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Penn State University Radionuclide Safety Training


Penn State University Radionuclide Safety Training Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Protection 865-6391 Created by Russel O. Dunkelberger II, Revised Sept. 2004 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Penn State University Radionuclide Safety Training

Penn State UniversityRadionuclide Safety Training
  • Environmental Health and Safety
  • Radiation Protection
  • 865-6391
  • Created by Russel O. Dunkelberger II, Revised
    Sept. 2004

1. Introduction
  • University rules and Nuclear Regulatory
    Commission (NRC) regulations require that anyone
    working with or around ionizing radiation must be
    instructed about the possible hazards of
    radiation exposure and the procedures to be used
    for the safe handling of radioactive materials.

The Senior Vice-President for Research and Dean
of the Graduate School
  • Is the University official responsible to the
    NRC for assuring that radioactive material is
    used according to the conditions of the NRC
    regulations and licenses.
  • Appoints the University Isotopes Committee (UIC)
    to establish and oversee the policies for the use
    of radioactive material

Members of the UIC are
  • Chair Craig Baumrucker, PhD Animal Nutrition
    and Physiology
  • Jack Brenizer, Ph.D. Nuclear Engineering
  • Eric Boeldt Radiation Safety Officer
  • David Gilmour, PhD Molecular and Cell Biology
  • Andrea Mastro, PhD Microbiology and Cellular
  • Robert Paulson, PhD Veterinary Science
  • Catherine Ross, PhD Nutrition
  • John E. Smith, PhD Human Nutrition
  • Candice A. Yekel Director, Office of Regulatory

EHS - Radiation Protection Staff
  • Eric J. Boeldt, Radiation Safety Officer
  • Mark E. Linsley, Associate Health Physicist
  • Health Physics Specialists
  • Gregory Herman
  • David A. Bertocchi
  • James P. Wiggins
  • Suzanne H. Morlang, Health Physics Assistant

Environmental Health and Safety (EHS)
  • Provides radiation safety services including
  • radiation monitoring
  • radioactive waste disposal
  • assistance with the use of radioactive material
  • Monitors the use of radioactive material for the
  • Radiation protection staff are located at 228
    Academic Projects Building
  • EHS offices are at 6 Eisenhower Parking Deck
  • Can be reached AT ANY TIME at 5-6391

2. Regulations
NRC Regulations
  • Available from EHS
  • 10 CFR 19
  • Requirements for instruction of personnel
  • Posting of Notices and inspections
  • 10 CFR 20
  • Standards for radiation protection

Form NRC-3 Notice To Employees
  • Posted in or near all radioactive materials use
  • Lists responsibilities of NRC licensees and
    persons working with radioactive material
  • Provides the address and phone number to contact
    the NRC

Things you should know
  • Licensed radioactive material may only be used
    by, or under the direct supervision of,
    individuals approved by the UIC (almost always
    permanent professors) or under the specific
    reactor license.
  • Licensed radioactive material may not be used in
    tracer studies involving direct release of
    licensed material to the environment.
  • Radioactive material may not be administered to
    humans or be added to food, beverage, cosmetic,
    drug or any other product designed for ingestion
    or inhalation by, or application to, humans.

More things you should know...
  • Purchases and/or transfers of radioactive
    material are to be made through EHS. This
    includes transfers between authorized users at
    the University as well as between the University
    and other institutions.
  • If you loan any radioactive material to another
    lab, call EHS so we can process the transfer.
  • The UIC will not hesitate to impose sanctions on
    radionuclide users who do not comply with the
    conditions of their authorizations to use
    radioactive material.

Even more things to know...
  • Individuals are also subject to civil penalties,
    if they willfully violate NRC regulations or
    license conditions.
  • Violations usually result in corrective actions
    that affect all persons working with radioactive
    material, not just the individuals responsible
    for the infractions.
  • If you have questions about the regulations,
    license conditions or procedures, contact EHS or
    a member of the University Isotopes Committee for

Other Regulatory Information
  • The University also has to operate under
    regulations and licenses issued by the
    Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
    Resources, Bureau of Radiation Protection. In
    general, the state regulations are identical to
    those of the NRC.
  • The Rules and Procedures for the Use of
    Radioactive Material at the Pennsylvania State
    University contains rules for working with
    radioactive material. A copy of these rules is
    provided to laboratory supervisors and is also
    available for download from

10 CFR 21Notification of Defects
  • NRC licensees are required to identify and
    evaluate any defects that may potentially be a
    substantial radiological safety hazard, and any
    situation that leads to failure to comply with
    regulations. Such occurrences may need to be
    reported to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
  • If you suspect that any facility, activity or
    component fails to comply with federal
    regulations or creates a substantial radiological
    safety hazard, contact EHS immediately!

3. Properties of Radiation
  • A mass number Z N total number of protons
  • N number of neutrons
  • Z atomic number number of protons
  • X element

  • A 14 protons and neutrons
  • Z 6 protons
  • N 8 neutrons
  • C Carbon

Radioactive Material, Radiation and Contamination
Radioactive Material
  • Radioactive material is a solid, liquid or gas
    compound or mixture in which some of the atoms
    present are radioactive atoms

  • Radioactivity is the natural property of certain
    nuclides to spontaneously emit energy, in the
    form of ionizing radiation, in an attempt to
    become more stable.

  • Radiation is the term given to the energy
    transmitted by means of particles or waves
  • It can be ionizing or non-ionizing

Non-Ionizing Radiation
  • Examples
  • Microwaves
  • Sunlight
  • Infrared Waves
  • Radio Waves
  • Lasers

Ionizing Radiation
  • Ionizing radiation occurs from the addition or
    removal of electrons from neutral atoms. Four
    main types of ionizing radiation are alpha, beta,
    gamma and neutrons.

Alpha Radiation (?)
  • Helium nucleus
  • 2 protons and 2 neutrons
  • Large, Slow, 2e charge
  • High linear energy transfer (LET)
  • Low penetrability
  • Decay
  • Po ? Pb He

Beta Radiation (?)
  • Electron emitted from nucleus
  • Small, Fast, -1e charge
  • Medium LET
  • Medium penetrability
  • Decay
  • Neutron converted into a proton and an electron
  • P? S ?- 1.7 MeV

Gamma (?) and X- Radiation (X)
  • Gamma rays and x-rays are photons
  • No mass, no charge, travel at speed of light
  • Low LET
  • High penetrability
  • Commonly accompany other radiation
  • Penetrability can vary therefore, shielding and
    detection requirements vary

Neutrons (n)
  • Neutral particle
  • Classified by energy
  • Fast neutrons - energy greater than 0.1 MeV
  • Thermal neutrons - same kinetic energy as gas
    molecules in the same environment
  • A concern at the nuclear reactor and with soil
    moisture probes
  • Emission of neutrons accompanies the splitting of
    Uranium and Plutonium nuclei

Linear Energy Transfer (LET)
  • LET is used to describe the amount of energy
    imparted locally by ionizing radiation in a
  • The higher the value of a particles or waves
    LET, the greater the amount of damage that
    particle could potentially cause to the target.

  • The ability of radiation to penetrate matter.
  • Alpha particles have a low penetrability and can
    be shielded by a piece of paper.
  • Beta particles have a higher penetrability and
    are usually shielded with Plexiglas.
  • Gamma rays have the highest penetrability of the
    three, and are shielded with thick concrete or

LET and Penetrability
  • On the following diagram, each dot represents a
    unit of energy deposited. As you will see from
    the diagram, alpha particles impart a large
    amount of energy in a short distance. Beta
    particles impart less energy than alphas, but are
    more penetrating. Gamma rays impart little energy
    and are the most penetrating. Remember, gamma and
    x-rays vary widely in energy. The diagram shows a
    high energy gamma ray.

LET and Penetrability
Radiation Units
  • Exposure
  • Charge produced in air from ionization by gamma
    and x-rays Unit Roentgens, R
  • Radiation Absorbed Dose
  • Energy deposited by any form of ionizing
    radiation in a unit mass of material Unit rad
  • Dose Equivalent
  • Scale for equating relative hazards of various
    types of ionization in terms of equivalent risk
    Unit rem (1 rem 1,000 mrem)

Radiation Units
  • Activity
  • Measure of the amount of radioactivity present
  • Units Curie, Ci or Becquerel, Bq
  • Becquerel one decay per second (dps)
  • Curie dps occurring in the quantity of radon
    gas in equilibrium with one gram of radium
  • 1 Ci 2.22 x 1012 dpm 3.7 x 1010 Bq
  • 1 ?Ci 2,220,000 dpm 37,000 Bq

Half-Life and Decay
  • Each radioactive nuclide has its own unique
    characteristic pattern of decay, based on
  • Types (alpha, beta, etc.) and energies of the
    emission involved
  • Rate of decay, or half-life.
  • A radionuclides half-life is the amount of time
    it takes for one-half of the radioactive atoms
    present to disintegrate or decay.

Decay Calculation
A A0e-?t
  • Where
  • A Activity at time, t
  • A0 Initial activity
  • ? ln 2 / half-life
  • t Elapsed time

  • If you have 1 mCi of P-32 initially, how much
    P-32 would remain after 8 weeks? Assume P-32 has
    a half-life of 14 days.

A (1 mCi) e-(Ln 2 / 2 weeks) (8 weeks) Note
that the half-life of 14 days was converted to 2
weeks, so that the units match with the elapsed
time period. A (1 mCi) e-(0.693 / 2 weeks)
(8 weeks) A (1 mCi) e-(.347 / weeks) (8
weeks) A (1 mCi) e-(2.77) A (1 mCi)
(0.0625) A 0.0625 mCi
Is There an Easier Way?
  • There sure is! Draw a chart, as shown below, to
    get a quick estimate of activity remaining at
    time, t. For 1mCi of P-32,

Elapsed time, t half-lives Activity 0
weeks 0 1 mCi 2 weeks 1 0.5 mCi 4
weeks 2 0.25 mCi 6 weeks 3 0.125 mCi 8
weeks 4 0.0625 mCi
4. Radiation Biology
Sources of Radiation
  • Average person receives 360 mrem per year
  • Natural Sources 295 mrem (82)
  • Terrestrial 228 mrem
  • Human Body 40 mrem
  • Cosmic 27 mrem
  • Man-made 65 mrem (18)
  • Medical 15 mrem
  • (chest x-ray 10 mrem)
  • Products 10 mrem
  • (tobacco, cosmetics, etc.)
  • Other 2 mrem
  • (occupational, fallout, nuclear power, etc.)

Biological Effects to Typical Occupational
  • From NRC Regulatory Guide 8.29
  • (available at http//
  • Assessment of cancer risks associated with
    radiation exposure is projected from doses
    greater than 10 rem (10,000 mrem)
  • There is no scientific evidence that conclusively
    proves that lower doses of radiation cause cancer
  • However, for regulatory purposes, the NRC assumes
    that even small exposures to radiation carry some
    risk of causing cancer, and that this risk is
    linear below 50 rem (50,000 mrem)

Biological Effects to Typical Occupational
  • From NRC Regulatory Guide 8.29
  • The risk of developing a fatal cancer per 1 rem
    (1,000 mrem) of exposure received is assumed to
    be about 1 in 2,500 (0.04)
  • Approximately 1 in 5 adults (20) normally die
    from cancer from all possible causes (smoking,
    food, drugs, pollutants, genetic traits, etc.)
  • Therefore, working with radiation may increase
    your risk of dying of cancer from 20 (no
    occupational radiation exposure) to 20.04 (1 rem
    total lifetime occupational radiation exposure)

Estimated Loss of Life Expectancy from Health
  • Health Risk Estimate of Life
    Expectancy Lost
  • Smoking 1 pack cigarettes per day 6 years
  • Being 15 overweight 2 years
  • Alcohol consumption 1 year
  • Being in any accident 1 year
  • Natural hazards 7 days
  • Medical radiation 6 days
  • Occupational radiation exposure
  • 300 mrem/year from age 18 to 65 15 days
  • 1000 mrem/year from age 18 to 65 51 days
  • Adapted from B.L. Cohen and I.S. Lee, Catalog
    of Risks Extended and Updated, Health Physics,
    Vol. 61, September 1991.

Biological Effects to Very High Levels of
Radiation Exposure
  • For a single exposure to extremely high levels
    of radiation (gt50 rem), the following sequence of
    events may occur
  • Latent period - time lag between the radiation
    event and the first detectable effect
  • Period of demonstrable effects on cells and
    tissues - discrete effects of radiation exposure
    may be observed
  • Recovery period - apparent in short-term (days to
    weeks) effects. May not occur for some residual
    damage, giving rise to long-term effects

Acute Biological Effects to Very High Levels of
  • Common Symptoms 50 rem
    (50,000 mrem)
  • Nausea and vomiting, malaise and fatigue,
    increased temperature, blood changes
  • Hemopoietic Syndrome 200 rem (200,000 mrem)
  • Ablation of bone marrow, death within months, if
  • Gastrointestinal Syndrome 1000 rem (1,000,000
  • Desquamation of intestinal epithelium, death
    within weeks, if untreated
  • CNS Syndrome 2000 rem
    (2,000,000 mrem)
  • Unconsciousness within minutes, death within
    days, if untreated
  • By comparison, the highest exposure at PSU last
    year was approximately 0.1 rem above natural

5. Radiation Safety
Radiation Safety
  • Program developed in order to keep doses As Low
    As is Reasonably Achievable
  • Obtaining higher doses in order to get an
    experiment done quicker is NOT reasonable!
  • Three main ways to keep your doses ALARA time,
    distance and shielding
  • Ask EHS for assistance in developing procedures
    that help keep your doses ALARA.

Time, Distance and Shielding
  • Minimize your exposure time
  • Dry runs (without radioactive material)
  • Identify portions of the experiment that can be
    altered in order to decrease exposure times.
  • Make sure you have all necessary equipment
  • Maximize distance - Inverse square law
  • Doubling distance from source, decreases dose by
    factor of four
  • Tripling it decreases dose nine-fold
  • Use appropriate shielding

  • High-energy beta emitters (P-32)
  • Plexiglas (acrylic) shielding
  • Do not use only thin lead to shield beta emitters
  • production of bremsstrahlung x-rays
  • low-energy x-rays produced by beta interaction
    with a high-Z nucleus
  • Can shield with Plexiglas first, then with lead
    on the outside
  • Gamma emitters (I-125, Cr-51)
  • Lead or leaded acrylic
  • Neutrons
  • hydrogenous material water, concrete

Contamination Surveys
  • Required after EVERY use of unsealed radioactive
    materials - If you dont have time to survey, you
    dont have time to do your experiment!
  • Survey yourself, your benchtop, the floor, the
    non-radioactive trash and any other area that
    could potentially become contaminated
  • Use the appropriate instrument for the
    radionuclide you are using
  • Use the data on the next slide as a guide

What Instrument Should I Use?
  • H-3 - always use Liquid Scintillation Counter
    (LSC) wipe tests
  • C-14, S-35 and P-33 - both LSC wipe tests and a
    Pancake GM probe
  • P-32 - Pancake GM probe (NaI probe and/or LSC
    may also be used)
  • I-125 - NaI probe (LSC or Gamma counter may also
    be used)
  • Use LSC wipe tests to differentiate between fixed
    and removable contamination

Activity Calculations
Efficiency cpm / dpm dpm cpm / Efficiency If
we detect 2,200 cpm of P-33 with a Pancake GM
probe, we can determine the activity. The
efficiency for P-33 with a Pancake GM probe is
about 10 . dpm 2,200 cpm / 0.10 22,000 dpm
2.2 x 104 dpm We already know that 1 Ci 2.22 x
1012 dpm. 2.2 x 104 dpm x (1 Ci / 2.2 x 1012 dpm)
1 x 10-8 Ci 1 x10-8 Ci x (106 ?Ci / Ci) 1
x102 ? Ci 0.01 ? Ci
Activity Calculations
  • Your laboratorys survey meter is calibrated for
    C-14/S-35, P-32 and/or I-125
  • A Conversion factor is listed on the meters
    calibration sticker this conversion factor is
    the inverse of the efficiency.
  • If you detect 10,000 cpm of P-32 with a pancake
    GM probe, and have a conversion factor of 2.2
  • cpm x conversion factor dpm
  • 10,000 cpm x 2.2 dpm/cpm 22,000 dpm P-32

Dose Limits
  • Federal, state and University regulations limit
    the amount of radiation dose allowed to adult and
    minor radiation workers, members of the public,
    and the fetus of a declared pregnant radiation
    worker due to University operations.

Dose Limits
Adult Occupational Limit 5000 mrem (5.0 rem) /
year Minor Occupational Limit 500 mrem (0.5
rem) / year Member of the Public 100 mrem (0.1
rem) / year Declared Pregnant Radiation Workers
Fetus 500 mrem (0.5 rem) / pregnancy term
Declared Pregnant Worker
  • It is important to note that a woman is
    considered pregnant (for NRC license purposes)
  • A woman may declare or undeclare her pregnancy at
    any time it must be in writing to the Radiation
    Safety Officer.
  • For more information, see NRC Regulatory Guide
    8.13 - Instruction Concerning Prenatal Radiation
    Exposure http//

Dose Determination TLDs - Who Needs Them?
  • Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs)
  • Anyone likely to receive at least 10 of the
  • Anyone using greater than 1 mCi-hr/week of P-32,
    or gt 0.1 mCi-hr/week of gamma emitters
  • Anyone working at the Breazeale Nuclear Reactor
  • Anyone performing radioiodinations
  • Anyone working with x-ray machines
  • If working with sources gt100 mrem/hr at 1 foot
  • NOT assigned to anyone working exclusively with
    H-3, C-14, S-35, Ca-45 and / or P-33

Dose Determination Bioassays - Who Needs Them?
  • Bioassays are required of
  • Anyone performing radioiodinations
  • Anyone using greater than 100 mCi of H-3 at any
    one time

6. Procedures
Radioactive Material Orders
  • Must be approved by EHS before being placed
  • For one-time orders, this can be done by sending
    all necessary forms to EHS by campus mail, or by
    bringing the forms to EHS at 228 Academic
    Projects Building for approval
  • Standing purchase orders must be initially
    approved by EHS (as above). EHS notification is
    NOT required for individual orders using a
    standing purchase order
  • Can NOT be purchased on a credit card!

Incoming Packages
  • Must be received by EHS, not by the lab
  • EHS checks all incoming packages for
    contamination, leakage or other damage and
    delivers them to the labs
  • If a package is accidentally delivered directly
    to your lab, DO NOT OPEN THE PACKAGE notify EHS
    immediately so that we can check the package for

Incoming Packages
  • After removing the radioactive material, all
    radioactive markings on the package must be
    removed or defaced prior to placing the package
    for disposal or recycling!

Inventory Forms
  • Must be filled out and returned to EHS in order
    for the supervisor to receive credit for disposal
    of the material
  • Supervisors are considered to be in possession of
    each isotope order until EHS receives the
    inventory form
  • This could lead to EHS denying a request for a
    radioactive material order if it causes the
    supervisor to exceed their possession limit

Radioactive Material Transfers
  • Any radioactive material transfers between lab
    groups must be phoned to EHS
  • Any shipments to other facilities, or transfers
    within PSU requiring vehicular transportation,
    must be transported by EHS
  • Radioactive materials less than 50 ?Ci may be
    hand carried between labs or buildings without
    EHS notification, but must be double sealed and
    labeled with the labs address and phone number

  • Authorizations for radioactive material usage
    must be approved by the UIC
  • No supervisor will be permitted to receive an
    amount of radioactive material that will cause
    him or her to have in excess of their allowed
    possession limit
  • A copy of the authorization request form is
    available on our website at

  • All radioactive materials, including radioactive
    waste, must be secured when unattended, even if
    for a very short time
  • This can be accomplished by keeping the lab
    door(s) locked at all times, or by securing the
    materials within the lab via locked freezers,
    waste containers, etc.

7. Radioactive Waste
Solid Radioactive Waste
  • Separated by nuclide
  • Only in containers furnished by EHS
  • Sharps must be placed in sharps containers
  • Autoclave Infectious waste before disposal as
  • See PSU Policy SY29 - Infectious Waste Disposal
  • No liquids (5 mL or less per container)
  • For EPA Hazardous materials, contact EHS for
  • Completely fill out waste card, or your waste
    will not be collected
  • When the container is full, submit a request for
    waste pick-up at

Liquid Radioactive Waste
  • Separated by nuclide
  • Only into containers furnished by EHS
  • No solids (except for 1 or 2 pH strips)
  • pH must be between 5 and 9
  • If biohazard, add 10 bleach before adding rad
  • EPA Hazardous waste must be separated from
    non-hazardous radioactive waste
  • The waste tag must be completely filled out,
    including activity, CAS s, and a signature

LSC Vials and Stock Vials
  • LSC Vials should NOT BE EMPTIED. Place the used
    vials into the cardboard flats that the empty
    vials came in, then place the flats into the
    plactic containers provided by EHS
  • Stock Vials can be placed in the appropriate
    solid radioactive waste container. If the stock
    vial still contains more than 1 mCi of a
    long-lived radionuclide, contact EHS for special
    disposal instructions

8. Major Spill Response
Major Spill Response Procedure
  • No matter how careful we are, we are all
    sometimes still vulnerable to having an accident.
    On the following slides are the steps to take if
    a major spill occurs. Follow this general

Major Spill Response Procedure
  • Immediately notify EHS and the Laboratory
  • 1. Stop the spread of radioactive material. If
    there is any sign of hallway contamination, run a
    rope across the hall at least 10 feet from the
    door on both sides of the lab. Use Caution
    signs and duct tape. Enforce the no-pass rule,
    station someone to stop traffic.

Major Spill Response Procedure
  • 2. Warn others in laboratory. This will help
    minimize the spread of the contamination. Call
    EHS for assistance at 865-6391.

Major Spill Response Procedure
  • 3. Survey all lab personnel. Record results
    (Fred left shoe 10,000 cpm-GM at 1 cm, Betty
    palm of right hand 950 cpm-GM at 1 cm). Pay
    particular attention to skin contamination. Skin
    dose may be a problem. Document levels prior to a
    quick clean, recheck/re-document.

Major Spill Response Procedure
  • 4. Survey people in other labs if there is any
    indication of widespread problems. Instruct
    others to survey their own labs.

Major Spill Response Procedure
  • 5. Call in Help. The laboratory supervisor
    should be present to organize the cleanup. The
    supervisor should call in all staff and students.
  • Request help for cleanup from EHS.

Major Spill Response Procedure
  • 6. Determine if the chemical composition of the
    spill could cause airborne particulate
    contamination if the spill was allowed to dry.
    If so, mop immediately.

Major Spill Response Procedure
  • 7. Establish a 'Clean' area. The area should be
    inside the room if possible, in the hallway if
    not. Issue boots or plastic bags for shoe
    covers. Absorbent bench paper is handy for
    covering floors to use as a clean area.

Major Spill Response Procedure
  • 8. Survey public areas. Have someone with clean
    feet survey hall, elevator, stairs, etc.
  • If wider contamination is found, expand your
  • off area.

Major Spill Response Procedure
  • 9. Survey the room. Remove people from lab until
    a survey of the room is performed. Smears are
    not necessary, but documentation is required.

Major Spill Response Procedure
  • 10. Assign some lab personnel to cleaning the
    halls while others continue to survey. Extend
    roped off area as necessary. Do not permit lab
    personnel to decontaminate their own space until
    all public areas are clean. Radiation protection
    staff will not necessarily help perform the
    decontamination, but they will help train,
    supervise, and monitor.

Major Spills - Other Cautions
  • 1. Enforce glove changes whenever a glove gets
  • 2. Work from cleaner areas towards areas with
    more contamination.
  • 3. Do not permit removal of contaminated shoes.
    People tend to contaminate their socks, then
    their feet. Have personnel place plastic bags
    over their shoes and walk carefully.
  • 4. If the room has to be roped off and not used
    until the next day, NRC notification may be

9. Laboratory Rules
Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 1. Radioactive materials may only be possessed or
    used in accordance with authorizations issued by
    the University Isotopes Committee.

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 2. Persons working in radionuclide laboratories
    must be familiar with regulations and radiation
    safety procedures. New personnel must contact EHS
    to arrange for required safety instruction before
    beginning work with radioactive materials.

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 3. Orders for shipment of radioactive materials
    to and from the University and transfers between
    supervisors within the University must be
    processed through EHS.

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 4. Inventory forms for radioactive materials must
    be kept current. Completed inventory forms must
    be returned to EHS when the material has been
    used up or has decayed to an insignificant
    activity level.

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 5. People using radioactive materials are
    responsible for conducting routine surveys to
    detect excessive contamination or radiation
    levels each time unsealed radioactive materials
    are used.

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 6. People using radioactive materials are
    responsible for the immediate decontamination of
    facilities that become contaminated in excess of
    allowed levels.

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 7. Pipetting by mouth is prohibited in
    laboratories where unsealed radioactive materials
    are used.

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 8. Persons working with unsealed radioactive
    material must wear laboratory coats, or other
    protective clothing and appropriate protective

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 9. Eating, drinking, or the storage of food or
    beverages is prohibited in laboratories where
    unsealed radioactive materials are used.
    Radiation protection staff have been directed by
    the University Isotopes Committee to order the
    use of radioactive materials be stopped
    immediately in any laboratory in which food or
    drinks are found. Use of radioactive materials
    must not resume until the laboratory supervisor
    has taken action to correct the problem and has
    received written approval to start work from the
    University Isotopes Committee.

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 10. Radioactive materials must be discarded only
    into appropriately labeled radioactive waste
    containers. Radiation protection staff has been
    directed to order the use of radioactive
    materials stopped immediately in any laboratory
    in which radioactive material is found in normal
    trash, biohazard waste, or recycling containers.
    Radionuclide use may not resume until the
    laboratory supervisor has taken action to correct
    the problem and has received written approval to
    start work from the University Isotopes Committee.

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 11. All containers with greater than 1 ?Ci of
    radioactive material that are left unattended
    must be labeled with the radiation caution
    symbol, the users name, the radionuclide, the
    activity and the date. Lead shields, cabinets,
    refrigerators and other storage areas for
    radioactive material must also be conspicuously

Radionuclide Laboratory Rules
  • 12. Licensed radioactive material in storage must
    be secure from unauthorized removal or access.
    Radioactive material not in storage must be
    controlled and under constant surveillance.

  • Immediate suspension for
  • Radioactive materials in the regular trash
  • Eating, drinking, smoking or storage of food
    in a posted lab or area
  • In case of immediate suspensions
  • All persons working under the supervisor, or
    in the supervisors lab, must stop using
    radioactive materials immediately
  • Authorization is suspended until further notice
  • The supervisor must prepare a written statement
    to the UIC

Should you have any questions,
The Pennsylvania State University Environmental
Health and Safety (EHS) 6 Eisenhower Parking
Deck or EHS - Radiation Protection 228
Academic Projects Building University Park, PA
16802 Phone (814) 865-6391 Fax (814)
865-7225 http//
10. Scheduling the Exam
  • Now, click here to download the Radionuclide
    Safety Training Class handout in Microsoft Word
    format. You must bring this with you to the exam
    (Do NOT bring a copy of all of the slides)!
  • Other languages available (may require special
  • Chinese radionuclide safety handout
  • French radionuclide safety handout
  • Spanish radionuclide safety handout
  • Print the handout, and bring a copy of it with
    you to the examination. The next slide will tell
    you how to schedule an exam time.

  • Congratulations! You have now completed part 1 of
    the required radiation safety training course for
    users of radionuclides at Penn State!
  • In order to become certified to use radioactive
    materials, you must now register for a time to
    complete part two of the course and exam at
  • http// .
  • You may not use radioactive materials until you
    have passed the exam.