LAN standards

86
02.11 Activities IEEE
  • 802.11c Bridge Operation (Completed. Added to
    IEEE 802.1D)
  • 802.11d Global Harmonization (PHYs for other
    countries. Published as IEEE Std 802.11d-2001)
  • 802.11e Quality of Service. IEEE Std
    802.11e-2005
  • 802.11f Inter-Access Point Protocol (Published
    as IEEE Std Std 802.11F-2003)
  • 802.11h Dynamic Frequency Selection and transmit
    power control to satisfy 5GHz band operation in
    Europe. Published as IEEE Std 802.11h-2003
  • 802.11i MAC Enhancements for Enhanced Security.
    Published as IEEE Std 802.11i-2004
  • 802.11j 4.9-5 GHz operation in Japan. IEEE Std
    802.11j-2004
  • 802.11k Radio Resource Measurement interface to
    higher layers. Active.

87
02.11 Activities IEEE
  • 802.11m Maintenance. Correct editorial and
    technical issues in 802.11a/b/d/g/h. Active.
  • 802.11n Enhancements for higher throughput (100
    Mbps). Active.
  • 802.11p Inter-vehicle and vehicle-road side
    communication at 5.8GHz. Active.
  • 802.11r Fast Roaming. Started July 2003.
    Active.
  • 802.11s ESS Mesh Networks. Active.
  • 802.11T Wireless Performance Metrics. Active.
  • 802.11u Inter-working with External Networks.
    Active.
  • 802.11v Wireless Network Management enhancements
    for interface to upper layers. Extension to
    80211.k. Active.
  • Study Group ADS Management frame security.
    Active
  • Standing Committee Wireless Next Generation WNG
    Globalization jointly w ETSI-BRAN and MMAC.
    Active.

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802.11n
  • Trend HDTV and flat screens are taking off Media
    Center Extenders from Linksys and other vendors
  • Application HDTV and streaming video (over
    longer distances than permitted by 802.15.3
    WPANs)
  • 11n Next Generation of 802.11
  • At least 100 Mbps at MAC user layer ? 200 Mbps
    at PHY ? 4x to 5x faster than 11a/g
  • (802.11a/g have 54 Mbps over the air and 25 Mbps
    to user)
  • Pre-11n products already available
  • Task Group n (TGn) setup Sept 2003
  • Expected Completion March 2007

89
802.11n
  • Uses multiple input multiple output antenna
    (MIMO)
  • Data rate and range are enhanced by using spatial
  • multiplexing (N antenna pairs) plus antenna
    diversity
  • Occupies one WLAN channel, and in compliance with
    802.11
  • Backwards compatible with 802.11 a,b,g
  • One access point supports both standard WLAN and
    MIMO devices

90
HIPERLAN
  • 1995 ETSI technical group RES 10 (Radio Equipment
    and Systems) developed HIPERLAN/1 wireless LAN
    standards using 5 channels in 5.15-5.3 GHz
    frequency range
  • Technical group BRAN (Broadband Radio Access
    Network) is standardizing HIPERLAN/2 for wireless
    ATM
  • ETSI URL for Hiperlan information
    http//www.etsi.org/frameset/home.htm?
    /technicalactiv/Hiperlan/hiperlan2.htm

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HIPERLAN Characteristics
  • HIPERLANs with same radio frequencies might
    overlap
  • Stations have unique node identifiers (NID)
  • Stations belonging to same HIPERLAN share a
    common HIPERLAN identifier (HID)
  • Stations of different HIPERLANs using same
    frequencies cause interference and reduce data
    transmission capacity of each HIPERLAN
  • Packets with different HIDs are rejected to avoid
    confusion of data

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HIPERLAN Protocol Layers
  • Data link layer logical link control (LLC) sub
    layer MAC sub layer channel access control
    (CAC) sub layer

network
LLC
data link
MAC
physical
CAC
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HIPERLAN Protocol Layers, Cont..
  • MAC sub layer
  • Keeps track of HIPERLAN addresses (HID NID) in
    overlapping HIPERLANs
  • Provides lookup service between network names and
    HIDs
  • Converts IEEE-style MAC addresses to HIPERLAN
    addresses
  • Provides encryption of data for security

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HIPERLAN Protocol Layers, Cont..
  • MAC sub layer
  • Provides multi hop routing certain stations
    can perform store-and-forwarding of frames
  • Recognizes user priority indication (for
    time-sensitive frames)

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HIPERLAN Protocol Layers, Cont..
  • CAC sub layer
  • Non-preemptive priority multiple access (NPMA)
    gives high priority traffic preference over low
    priority
  • Stations gain access to channel through channel
    access cycles consisting of 3 phases

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HIPERLAN CAC Protocol
  • CAC sub layer

Cycle
Prioritization Phase
Transmission Phase
Contention Phase
1
2
3
4
Data
ACK
AP
1
2
3
4
5
Time
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HIPERLAN Protocol Layers, Cont
  • CAC is designed to give each station (of same
    priority) equal chance to access the channel
  • First stations with highest priority data are
    chosen. The rest will back off until all higher
    priority data is transmitted.
  • Stations with the same priority level data,
    compete according to a given rule to choose
    survivors
  • Survivors wait a random number of time slots and
    then listen to see if the channel is idle

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Computer Network
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HIPERLAN Protocol Layers, Cont
  • If the channel is idle then it starts
    transmitting.
  • Those who could not transmit wait until next
    period

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Computer Network
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HIPERLAN/2
  • To support QoS, Handoff and integrate WLAN with
    next generation Cellular sys.
  • Supporting IP ATM at 54Mbps
  • Use TDMA as MAC
  • DLC (Data Link Control) layer constitutes a
    logical link Between AP and MT to ensure a
    connection oriented Communication.

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Related Standards Activities
  • IEEE 802.11
  • http//grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/
  • Hiperlan/2
  • http//www.etsi.org/technicalactiv/hiperlan2.htm
  • BlueTooth
  • http//www.bluetooth.com
  • IETF manet (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks) working group
  • http//www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.ht
    ml
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