The Pennington Biomedical Research Center Prevention of Childhood Obesity Laboratory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Pennington Biomedical Research Center Prevention of Childhood Obesity Laboratory PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 42d65-YTc3Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Pennington Biomedical Research Center Prevention of Childhood Obesity Laboratory

Description:

Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight requires a balanced, reduced-calorie ... build and maintain healthy bones and muscles, controls weight, reduces feelings ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:73
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 132
Provided by: pbrc1
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Pennington Biomedical Research Center Prevention of Childhood Obesity Laboratory


1
Welcome Supersized The Problem of Obesity in
Vermont
2
Overweight ObesityHealthy Vermonters 2010
Goals and Challenges
  • Jan K. Carney, MD, MPH
  • Vermont Department of Health

3
Facts
  • Being overweight substantially increases risks
    for diseases such as
  • High blood pressure
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Heart disease and stroke
  • Certain cancers

4
BMI Body Mass Index
BMI (Body Mass Index) 704.5 times weight (in
pounds) divided by height (in inches) squared
(wt/ht2)
Over Healthy Weight BMI of 25 or more
5
Facts
  • In Vermont
  • 53 of adults are obese or overweight
  • that translates to about 226,615 Vermonters above
    a healthy weight

6
Facts
  • The percentage of obese adults in Vermont has
    increased 71 percent since 1990.

7
(No Transcript)
8
(No Transcript)
9
(No Transcript)
10
(No Transcript)
11
Facts
  • In Vermont
  • 23 of youth in grades 812 are overweight or
    close to becoming overweight
  • that translates to about 7,110 students

12
(No Transcript)
13
Facts
  • Even modest weight loss by overweight individuals
    can decrease their risk for these diseases.

14
Healthy Vermonters 2010 Objectives
  • Reduce the percentage of adults age 20 who are
    obese.
  • Goal 15 VT 2000 18

15
Healthy Vermonters 2010 Objectives
  • Reduce the percentage of youth who are obese or
    overweight.
  • Goal 5 VT 2001 10 (grade 812)

16
Facts
  • Achieving and maintaining a healthy weight
    requires a balanced, reduced-calorie diet and
    increased physical activity.

17
Physical Activity Nutrition
18
2000 Dietary Guidelinesfor Americansfrom USDA
and US Department of Health and Human Services
  • Aim for fitness, aim for a healthy weight and be
    physically active each day.
  • Choose a variety of grains daily, especially
    whole grains.
  • Choose and prepare foods with less salt.

19
2000 Dietary Guidelinesfor Americans
  • Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily.
  • Select fresh, frozen, dried and canned products
    to obtain five or more servings of fruits and
    vegetables daily.
  • Maintain a diet with no more than 30 percent of
    calories from any type of fat.

20
Healthy Vermonter 2010 Objectives
  • Increase the percentage of people who eat 2
    daily servings of fruit.
  • Goal 75 VT 1998 50
  • (age 18)
  • VT 2001 41
  • (grades 812)

21
Healthy Vermonter 2010 Objectives
  • Increase the percentage of people who eat 3
    daily servings of vegetables.
  • Goal 50 VT 1998 41
  • (age 18)
  • VT 2001 16
  • (grades 812)

22
(No Transcript)
23
(No Transcript)
24
Facts
  • Physical activity and healthy eating decrease the
    risks for premature heart disease, stroke, high
    blood pressure, cancer, diabetes, arthritis and
    osteoporosis.
  • Regular activity helps build and maintain healthy
    bones and muscles, controls weight, reduces
    feelings of depression and anxiety, and promotes
    well-being.

25
(No Transcript)
26
(No Transcript)
27
Facts
  • Television viewing (and now computer use) is the
    primary sedentary leisure activity in the U.S.
  • In Vermont, 18 percent of students in grades 8 to
    12 spend five or more hours each day watching TV
    or playing video games or using computers for fun.

28
Facts
  • School physical education programs can increase
    participation in physical activity and help
    students develop the knowledge, attitudes and
    skills they need to engage in lifelong physical
    activity.

29
(No Transcript)
30
Healthy Vermonter 2010 Objectives
  • Increase the percentage of adults age 18 who
    engage in regular physical activity.
  • Goal 50 VT 2000 33

31
Healthy Vermonter 2010 Objectives
  • Increase the percentage of middle and high
    schools that require daily physical education for
    all students.
  • Goal 25 VT Data Not Available

32
U.S. Surgeon Generals Recommendations on
Physical Activity and Health
  • People of all ages benefit from a moderate amount
    of daily physical activity (30 minutes of
    exercise five or more times a week).
  • Physical activity need not be strenuous to be
    beneficial.

33
(No Transcript)
34
Where Do We Begin
Strategies for Healthier Children
  • Melinda S. Sothern, PhD
  • Prevention of Childhood Obesity Laboratory
  • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
  • Louisiana State University
  • Department of Pediatrics
  • LSU Health Sciences Center

35
When most of todays parents were kids
  • There were no computers, video games, cable TV
    and few fast food restaurants.

36
Today U.S. Children watch TV an average of 20 to
30 hours per week.
37
Hard to Swallow Food Facts
  • Americans eat out an average of 3.7 time per week
  • 57 of American eat away from home every day.
  • 1/3 of those eating out eat fast food.
  • Soft drink intake increased 500 in the past 50
    years.
  • 40 of males 12-59 years eat fast food daily.

Ludwig, 2001 Gallup, 1990Barlow Dietz, 1998
Borrud, 1997
38
When most of todays parents were kids
  • The family got together at dinnertime, sat at the
    kitchen table and ate a home cooked meal.
  • Back then only 5-10 of Americas children were
    overweight.

39
Increasing Prevalence of Overweight Children
gt85th percentile for Body Mass Index gt95th
percentile for Body Mass Index
Source U.S. Centers for Disease Control
40
Prevalence of Obesity among U.S. Adults, BRFSS,
1985
41
Prevalence of Obesity among U.S. Adults, BRFSS,
1995
42
Prevalence of Obesity among U.S. Adults, BRFSS,
1999
43
Reaching Epidemic Proportions Overweight
Children
  • Overweight conditions are the most prevalent
    nutritional problems facing children from all
    racial-ethnic, age, and sex groups.
  • Genetics plays an important role but, the
    family environment has the greatest impact on a
    childs weight condition.

Dowda, et al, 2001 Straus Knight,1999
Fogelholm, et al, 1999
44
(No Transcript)
45
GENETICS PERMITS OBESITY.ENVIRONMENT CAUSES
OBESITY.
46
When most of todays parents were kids
  • Most kids spent their days riding bikes, climbing
    trees, and playing tag.

47
(No Transcript)
48
(No Transcript)
49
If you let me play I will like myself more. I
will have more self confidence. I will be 60
less likely to get cancer. I will be 80 less
likely to get heart disease. I will be less
likely to become an obese adult.
50
Health Consequences of Overweight Conditions
during Childhood
  • High Cholesterol
  • Insulin Resistance - Type 2 Diabetes
  • Bone and Joint Disorders
  • Asthma
  • Sleep Apnea
  • Low exercise tolerance
  • Increased viral infections
  • Premature maturation
  • Psychological problems

Source Hill and Throwbridge, 1998
51
Emotional Consequences
  • The most serious and prevalent long-term
    consequence is psychosocial, i.e. depression,
    lowered self-esteem, social discrimination
  • Overweight children are targets of early and
    systematic discrimination by peers, family
    members and teachers.
  • Overweight children mature younger. Early
    maturation is associated with low self-esteem.

Source Hill and Throwbridge, 1998
52
Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases in
Childhood
Health Care
Family
Community
Government
School Environment
53

HealthCare
  • Identify children at-risk early in childhood and
    provide frequent monitoring.
  • Behavioral therapy and parent training and
    education.
  • Physician training.
  • Affordable outpatient programs.
  • Medical insurance reimbursement.
  • Medical insurance incentives.

54
Risk Factors for Obesity and Chronic Disease
  • Socioeconomic Status
  • Parental Obesity - under 6 years of age
  • Body Mass Index - over 6 years of age
  • Critical development periods
  • Birth
  • 5-6 years (adiposity rebound)
  • Puberty (12-15 years of age)
  • Sedentary Behaviors
  • Birth Weight
  • Formula versus Breastfeeding
  • Poor Nutrition - Food Preferences

55
Socioeconomic Status
  • There is a striking relationship between obesity
    and social class.
  • Obesity is 7 times more frequent among Caucasian
    women of the lowest socioeconomic level than
    among those of the highest level.
  • There is a similar relationship in men, but to a
    lesser degree.

Moore, Stunkard, Srole, et al, Ob. Res., 1997
56
Obese Parents
  • If both parents are non-obese the child has only
    a 7 chance of developing obesity during
    adulthood.
  • If one parent is obese the risk of developing
    obesity is increased to 40.
  • If both parents are obese the risk for
    developing obesity doubles to 80.

Whitaker, et al, NE J Med, 1997
57
As children mature, their weight condition is a
stronger predictor of adult obesity.
100
80 of overweight 12 year olds will become obese
adults.
50
0

Age 6
Age 12
Age 21
Parents Weight
Years
Childs Weight
58
Diagnosing Obesity and Chronic Disease Risk
  • History Physical exam
  • Anthropometric measures
  • Weight and height
  • Waist, hip and midarm circumference
  • Laboratory evaluation
  • Chem 20 CBC w/diff lipid profile thyroid
    profile
  • Blood pressure
  • Maturation level (Tanner stage)

59
Body Mass Index
The body mass index (BMI) adjusts body weight for
height using the following formula.
Weight (kg)/Height (m2) An adult with a BMI
score of gt 27 is considered overweight, gt
30 is considered clinically obese
60
Diagnosing Childhood Obesity and Chronic Disease
Risk
  • A Body Mass Index (BMI) gt85th percentile for age
    and race is classified as at risk for overweight.
  • A BMI gt95th percentile for age and race is
    classified as overweight.

Source US Centers for Disease Control
61
U.S.Centers for Disease Control Body Mass Index
Percentiles for Children and Adolescents
Healthy Weight 50th-85th
Severely Overweight gt 97
Age (yrs.)
At Risk for Overweight gt 85th
Overweight gt 95
5
15-17
gt 17
gt 18
gt 18
8
16-18
gt 20
gt 21
gt 18
11
17-20
gt 20
gt 23
gt 25
14
19-23
gt 23
gt 26
gt 28
17
21-25
gt 25
gt 28
gt 30
Males
62
Diagnosing Obesity and Chronic Disease Risk
  • Body composition
  • Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry
  • Skin folds
  • Bioelectrical impedance
  • Dietary history
  • Physical activity rating
  • Psychological measures
  • Self esteem
  • Depression
  • Self-efficacy

63
Body Mass Index 31 Weight 230 Height
60 Percent body fat 12
Body Mass Index 31 Weight 230 Height
60 Percent body fat 55
64
Differences in Bone Density and Weight in
Overweight and Normal Weight Youth.
  • 20 overweight
  • children
  • 20 normal weight children
  • Age matched (12-17 years)
  • DEXA

Olivier, Loftin, Sothern, 2001
65
Sedentary Behaviors and Children
Physical Activity is Not Just Sports
66
Young children will engage in various types of
physical activity if provided with an environment
that promotes free play.
DiNubile, 1993
67
Spontaneous activity declines 50 between the
ages of 6-16 years.
DiNubile, 1993
68
Overweight conditions are lowest among children
watching 1 or fewer hours of TV per day. In
females increased TV-watching is associated with
overweight conditions.
Crespo, et al, 2001 Dowda, et al, 2001
69
Children and Television
Gortmaker, 1996 Hernandez, 1999
Hours of TV per Day
70
Teen age girls are consistently shown to be less
physically active than teen age boys.
71
Children and Sedentary Behaviors
Exercise Tolerance
Physical Activity
Snacking TV watching
Body Mass Index
72
Overweight Children and Sedentary Behaviors
Physiologic Function
Physical Activity
Body Mass Index
Snacking TV watching
73
Diagnosing Obesity and Chronic Disease Risk
  • Exercise tolerance
  • Graded treadmill test
  • Indirect calorimetry
  • Heart rate and blood pressure
  • Field fitness test
  • Shuttle run
  • Strength and flexibility
  • 80 maximum test
  • Flex test

74
Overweight youth compared to Values for Normal
Weight Youth (Age 12.4 years)
Parameter N Mean SD Normal Range
Percent Fat 24 43.1 27.1 lt30
Cholesterol 50 170.8 29.3 lt170
LDL 31 123.5 25.7
lt110
VO2Max 22 19.8 4.4
45-53
75
Exercise Tolerance in Children with Increasing
Overweight Levels
O2 L/min
Four group repeated measures ANOVA p lt0.03
Sothern, et al, 1999
76
Heart Rate during Walking in Children with
Increasing Overweight Levels
Normal Weight 37.8 of Maximum Heart Rate
Walking 3.5 mph
Overweight 47.8 of Max Heart Rate
Severe Obesity 85.3 of Max Heart Rate
Clinical Obesity 65.4 of Max Heart Rate
Sothern, et al, 1999
77
30 Minute Rule
  • Research indicates that after 30 minutes of
    mental work the ability to concentrate begins to
    decline.
  • Sitting burns only 33-50 calories per
    hour.

78
Anything is Better than Sitting!
  • Flex at Your Desk
  • Hot Seat (chair squats)
  • Raise the Roof (overhead press)
  • Stand and stretch
  • Off the Wall (wall push-ups)
  • Tippy Toes (calf raise)
  • Music break (dance to one song)
  • Stand like a tree and balance
  • Reward positive behavior with indoor or outdoor
    play periods

79
What is the Best Type of Physical Activity for
Preventing and Treating Chronic Diseases in
Childhood?
80
The best physical activity is the type that
the child will actually do.
81
Pediatric Expert Committee Recommendations to
Increase Physical Activity
  • Intervention should begin early in overweight
    children gt3 years.
  • Interventions should be family-based and include
    parenting skills.
  • Limit TV-watching to lt2 hours/week
  • Incorporate activity into usual daily routines,
    i.e. walking to school.
  • Promote unstructured outdoor play in young
    children, individual or group sports in older
    children.

Barlow Dietz, 1998
82
Initial Physical Activity Strategies by Medical
History, Age Weight Condition
Level
Age
Physical Activity Approach
Normal Wt Obese Parent
Family counseling, fitness education, free play,
reduce TV, parent training
? 6
gt85th BMI
Structured weight bearing activities, free play,
reduce TV, parent training
7-18
Alternate non-weight bearing activities, free
play, reduce TV, parent training
gt95th BMI
7-18
gt97th BMI
Non-weight bearing activities, free play, reduce
TV, parent training
7-18
Close medical supervision required.
83
(No Transcript)
84
(No Transcript)
85
Provide opportunities for young children to
safely climb, run and jump to encourage the
development of muscular strength and endurance.
Sothern, 2001
86
Children at Risk for Overweight Conditions, 7-18
Years
  • Limit access to TV/video/computer
  • Recommended Aerobic Activities
  • Weight-bearing such as brisk walking, treadmill,
    field sports, roller blading, hiking, racket
    ball, tennis, martial arts, skiing, jump rope,
    indoor/outdoor tag games.
  • NOTE Guidelines should be readjusted every
    10-15 weeks based on evaluation results.
  • Parent training and fitness education

Sothern, 2000
87
Overweight Children, 7-18 Years
  • Limit access to TV/video/computer
  • Recommended Aerobic Activities
  • Non-weight-bearing such as swimming, cycling,
    strength/aerobic circuit training, arm specific
    aerobic dancing, arm ergometer (crank), recline
    bike, and interval walking.
  • Walking with frequent rests as necessary.
    Gradually work up to longer walking periods and
    fewer rest stops.
  • NOTE Guidelines should be readjusted every
    10-15 weeks based on
  • Parent training and fitness education

Sothern, 2000
88
Severely Overweight Children, 7-18 Years
  • Limit access to TV/video/computer
  • Recommended Aerobic Activities
  • Non-weight-bearing only such as swimming, recline
    bike, arm ergometer, seated (chair) aerobics and
    seated or lying circuit training.
  • NOTE Guidelines should be readjusted every
    10-15 weeks based on
  • Parent training and fitness education
  • Other emotional and dietary concerns must be
    addressed during treatment.

Sothern, 2000 Myers, et al, 1998 Strauss, 2000
Barlow Dietz, 199, von Almen, 1985
89
PrescribedDuration of Exercise
Moderate Intensity Progressive Exercise
Min./ Session
90
Volume of Exercise in Severely Overweight
Children
Min.
p lt 0.0001
91
What is the Best Dietary Strategy for Preventing
and Treating Chronic Diseases in Childhood?
92
I do like vegetables Thats why I hate to see
them brutally killed and eaten!
93
Pediatric Expert Committee Nutrition
Recommendations
  • Well-balanced meals and a healthy approach to
    eating.
  • Food guide pyramid
  • Elimination of high calorie snacks
  • Stoplight diet
  • Gradual changes in food preparation to promote
    family support
  • Stay away from adult-focused commercial programs.

Barlow Dietz, 1998
94
Birth weight and Childhood Obesity
  • Low birth weight is associated with obesity and
    Type 2 Diabetes later in life.
  • Low birth weight may be due to intra-uterine
    growth retardation that results from poor fetal
    nutrition and/or stress.
  • The impact of low birth weight may be exacerbated
    in susceptible populations especially those
    exposed to early environments conducive to
    obesity.

McGarry, 2002 Ong, 2000 Barker, 1995 Law,
1996 Neel, 1962
95
Breast feeding and Childhood Obesity
  • The prevalence of obesity in 5-6 year-old
    children who were never breast fed is almost
    double that of breast fed children.
  • The risk of childhood obesity declines as the
    duration of breast feeding increases.
  • Breast feeding is associated with improved immune
    function. Obesity has been associated with
    inflammatory disease.

Von Kries, 1999 Liese, 200 Das, 2001 Dietz,
2001
96
Childhood Food Attitude and Practices
  • How parents present foods to their young children
    greatly impacts their food preferences.
  • Pressure to eat and concern for childs weight
    are associated with increased fat in children.
  • If left unattended, young children will select
    foods they enjoy and leave behind the foods they
    dislike.

Birch, Ch. Dev., 1980 and 1995 Spruijt-Metz, 2002
97
Childhood Food Attitude and Practices
  • Providing rewards for eating nutritious foods
    initially enhances preference, but has a negative
    effect later when the reward is removed.
  • Children will eat less if served less or if
    allowed to serve themselves.
  • As the children mature, the parental influence is
    reduced and the influence of peers may change
    food preferences.

Birch, Ch. Dev., 1980 and 1995 Ob Res, 2001
98
The strategy of having a child eat a food in
order to obtain a reward tends to reduce the
childs liking for the food she is rewarded for
eating.
Childhood Food Preferences
Birch, Young Children, 1995
99
Methods to Increase Vegetable Intake
  • Three bite rule
  • Grade the vegetables
  • A excellent, lets have this more often
  • C OK, well try again
  • F No way
  • Teach children that all food is OK. Some, such as
    vegetables, are grow tall food and others, like
    candy, are not.

Sothern et al, Trim Kids, Harper Collins, 2001
100
Initial Nutrition Strategies by Medical History,
Age Weight Condition
Level
Age
Nutrition Approach
Family nutrition education and parent training
Normal Wt Obese Parent
? 6
Portion Control, balanced low fat, low sugar
plans
gt85th BMI
7-18
gt95th BMI
7-18
Balanced low calorie diet
gt97th BMI
Medically prescribed diet
7-18
Close medical supervision required.
101
Comprehensive Weight Management Strategies in
Clinical Settings
  • Multi-disciplinary, family based interventions in
    a clinical setting promote long-term (10-years)
    weight loss in young, overweight (gt85th BMI)
    children (Epstein, et al, 1988).
  • Multi-disciplinary, family based interventions in
    a clinical setting promote significant weight
    loss over one year in obese (gt95th BMI) children,
    7-17 years (Sothern, et al, 1996-2000 clinical
    outcome trials).

102
Overweight Children Treatment Intervention

103
(No Transcript)
104
Hurray, Im there!
Im still at my goal weigh!
Committed to Kids Pediatric Weight Management
How long will it take?
Level IV lt 85th BMI
Team Kids Club
Level III gt 85th BMI
Level II gt 95th BMI
Level I gt 99th BMI
10 wks
20 wks
30 wks
1 year
18 yrs.
Start
105
Weight and Body Mass Index after Diet, Exercise
and Behavioral Counseling




p lt 0.001 (RM ANOVA) Baseline vs. 10ks
1-year. NS 10 weeks vs. one year.
Sothern,et al, Acta Pedia, 2000
106
The Impact of Significant Weight Loss on Selected
Physiologic Parameters in Youth
  • Body Mass Index ?
  • Percent Fat ?
  • Lean Body Mass unchanged
  • Resting Energy expenditure unchanged
  • Oxygen Uptake (VO2)
  • absolute unchanged
  • relative ?
  • Total Cholesterol and LDL ?
  • Growth Velocity ??
  • IGF-1 ?

Sothern, et al, 2000
107
How to Promote Behavior Change
  • Mastery Experiences For new behaviors to occur
    individuals must experience initial success.
  • Physiologic Feedback Cues that enhance the
    ability to accomplish the behavior positive
    reinforcement for goals achieved.
  • Role modeling Observational learning through the
    behavior of others.
  • Knowledge Transfer Belief that the targeted
    behavior will benefit them.

Social Cognitive Theory Hunter, 1996 Sothern
Hunter, 1999
108
Mastery
  • Set short-term, achievable nutrition, physical
    activity and weight loss goals.
  • Expose children to varied activities in a
    non-intimidating and nurturing environment.
  • Encourage participation in aerobic activities
    appropriate for age and size.
  • Realize that young children have immature
    metabolic systems. Dont impose adult exercise
    goals.

Sothern et al, Trim Kids, Harper Collins, 2001
109
Physiologic Feedback
  • Teach pacing techniques such as breathing and
    heart rate monitoring.
  • The sight, smell and taste of food provide clues
    to recognize cravings from hunger.
  • Re-evaluate the childs condition every 3-6
    months and provide activity rewards for goals
    achieved.
  • Dont draw attention to unhealthy activities with
    negative comments. Instead, praise the child when
    they choose active play or healthy foods.

Sothern et al, Trim Kids, Harper Collins, 2001
110
Knowledge Transfer
  • Provide ongoing family fitness and nutrition
    education.
  • Enroll children in structured dance, sport or
    movement classes. Make sure the teachers are
    qualified. And if the child is already
    overweight, discuss his or her condition
    beforehand with the teacher.
  • Replace TV, computer, video games with indoor and
    outdoor play.

Sothern et al, Trim Kids, Harper Collins, 2001
111
Role Modeling
  • Families that play together, stay healthy
    together. Reserve at least 1/2 day of each
    weekend for family physical fitness.
  • Parents dont have to be thin but they must set a
    good example by preparing and selecting healthy
    foods and participating in physical activities on
    a regular basis.
  • Create and environment for active play both
    inside and outside the home.

Sothern et al, Trim Kids, Harper Collins, 2001
112
Family
  • Observe the childs eating and physical activity
    behaviors.
  • Schedule frequent sessions with the pediatrician
    for advice and monitoring.
  • Discourage consumption of high sugar beverages.
  • Select healthy fruits and snacks as treat foods,
    i.e. grapes, raisins, etc.

113
Family
  • Require that all drinks and foods be consumed at
    the kitchen or dining table or other designated
    area.
  • Schedule mid-morning and mid-morning healthy
    snacks - make them attractive.
  • Always require children to eat a healthy
    breakfast.
  • Discourage snacking after dinnertime.

114
Parent Tip
Even if your child is genetically designed to be
overweight, his or her environment can be
adjusted to combat this predisposition. Your
child may become chubby even with adjustments. He
or she does not have to be doomed to a life of
ill health. Weight management is the key.
Sothern, et al, Trim Kids, 2001
115
School Environment
  • Create a physically active school environment
  • Increase free play or recess time.
  • Offer daily physical education.
  • Practice the 30-minute rule.
  • Make academic classes more physically active.
  • Decrease homework.

116
Should Schools Diagnose Obesity?
  • The diagnosis of obesity requires specific
    training in pediatric medicine.
  • The body mass index is a first step in a series
    of obesity assessments.
  • Labeling children as obese in front of peers may
    cause long term emotional damage.

117
School Environment
  • Encourage walking and biking to school
  • 19 of students walk to school
  • The two biggest barriers to walking to school are
    distance and traffic danger.
  • In kids reporting no barriers, 64 walk and 21
    bike to school

118
School Environment
  • According to experts, too much homework can
    create family stress, cut into family time and
    foster tension.
  • In Piscataway, New Jersey, the local school board
    recently voted to set firm limits on homework.
  • Weekends and holidays are homework-free.
  • Teachers give 1-hour assignments that children
    can try on their own.

119
When Will the Children Play?
  • Parents of overweight children report that the
    biggest barrier to getting their kids more
    physically active is too much homework.
  • Teen age girls report homework as the no. 2
    barrier to being physically active.
  • Overweight children between the ages of 6 and 17
    years report an average of 3 hours of homework
    per night.

120
Time for Play School versus Home Environment
Children spend about 48 of their waking hours
in school related activities.
48 hrs/wk
70 hrs/wk
35 hrs/wk
15 hrs/wk
121
(No Transcript)
122
Play Now! Homework Later!
  • When children get home after school, their brains
    are tired, but not their bodies.
  • Theyve had a long day in a sedentary environment
    and need to be active to let off steam
  • Instead of a snack, hand your child a glass of
    water and send him outside to ride a bike, skate,
    play ball or tag for about 30 minutes. Indoors he
    can dance, shoot hoops with foam balls or skip
    rope.
  • Then when he does homework, hell concentrate
    better.

Sothern et al, Trim Kids, Harper Collins, 2001
123
School Environment
  • Create a nutritious school environment
  • Replace vending machines with healthy
    alternatives.
  • Allow consumption of water in class.
  • Modify school lunch.
  • Provide nutrition education in science, health or
    other academic class.

124
School-time Food Facts
  • 87 of schools offer vending machines.
  • Vending machines offer
  • Juice drinks and soda (81-88),
  • Candy bars, cookies, chips (54-60)
  • 31 of schools offer stores run by students.
  • 80 of student-run school stores sell candy and
    no fruit, 47 are open during lunch.
  • Snacks sold in school stores average 8.7 grams
    of fat and 23 grams of sugar

125

Community
  • Walking, bike and inline skating trails
  • Walk to school programs
  • Walking clubs, fun-runs, bike tours
  • Safe neighborhoods
  • More parks and green areas
  • Recreation programs
  • Nutrition and fitness education

126
Government
  • Social marketing
  • Public policy changes to improve school, health
    care, and community environment
  • Nutrition focused food stamp program
  • Crime prevention
  • Health care reform
  • Minimal standards for recess and PE
  • School lunch and snack policy

127
How Can We Help?
  • Parents Lobby to Promote Lifestyles for
    physically Active Youth.
  • Let the children...
  • P.L.A.Y.

128
(No Transcript)
129
LAZY BOY
130
for more information www.trimkids.com
131
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com