Chapter 5 The Self - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 35
About This Presentation

Chapter 5 The Self


Chapter 5 The Self By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition Opening Vignette: Lisa What depresses Lisa about the magazine models? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:356
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 36
Provided by: cla70
Tags: chapter | esteem | self


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 5 The Self

Chapter 5The Self
By Michael R. Solomon
Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth
Opening Vignette Lisa
  • What depresses Lisa about the magazine models?
  • Lisa feels that women dont look like models in
    real life. Do you agree?
  • If Lisa doesnt consider herself unattractive,
    why does she consider cosmetic surgery?
  • Does Lisa want to improve herself for Eric or

Perspectives on the Self
  • Does the Self Exist?
  • 1980s called the Me Decade
  • March 7th designated Self Day by Self magazine
  • Western societies emphasize uniqueness of self.
  • Collective self Eastern cultures belief that a
    persons identity is derived from his or her
    social group.
  • Mien-Tzu Confucian belief that reputation is
    achieved through success and ostentation

Self Concept
  • Self Concept
  • The beliefs a person holds about his or her own
    attributes and how he or she evaluates these
  • Dimensions of the Attributes of Self Concept
  • Content
  • Positivity
  • Intensity
  • Accuracy
  • Consumer perceptions of self can be quite
    distorted, particularly with regard to their
    physical appearance.

  • Self-esteem
  • Refers to the positivity of a persons
  • Social Comparison
  • A process by which consumers evaluate themselves
    by comparing themselves with others (particularly
    comparisons with idealized images of people in
  • Self-esteem Advertising
  • Attempts to change product attitudes by
    stimulating positive feelings about the self.

Real and Idealized Selves
  • Ideal Self
  • A persons conception of how he or she would like
    to be
  • Partially molded by elements of a consumers
  • Actual Self
  • A persons realistic appraisal of the qualities
    he or she does and does not possess
  • Fantasy Bridging the Gap between the Selves
  • Fantasy A self-induced shift in consciousness
  • Fantasy appeals Marketing communications aimed
    at individuals with a large discrepancy between
    their real and ideal selves

Fantasy Appeals
Multiple Selves
  • Role Identities
  • Different components of the self
  • Symbolic Interactionism
  • Stresses that relationships with other people
    play a large part in forming the self
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy By acting the way we
    assume others expect us to act, we wind up
    confirming these perceptions
  • The Looking-Glass Self
  • The process of imagining the reactions of others
    toward us

Protection Against Identity Theft
  • Self-Consciousness
  • A painful awareness of oneself magnified by the
    belief that others are intently watching.
  • Public Self-Consciousness
  • A heightened concern about the nature of ones
    public image
  • Results in more concern about the appropriateness
    of products and consumption activities
  • Self Monitoring
  • Awareness of how one presents oneself in a social

Consumption and Self-Concept
  • Products that Shape the Self You are What you
  • People use an individuals consumption behaviors
    to help them make judgments about that persons
    social identity.
  • Symbolic self-completion theory People who have
    an incomplete self-definition tend to complete
    this identity by acquiring and displaying symbols
    associated with it.
  • Self/Product Congruence
  • Consumers demonstrate consistency between their
    values and the things they buy.
  • Self-image congruence models Products will be
    chosen when their attributes match some aspect of
    the self.

The Extended Self
  • Extended Self
  • External objects that consumers consider a part
    of themselves
  • Four Levels of the Extended Self
  • (1) Individual Level Personal possessions
  • (2) Family Level Residence and furnishings
  • (3) Community Level Neighborhood or town one is
  • (4) Group Level Social groups
  • A consumer may also feel that landmarks,
    monuments, or sports teams are part of the
    extended self.
  • Identity Theft
  • Criminal use of personal information to secure

Advertisements Extending the Self
  • This Italian ad demonstrates that our favorite
    products are part of the extended self.

Discussion Question
  • Some consumers feel that a sports team is part of
    the extended self. At they
    celebrate fanaticism toward the Tennessee Titans
    football team.
  • How does affiliation with a sports team affect
    self perceptions? What other affiliations are
    part of the extended self?

Sex Roles
  • Sex Identity
  • An important component of a consumers self
  • Gender Differences in Socialization
  • Agentic goals (Males) Stress self assertion and
  • Communal goals (Females) Stress affiliation and
    fostering of harmonious relations

Satirical Ad of Exploitation
  • This French shoe ad pokes fun at ads that demean
    women by proclaiming No womans body was
    exploited in the making of this advertisement.

Sex Roles (cont.)
  • Gender Versus Sexual Identity
  • Sex-Typed Traits Characteristics stereotypically
    associated with gender
  • Sex-Typed Products
  • Many products are sex-typed (i.e., they take on
    masculine or feminine attributes and are
    associated with gender)
  • Androgyny
  • Refers to the possession of both masculine and
    feminine traits
  • Sex-typed people Stereotypically masculine or
  • Androgynous people Mixed gender characteristics

Culturally Bound Sex Roles
  • This ad for Bijan illustrates how sex-role
    identities are culturally bound by contrasting
    the expectations of how women should appear in
    two different countries.

Sex Roles (conc.)
  • Female Sex Roles
  • Female sex roles are still evolving
  • Male Sex Roles
  • Masculinism The study of the male image and the
    cultural meanings of masculinity
  • Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender (GLBT)
  • GLBT population is an attractive segment to
  • The 1990s saw big corporations actively court
    this market segment

Reinforcing Gender Stereotypes
  • This ad rebels somewhat against political
    correctness by reinforcing gender stereotypes.

Targeting GLBT Consumers
  • This ad for Alize, a cognac drink, is geared
    toward lesbians.

VIDEO Subaru
  • Survey data told Subaru that it was overlooking
    the female demographic.

Click image to play video.
Body Image
  • Body Image
  • Refers to a consumers subjective evaluation of
    his or her physical self
  • Body Cathexis
  • A persons feelings about his or her body
  • Ideal of Beauty
  • A particular model, or exemplar, of appearance

Ideals of Beauty
  • Is Beauty Universal?
  • Men are attracted to an hourglass shape
  • Women prefer men with a heavy lower face,
    above-average height, and a prominent brow
  • The Western Ideal
  • Big round eyes, tiny waists, large breasts, blond
    hair, and blue eyes
  • Ideals of Beauty over Time
  • Periods of history tend to be characterized by a
    specific look
  • Sexual dimorphic markers Aspects of the body
    that distinguish between the sexes

Waist-Hip Ratios
Figure 5.1
Beauty Ideals in the 1950s
  • This 1951 bathing beauty exemplified an ideal of
    American femininity at that time.

Working on the Body
  • Fattism
  • Our society is obsessed with weight
  • Body Image Distortions
  • Womens ideal figure is much thinner than their
    actual figure
  • Anorexia Starving oneself in a quest for
  • Bulimia Binge eating followed by purging
    (vomiting, laxatives, fasting, or
  • Body dysmorphic disorder An obsession with
    perceived flaws in appearance

Unrealistic Body Shape Expectations
  • This ad for an online weight-loss site drives
    home the idea that the media often communicate
    unrealistic expectations about body shape.

Discussion Question
  • In this advertisement, it is insinuated that this
    models physique was achieved partially through
    drinking milk. (Notice that the model is so thin
    you can see her ribs.)
  • Is her physique really ideal? What kind of
    distorted message is this sending to young girls
    about body image?

Distorted Body Image
Cultural Emphasis on Thinness
  • Societys emphasis on thinness makes many
    consumers insecure about their body image. This
    South American ad promises, Youll never have to
    go to the beach in a T-Shirt again.

Working on the Body (cont.)
  • Cosmetic Surgery
  • Consumers are increasing electing to have
    cosmetic surgery to change a poor body image or
    enhance appearance.
  • Men are increasingly having cosmetic surgery
  • Breast Augmentation
  • Our culture tends to equate breast size with sex
  • Some women have breast augmentation procedures
    because they feel larger breasts will increase
    their allure.

Body Decoration and Mutilation
  • Purpose of Decorating the Self
  • To separate group members from nonmembers
  • To place the individual in the social
  • To place the person in a gender category
  • To enhance sex-role identification
  • To indicate desired social conduct
  • To indicate high status or rank
  • To provide a sense of security
  • Tattoos
  • Body Piercing

Body Piercing
  • Body piercing has practically become a mainstream
    fashion statement.

  • Tattooing is becoming mainstream. This Spanish
    ad for Nike tennis products says, Rest in
    heaven, not on the court.
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)