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CS558 Advanced Topics in Wireless Networks

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Title: CS558 Advanced Topics in Wireless Networks


1
CS558 Advanced Topics in Wireless Networks
  • Dr. Wenzhan Song
  • Assistant Professor, Computer Science

2
Ethernet uses CSMA/CD
  • Before attempting a retransmission, adapter waits
    a random time, that is, random access
  • No slots
  • adapter doesnt transmit if it senses that some
    other adapter is transmitting, that is, carrier
    sense
  • transmitting adapter aborts when it senses that
    another adapter is transmitting, that is,
    collision detection

3
CSMA/CD (Collision Detection)
  • CSMA/CD carrier sensing, deferral as in CSMA
  • collisions detected within short time
  • colliding transmissions aborted, reducing channel
    wastage
  • collision detection
  • easy in wired LANs measure signal strengths,
    compare transmitted, received signals
  • difficult in wireless LANs receiver shut off
    while transmitting

4
Ethernet CSMA/CD algorithm
  • 1. Adaptor receives datagram from net layer
    creates frame
  • 2. If adapter senses channel idle, it starts to
    transmit frame. If it senses channel busy, waits
    until channel idle and then transmits
  • 3. If adapter transmits entire frame without
    detecting another transmission, the adapter is
    done with frame !
  • 4. If adapter detects another transmission while
    transmitting, aborts and sends jam signal
  • 5. After aborting, adapter enters exponential
    backoff after the mth collision, adapter chooses
    a K at random from 0,1,2,,2m-1. Adapter waits
    K?512 bit times and returns to Step 2

5
Ethernets CSMA/CD (more)
  • Jam Signal make sure all other transmitters are
    aware of collision 48 bits
  • Bit time .1 microsec for 10 Mbps Ethernet for
    K1023, wait time is about 50 msec
  • Exponential Backoff
  • Goal adapt retransmission attempts to estimated
    current load
  • heavy load random wait will be longer
  • first collision choose K from 0,1 delay is K?
    512 bit transmission times
  • after second collision choose K from 0,1,2,3
  • after ten collisions, choose K from
    0,1,2,3,4,,1023

6
CSMA/CD (Collision Detection)
  • CSMA/CD can be in one of three states
    contention, transmission, or idle.

7
CSMA/CD efficiency
  • See equation on textbook page 280
  • Much better than ALOHA, also decentralized,
    simple, and cheap

8
Elements of a wireless network
9
Elements of a wireless network
10
Elements of a wireless network
  • wireless link
  • typically used to connect mobile(s) to base
    station
  • also used as backbone link
  • multiple access protocol coordinates link access
  • various data rates, transmission distance

11
Elements of a wireless network
12
Elements of a wireless network
  • Ad hoc mode
  • no base stations
  • nodes can only transmit to other nodes within
    link coverage
  • nodes organize themselves into a network route
    among themselves

13
Wireless Link Characteristics
  • Differences from wired link .
  • decreased signal strength radio signal
    attenuates as it propagates through matter (path
    loss)
  • interference from other sources standardized
    wireless network frequencies (e.g., 2.4 GHz)
    shared by other devices (e.g., phone) devices
    (motors) interfere as well
  • multipath propagation radio signal reflects off
    objects ground, arriving ad destination at
    slightly different times
  • . make communication across (even a point to
    point) wireless link much more difficult

14
Wireless network characteristics
  • Multiple wireless senders and receivers create
    additional problems (beyond multiple access)
  • Hidden terminal problem
  • B, A hear each other
  • B, C hear each other
  • A, C can not hear each other
  • means A, C unaware of their interference at B
  • Signal fading
  • B, A hear each other
  • B, C hear each other
  • A, C can not hear each other interferring at B

15
Characteristics of selected wireless link
standards
802.16
54 Mbps
802.11a,g
5-11 Mbps
.11 p-to-p link
802.11b
1 Mbps
802.15
3G
384 Kbps
UMTS/WCDMA, CDMA2000
2G
56 Kbps
IS-95 CDMA, GSM
802.16 10-66GHz 802.11a 5GHz ISM
band802.11b,g 2.4GHz ISM band802.15 2.4GHz
ISM band
16
IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN
  • 802.11b
  • 2.4-2.485 GHz unlicensed radio spectrum
  • up to 11 Mbps
  • direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) in
    physical layer
  • all hosts use same chipping code
  • widely deployed, using base stations
  • 802.11a
  • 5-5.8 GHz range
  • up to 54 Mbps
  • 802.11g
  • 2.4-2.485 GHz range
  • up to 54 Mbps
  • All use CSMA/CA for multiple access
  • All have base-station and ad-hoc network versions

17
802.11 LAN architecture
  • wireless host communicates with base station
  • base station access point (AP)
  • Basic Service Set (BSS) (aka cell) in
    infrastructure mode contains
  • wireless hosts
  • access point (AP) base station
  • ad hoc mode hosts only

hub, switch or router
BSS 1
BSS 2
18
802.11 Channels, association
  • 802.11b 2.4GHz-2.485GHz spectrum divided into 11
    channels at different frequencies
  • AP admin chooses frequency for AP
  • interference possible channel can be same as
    that chosen by neighboring AP!
  • host must associate with an AP
  • scans channels, listening for beacon frames
    containing APs name (SSID) and MAC address
  • selects AP to associate with
  • may perform authentication Chapter 8
  • will typically run DHCP to get IP address in APs
    subnet

19
802.11 Wireless LANs
  • MAC protocols
  • DCF CSMA/CA
  • 802.11 Frame format and addressing
  • Physical layer issues

20
IEEE 802.11 Protocol Architecture
Point Coordination Function (PCF)
OFDM
21
Media Access Control
  • Distributed wireless foundation MAC (DWFMAC)
  • Distributed access control mechanism
  • Optional centralized control on top
  • Lower sublayer is distributed coordination
    function (DCF)
  • Contention algorithm to provide access to all
    traffic
  • Asynchronous traffic
  • Point coordination function (PCF)
  • Centralized MAC algorithm
  • Contention free
  • Built on top of DCF

22
Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)
  • DCF sublayer uses CSMA/CA
  • Uses both physical and virtual carrier sensing.
  • MACAW(Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance
    for Wireless) with virtual carrier sensing.
  • 1-persistent physical carrier sensing.
  • No collision detection
  • Not practical on wireless network
  • Dynamic range of signals very large
  • Transmitting station cannot distinguish incoming
    weak signals from noise and effects of own
    transmission
  • DCF includes delays
  • Amounts to priority scheme
  • Interframe space

23
CSMA/CA
  • 802.11 sender
  • 1 if sense channel idle for DIFS then
  • transmit entire frame (no CD)
  • 2 if sense channel busy then
  • start random backoff time
  • timer counts down while channel idle
  • transmit when timer expires
  • if no ACK, increase random backoff interval,
    repeat 2
  • 802.11 receiver
  • - if frame received OK
  • return ACK after SIFS (ACK needed due to
    hidden terminal problem)

sender
receiver
24
Avoiding collisions in CSMA/CA
  • idea allow sender to reserve channel rather
    than random access of data frames avoid
    collisions of long data frames
  • sender first transmits small request-to-send
    (RTS) packets to BS using CSMA
  • RTSs may still collide with each other (but
    theyre short)
  • BS broadcasts clear-to-send CTS in response to
    RTS
  • RTS heard by all nodes
  • sender transmits data frame
  • other stations defer transmissions

Avoid data frame collisions completely using
small reservation packets!
25
Collision Avoidance RTS-CTS exchange
A
B
AP
defer
time
26
virtual channel sensing in CSMA/CA
  • The use of virtual channel sensing in CSMA/CA.

A
B
D
C
27
Point Coordination Function (PCF)
  • Alternative access method implemented on top of
    DCF
  • Polling by centralized polling master (point
    coordinator)
  • Uses PIFS when issuing polls
  • PIFS smaller than DIFS
  • Can seize medium and lock out all asynchronous
    traffic while it issues polls and receives
    responses
  • E.g. wireless network configured so number of
    stations with time-sensitive traffic controlled
    by point coordinator
  • Remaining traffic contends for access using CSMA
  • Point coordinator polls to stations asking if any
    frames to send
  • When poll issued, polled station may respond
    using SIFS
  • Once a station has signed up for polling service
    at a certain rate, it is effectively guaranteed a
    certain fraction of the bandwidth

28
IEEE 802.11 MAC Logic
29
IEEE 802.11 MAC Logic
  • Single delay known as interframe space (IFS)
  • Using IFS, rules for CSMA
  • Station with frame senses medium
  • If idle, wait to see if remains idle for one IFS.
    If so, may transmit immediately
  • If busy, (either initially or becomes busy during
    IFS) station defers transmission
  • Continue to monitor until current transmission is
    over
  • Once current transmission over, delay another IFS
  • If remains idle, back off random time and again
    sense
  • If medium still idle, station may transmit
  • During backoff time, if becomes busy, backoff
    timer is halted and resumes when medium becomes
    idle
  • To ensure stability, binary exponential backoff
    used

30
IEEE 802.11 MAC Timing Basic Access Method
31
Priority Interframe Space Values
  • Use three values for IFS
  • SIFS (short IFS)
  • Shortest IFS
  • For all immediate response actions
  • Acknowledgment (ACK)
  • Clear to send (CTS)
  • Poll response
  • PIFS (point coordination function IFS)
  • Midlength IFS
  • Used by the centralized controller in PCF scheme
    when issuing polls
  • Takes precedence over normal contention traffic,
    e.g., DCF
  • Frames using SIFS have precedence over PCF poll
  • DIFS (distributed coordination function IFS)
  • Longest IFS
  • Used as minimum delay for asynchronous frames
    contending for access

32
802.11 Wireless LANs
  • MAC protocols
  • DCF CSMA/CA
  • 802.11 Frame format and addressing
  • Physical layer issues

33
802.11 frame addressing
Address 4 used only in ad hoc mode
Address 1 MAC address of wireless host or AP to
receive this frame
Address 3 MAC address of router interface to
which AP is attached
Address 2 MAC address of wireless host or AP
transmitting this frame
34
802.11 frame addressing
H1
R1
35
802.11 frame more
frame seq (for reliable ARQ)
duration of reserved transmission time (RTS/CTS)
frame type (RTS, CTS, ACK, data)
36
802.11 mobility within same subnet
  • H1 remains in same IP subnet IP address can
    remain same
  • switch which AP is associated with H1?
  • self-learning switch will see frame from H1 and
    remember which switch port can be used to reach
    H1

hub or switch
BBS 1
AP 1
AP 2
H1
BBS 2
37
802.11 Wireless LANs
  • MAC protocols
  • DCF CSMA/CA
  • 802.11 Frame format and addressing
  • Physical layer issues

38
IEEE 802.11 Protocol Architecture
Point Coordination Function (PCF)
OFDM
39
Wireless Physical Layer
  • Physical layer conforms to OSI (five options)
  • 1997 802.11 infrared, FHSS, DHSS
  • 1999 802.11a OFDM and 802.11b HR-DSSS
  • 2001 802.11g OFDM
  • 802.11 Infrared
  • Two capacities 1 Mbps or 2 Mbps.
  • Range is 10 to 20 meters and cannot penetrate
    walls.
  • Does not work outdoors.
  • 802.11 FHSS (Frequence Hopping Spread Spectrum)
  • Offers good resistance to multipath fading.
  • 79 non-overlapping channels, each 1 Mhz wide at
    low end of 2.4 GHz ISM band.
  • Same pseudo-random number generator used by all
    stations.
  • Dwell time min. time on channel before hopping
    (400msec).

Multipath Fading The deflection of a radio signal
off obstacles which can cause interference during
signal reception. Multipath occurs when a radio
signal is received directly by an antenna and
later the same signal is received again,
reflected from a building or mountain. "Ghosting"
of a TV signal is a form of muiltipath. Under
certain conditions, two or more of the signals
can interfere with each other and create "fading"
(a loss of signal) in the communications link.
40
Wireless Physical Layer
  • 802.11 DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)
  • Spreads signal over entire spectrum using
    pseudo-random sequence (similar to CDMA see
    Tanenbaum sec. 2.6.2).
  • Each bit transmitted using an 11 chips Barker
    sequence, PSK at 1Mbaud.
  • 1 or 2 Mbps.
  • 802.11a OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Divisional
    Multiplexing)
  • Compatible with European HiperLan2.
  • Good immunity to multipath fading
  • 54Mbps in wider 5.5 GHz band ? transmission range
    is limited.
  • Uses 52 FDM channels (48 for data 4 for
    synchronization).
  • Encoding is complex ( PSM up to 18 Mbps and QAM
    above this capacity).
  • E.g., at 54Mbps 216 data bits encoded into into
    288-bit symbols.
  • More difficulty penetrating walls.

41
Wireless Physical Layer
  • 802.11b HR-DSSS (High Rate Direct Sequence Spread
    Spectrum)
  • 11a and 11b shows a split in the standards
    committee.
  • 11b approved and hit the market before 11a.
  • Up to 11 Mbps in 2.4 GHz band using 11 million
    chips/sec.
  • Note in this bandwidth all these protocols have
    to deal with interference from microwave ovens,
    cordless phones and garage door openers.
  • Range is 7 times greater than 11a.
  • 11b and 11a are incompatible!!

42
Wireless Physical Layer
  • 802.11g OFDM(Orthogonal Frequency Division
    Multiplexing)
  • An attempt to combine the best of both 802.11a
    and 802.11b.
  • Supports bandwidths up to 54 Mbps.
  • Uses 2.4 GHz frequency for greater range.
  • Is backward compatible with 802.11b.

43
Data Link Layer Road Map
  • Data link layer design issues
  • Framing
  • Error Control
  • Reliable data transfer and flow control
  • Example data link protocols
  • HDLC and PPP
  • Multiple Access Protocols
  • Static channel allocation
  • Dynamic channel allocation
  • LAN technologies and their MAC protocols
  • Ethernet
  • WiFi and WiMax and WPAN

44
Broadband Wireless
  • Wireless MAN or Wi-Max
  • IEEE 802.16 standard for bridging the last mile
    between ISPs and their customers as replacement
    for costly-todeploy fiber optic/DSL/cable modem
    links (Broadband Wireless Access, BWA)
  • Original PHY-Layer
  • 10-66 GHz line-of-sight connections with fixed,
    directed outdoor antennas single-carrier, TDD or
    FDD with TDMA in the uplink
  • In 802.16a a second PHY-layer was added to make
    the standard suitable for residential
    applications (no line-of-sight, more multi-path
    propagation)
  • 2-11 GHz, both licensed and license-exempt
    non-line-of-sight operation possible support for
    advanced antenna systems three air interfaces
    single carrier, OFDM with TDMA, or OFDMA

45
Comparison of 802.11 and 802.16a
46
The 802.16 Protocol Stack
  • The 802.16 Protocol Stack.

47
The 802.16 Physical Layer
  • The 802.16 transmission environment.

Use error-correction code Hamming code
48
The 802.16 Physical Layer (2)
  • FDD TDD
  • Example Frames and time slots for time division
    duplexing(TDD)

49
The 802.16 MAC Sublayer Protocol
  • Downstream channel
  • Base station decide
  • Upstream channel
  • Competing uncoordinated subscribers
  • Related to QoS issues
  • Four Connection-Oriented Service Classes
  • Constant bit rate service (uncompressed voice)
  • Real-time variable bit rate service (compressed
    multimedia)
  • Non-real-time variable bit rate service (not real
    time heavy transmissions, large file transfers)
  • Best efforts service (everything else)
  • Decided when connection is set up

50
802.15 personal area network
  • less than 10 m diameter
  • replacement for cables (mouse, keyboard,
    headphones)
  • ad hoc no infrastructure
  • master/slaves
  • slaves request permission to send (to master)
  • master grants requests
  • 802.15 evolved from Bluetooth specification
  • 2.4-2.5 GHz radio band
  • up to 721 kbps

radius of coverage
51
Bluetooth History
  • 1994 Ericsson study complete/vision
  • 1995 Engineering work begins
  • 1997 Intel agrees to collaborate
  • 1998 Bluetooth SIG formed
  • Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia and Toshiba
  • 1999 Bluetooth Specification 1.0A
  • SIG promoter group expanded
  • 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft Motorola
  • 2000 Bluetooth Specification 1.0B, 2000
    adopters
  • 2001 First retail products released,
    Specification 1.1
  • 2003 Bluetooth Specification 1.2
  • 2004 Bluetooth Specification 2.0

52
Special Interest Group
https//www.bluetooth.org/
53
Bluetooth Architecture
  • Piconet
  • Basic unit of Bluetooth networking
  • Master and one to seven slave devices
  • Master determines channel (hop frequency) and
    phase
  • Scatternet
  • Inter-piconet communication
  • Device in one piconet may exist as master or
    slave in another piconet
  • Allows many devices to share same area
  • Makes efficient use of bandwidth

54
Piconet
  • Before a connection is created, a device is in
    standby mode, periodically listen for messages
    every 1.28 sec.
  • Devices are connected in an ad hoc fashion,
    called piconet.
  • 8 active devices in a piconet, each piconet has 1
    master and up to 7 slaves.
  • Other devices within the piconet will be
    considered parked. (255 parked)
  • Parked devices, as well as the slaves, are
    synchronized to the master.

P
S
S
M
P
SB
S
P
SB
M Master S Slave
P Parked SB Standby
55
Scatternet
  • Linking of multiple co-located piconets through
    the sharing of common master or slave devices
  • A device can be slave in one piconet and master
    of another
  • No device can be master of two piconets

Piconets
P
S
S
S
M
M
P
P
SB
MMaster SSlave PParked SBStandby
S
P
SB
SB
S
56
Scatternets
57
Bluetooth Applications
  • Originally conceived as a cable replacement
    technology
  • Eliminates need for numerous cable attachments
    for connection
  • Other usage models began to develop
  • Personal Area Network (PAN)
  • Data/voice access points
  • Ad-hoc networks

58
Core Bluetooth Products
  • Notebook PCs desktop computers
  • Printers
  • PDAs
  • Other handheld devices
  • Cell phones
  • Wireless periperals
  • Headsets
  • Cameras
  • Access Points
  • CD Player
  • TV/VCR/DVD
  • Telephone Answering Devices
  • Cordless Phones
  • Cars

59
Costs of Bluetooth Chips
60
Bluetooth Standards Documents
  • Core specifications
  • Details of various layers of Bluetooth protocol
    architecture
  • Profile specifications
  • Use of Bluetooth technology to support various
    applications

61
Bluetooth Protocol Stack
  • The 802.15 version of the Bluetooth protocol
    architecture.

62
Protocol Architecture
  • Bluetooth is a layered protocol architecture
  • Core protocols
  • Cable replacement and telephony control protocols
  • Adopted protocols
  • Core protocols
  • Radio
  • Baseband
  • Link manager protocol (LMP)
  • Logical link control and adaptation protocol
    (L2CAP)
  • Service discovery protocol (SDP)

63
Bluetooth Radio Layer
  • 2.4 GHz ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) Open
    Band
  • Globally free available frequency
  • 79 MHz of spectrum 79 channels
  • Frequency Hopping (FHSS, Frequency Hopping Spread
    Spectrum) Time Division Duplex (1600
    hops/second)
  • Disadvantage interfere with IEEE 802.11b products

64
Unlicensed Radio Spectrum
?
12cm
5cm
33cm
26 Mhz
83.5 Mhz
125 Mhz
902 Mhz
2.4 Ghz
5.725 Ghz
2.4835 Ghz
5.785 Ghz
928 Mhz
802.11a HyperLan
cordless phones baby monitors Wireless LANs
802.11 Bluetooth Microwave oven
65
Frequency Hopping
  • Total bandwidth divided into 1MHz physical
    channels
  • FH occurs by jumping from one channel to another
    in pseudorandom sequence
  • Hopping sequence shared with all devices on
    piconet

66
Frequency Hopping
1Mhz
. . .
79
1
2
3
83.5 Mhz
  • frequency hopping spread spectrum
  • 2.402 GHz k MHz, k0, , 78
  • 1,600 hops per second

67
Radio Specification
  • Low Power Consumption
  • Three power classes defined with max output power
    from 1 mW (Class 3) to 100 mW (Class 1).
  • Class 1 Outputs 100 mW for maximum range
  • Power control mandatory
  • Provides greatest distance
  • Class 2 Outputs 2.4 mW at maximum
  • Power control optional
  • Class 3 Nominal output is 1 mW
  • Lowest power
  • Short Range 10-100 Meter
  • Class 1 100 meter (300 feet)
  • Class 2 20 meter (60 feet)
  • Class 3 10 meter (30 feet)

68
Baseband Layer
  • MAC sublayer some elements of physical layer
  • Deal with how the master controls time slots and
    how these slots are grouped into frames
  • Piconet access
  • Bluetooth devices use time division duplex (TDD)
  • Access technique is TDMA

69
Quiz
  • Describe Non-persistent CSMA and p-Persistent
    CSMA (including 1-persistent)

70
Quiz
  • Describe CSMA/CD

71
Quiz
  • Describe CSMA/CA
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