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Creating an Environment in Which Young People are Encouraged to Eat a Healthier Diet

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Kraft. will continue to advertise only a very few (healthier) foods to children. ... Foods as props/symbols: the 'right' food/drink (e.g. water) (Solomon 1983) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Creating an Environment in Which Young People are Encouraged to Eat a Healthier Diet


1
Creating an Environment in Which Young People are
Encouraged to Eat a Healthier Diet
  • Marvin E. Goldberg Bard Professor of Marketing
  • Penn State University
  • Kunter Gunasti
  • Ph.D. Student Penn State University
  • International Economic Forum
  • of the Americas
  • Montreal
  • June 6, 2006

2
The problem
  • In the U.S., obesity rates for 2-19 year olds
    have tripled since 1963.
  • 33.6 are obese or at risk of obesity
  • (CDC 2006)
  • At current rates, the lifetime risk of type 2
    diabetes is 30 for boys and 40 for
    girls. (IOM 2006)

3
Legislative solution Quebec law eliminating
advertising to children
  • Goal
  • reduce the level of expenditures on
    non-nutritious foods
  • improve the health of Quebec children

4
Assessing the effects of the law
  • Number of sugared/childrens cereals in each home
  • Study Design
  • Francophone Anglophone
  • children children

5
Assessing the effects of the law
Childrens Cereals Capn Crunch Honey Nut
Cheerios Sugar Crisp Frosted Flakes Honey
Combs Count Chocula Cocoa Pebbles Frankenberry
Fruity Pebbles Mr. T Pac Man Lucky
Charms Strawberry Shortcake Corn
Pops Cheerios C-3 POs Marshmallow Krispies
6
Average number of sugared/childrens cereals in
each home
Francophone Anglophone Group children
children
  • High income/education 1.4 1.3
  • Low income/education

7
Average number of sugared/childrens cereals in
each home
Francophone Anglophone Group children
children
  • High income/education 1.4 1.3
  • Low income/education 1.4 3.6

8
U.S.A. 2006
  • Proposed legislative remedies
  • Key aspects of young peoples environment
  • Parents
  • In-school interventions
  • Promotion/media influence
  • In-store/restaurant influence

9
Proposed legislative remedies potential of
legislative threat
  • Labeling guidelines
  • Advertising restrictions
  • School-based restrictions

10
Labeling
  • Restaurants
  • Pending federal menu and labeling bill.
  • McDonalds nutritional information on wrappers

11
Labeling
  • Packaged foods
  • Pending federal legislation
  • required full-package (real serving)
    information
  • to supplement single serving information.
  • 100 Calorie portion control packages
  • PG Pringles Kraft Chips Ahoy
  • Pepsicos green symbol Smart SpotT.

12
Advertising restrictions
  • Federal bills restricting childrens advertising
  • Voluntary restrictions
  • Kraft
  • will continue to advertise only a very few
    (healthier) foods to children.
  • Channel One Kraft, Kellogg withdraw ads

13
School-based remedies
  • Vending Machines
  • Sweetened sodas account for 45 of all sales
  • Legislative/school district initiatives to
    eliminate vending machines
  • Recent agreement to eliminate sugared sodas by
    2009-2010 school year.

14
Parents
  • Mothers and grown daughters share brand
    preferences.
  • Product Leading Brand
  • Soup..76 Campbells..84
  • Catsup..65 Heinz..80
  • Peanut Butter53 Peter Pan..67
  • Mayonnaise51 Miracle Whip59
  • Pasta.47 Mueller.63
  • Spaghetti sauce..46 Newmans Own...86
  • Tuna..41 Bumble Bee..50
  • (Moore, Wilkie Lutz 2002)

15
Parents
  • Parental obesity is strongly associated with
    youth obesity (Carriere 2003)
  • By age 5, childrens food intake is influenced by
    the size of the portion served to them
    (Rolls et al. 2000)
  • Weight reduction intervention
  • targeting parents of obese children
  • vs. targeting the children themselves
    (Golan Crow 2004)

16
In-school interventions
  • Changing the food environment through the 4 Ps
    product place promotion price
  • Price (in cafeteria) study
  • 50 reduction in price of fresh fruit, baby
    carrots, salads (two high schools)
  • Sales increases
  • Fruit..4X
  • Baby carrots..2X
  • Saladsno change
  • (French et al.1997)

17
In-school interventions
  • In-class interventions targeting young people
  • Nutritional Education
  • Media Literacy

18
In-school interventions
  • In-class interventions
  • Nutritional education
  • Relies on new food pyramid
  • non-controversial
  • unlikely to change behavior
  • (Ellen et al. 1998)

19
(No Transcript)
20
In-school interventions
  • In class educational interventions
  • necessary but not sufficient.
  • Five a day is an overly cognitive approach
  • Singing/animating Five a Day is not marketing

21
In-school interventions
  • In class interventions media literacy
  • Goal teach young people about advertisers
    tactics and motives
  • theyll become more vigilant in considering ads.
  • Goal demonstrate adolescents loss of freedom of
    choice
  • theyll demonstrate reactance/pushback
  • Experimental intervention with 6th graders
    alcohol advertising
  • Results reduced intentions to drink
    (Goldberg et al. 2006)

22
Promotion food industry advertising to young
people
  • 10-12 billion is spent annually by the food
    industry on advertising targeted to children.
  • Children watch up to 40,000 commercials per year
  • More than 50 of commercials directed to children
    promote less healthy foods and beverages.
  • (Institute of Medicine IOM 2005)
  • Consequence absence of balance in the media--
    key risk factor (examples from alcohol and
    tobacco).

23
Food Promotions altering the balance
  • Tapping into key motives
  • (1) Taste or (2) nutrition?
  • perceived as inversely related
  • nutritious foods are likely to taste bad.
  • (3) Fitting in/being accepted by ones peers
  • Foods as props/symbols the right food/drink
    (e.g. water) (Solomon 1983)

24
Tapping into key motives
  • (4) The desire to grow up
  • Theres nothing a 15 year-old would rather be
    than 18.
  • Advertising tactic use slightly older models
    (tobacco industry strategy).

25
Tapping into key motives
  • (5) Having fun
  • Tony the Tiger Ronald McDonald

26
Tapping into key motives
  • (5) Having fun
  • Tony the Tiger Ronald McDonald
  • Zoup-Ah Max on Snacks Gaspergoo Gusto
    cooking shows

27
Tapping into key motives
  • (6) Saving time
  • Adolescents sleeping in or breakfast?
  • Strategy provide convenient, time saving,
    accessible healthy choices

28
Out of home fast food restaurants
convenience stores
  • Percent of calories consumed by young people from
    fast foods
  • 1970s 2
  • 1990s 10 (Guthrie et al. 2002)
  • 3 out of 4 teens shop at least once a week at
    convenience stores for an average of 10 minutes
    twice as long as adults

29
Supermarkets efforts to stimulate fruit
vegetable sales
  • 1988-91 CA macro-experiment
  • 5 a Dayfor Better Health! campaign
  • 85 of all CA grocery stores participated
  • In-store signage at front of each store
  • 2,000 color brochures at front of each store
  • Full-page color newspaper ads

30
Supermarkets efforts to stimulate fruit
vegetable sales
  • 1988-91 CA macro-experiment
  • 5 a Dayfor Better Health! campaign
  • 85 of all CA grocery stores participated
  • In-store signage at front of each store
  • 2,000 color brochures at front of each store
  • Full-page color newspaper ads
  • Results
  • no change in fruit and vegetable consumption
    beyond secular trend a 1.3 increase.
  • (Foerster et al. 1995)

31
In sum supermarkets
  • Why no change?
  • Consumers make choices product by product aisle
    by aisle (not at the front of the store)
  • The food and beverage industry spends
  • 80 billion annually on in-store advertising and
    promotion--54 of their marketing budget.
    (Thompson 2005)
  • Conclusion food industry support is essential
  • in providing healthy options aisle by aisle
  • in promoting these options

32
Slim Chance in a Fat World (Stunkard 1976)
  • A critical role for every institution
  • food industry at retail media
  • government carrot stick
  • family parents child/adolescent
  • schools
  • medical profession
  • Church (gluttony)
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