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American Literature English III Honors Edgar Allen Poe


American Literature English III Honors Edgar Allen Poe 1809-1849 Born in Boston in 1809; father left and mother died; he was taken in by the John Allan family; lived ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: American Literature English III Honors Edgar Allen Poe

American Literature
  • English III Honors

Essential Questions
  • What is the relationship between place and
  • How does literature shape or reflect society?
  • What makes American literature American?

Unit 1 The New World
  • Focus on the earliest American literature.
    Puritanism and issues of settlement are the main
    focus of this unit.
  • Objectives
  • Identify emerging themes in early American
  • Explain the First Great Awakening and how it
    affected religious belief in Colonial America
  • Identify and explain elements of Puritan
  • Compare and contrast the experiences of Americas
    earliest settlers
  • Explain the role of religion in early American

Unit 1 The New World
  • Reading Assignment 1 (Native
    American Legends)
  • Everyone reads pages 2-16
  • Group 1 The Earth on Turtles Back (20)
  • Group 2 When Grizzlies Walked Upright (24)
  • Group 3 The Navajo Origin Legend (27)

Unit 1 The New World
  • Reflecting on the reading
  • Identification Significance Puritans,
    Pilgrims, Planters, Enlightenment, The Great
    Awakening, Revolution, Native Americans, African
  • Themes Creating a Nation, Wilderness, Community,

Unit 1 The New World
  • Native American Origin Stories
  • The Earth on Turtles Back
  • When Grizzlies Walked Upright
  • The Navajo Origin Legend
  • In groups
  • -Find a creative way to tell the story to your
  • -Identify the purpose of this story
  • -Lead the class in a discussion of the storys
    purpose and significance

Unit 1 The New World
  • Identify Similarities among the Origin Stories
  • Do you think the patterns, symbols, or character
    types are archetypes common to all three
    cultures? Explain.

Unit 1 The New World
  • A few ideas to consider
  • The Puritan ethic of hard work and self
    discipline remained a basic American value
    (Wiggins). Is it still an American value?
  • How did Native, European, and African cultures
    intersect in the new world? How did this
    intersection affect literature?
  • What are the emerging themes in American
    literature? Why these themesin other words what
    is the stimulus for these ideas? Consider the
    idea of a new Eden and the American dream.

Of Plymouth Plantationby William Bradford
  • Reading Quiz!
  • What is his purpose?
  • What is revealed about the Pilgrims through this
  • How can we describe and analyze Bradfords
    writing style?
  • Consider the essential questions. (next

Essential Questions
  • What is the relationship between place and
  • How does literature shape or reflect society?
  • What makes American literature American?

Anne Bradstreet
  • b.1612 - d.1672
  • 1630 left England with husband and parents for
    Massachusets Bay Colony
  • father became Governor of the colony
  • 1650 her brother-in-law published her poetry in
    England without her knowledgefirst published
    volume of literature written by a colonist
  • later work was published posthumously in 1678

Poetry of Anne Bradstreet
  • Reflects the Puritans knowledge of the Bible and
    their concern for the relationship between
    earthly and heavenly life
  • Later works, such as To My Dear and Loving
    Husband, are considered her best and most
    personal works
  • Written in the Puritan Plain Style
  • Characterized by short words and direct

Poetry of Anne Bradstreet
  • from The Prologue
  • I am obnoxious to each carping tongue
  • Who says my hand a needle better fits,
  • A poets pen all scorn I should thus wrong,
  • For such despite they cast on female wits
  • If what I do prove well, it wont advance,
  • Theyll say its stoln, or else it was by
  • contempt

Poetry of Anne Bradstreet
  • To My Dear and Loving Husband (76)
  • Discuss Puritan Plain Style as it applies to this
  • Discuss the poetic aspects of the poemhow do
    these relate to the tone, mood, and theme of the
  • What does this poem reveal about Bradstreet?
    What does it reveal about Puritan beliefs?

Phillis Wheatley
  • b.1754? d.1784
  • 1761 she was taken from West Africa and brought
    to America where she was sold to the Wheatley
    family of Boston
  • converted to Christianity
  • although a slave, she was taught to read the
    Bible and classic literature, also encouraged to
  • her Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and
    Moral were published in England in 1773most
    likely the first book ever published by a black
  • gained freedom and married John Peters

Poetry of Phillis Wheatley
  • Influenced by Bible and Classical Mythology
  • Allusions to mythological characters/gods
  • Creates characters in the image of mythological
    gods goddesses
  • Wrote in Heroic Couplets
  • Sequence of rhyming couplets (pairs of lines)
  • Each couplet is a complete thought
  • Written in Iambic Pentameter (5 pairs of stressed
    and unstressed syllables)

Poetry of Phillis Wheatley
  • To His Excellency, General Washington (125)
  • Listen to the letter enclosed with the poem to
    General Washington.
  • Discuss the poem as a heroic couplet. How does
    this poetic form help you read and understand the
  • Discuss the qualities Wheatley attributes to
    Washington. Are these qualities representative
    of typical American values? Explain.

Poetry of Bradstreet Wheatley
  • Consider other poems by these remarkable women
    poetsbe sure to relate the poems to your prior
    knowledge of these poets and the essential
  • What is the relationship between place and
  • How does literature shape or reflect society?
  • What makes American literature American?

from Sinners in the Hands of an Angry Godby
Jonathan Edwards
  • Sermon as an example of oratory
  • Example of a fire and brimstone sermon
  • Sermons
  • Are persuasive
  • Address the needs and concerns of the audience
  • Appeal to emotion
  • Include expressive or rhythmic language
  • Allude to the Bible (and sometimes mythology,
    history, and other archetypes)

Sermon as Rhetoric
  • Rhetoric is defined as the art of using words to
  • Rhetorical Triangle

from Sinners in the Hands of an Angry Godby
Jonathan Edwards
  • What is Edwards purpose?
  • Who is his audience?
  • How does he appeal to logos (What are his logical
  • How does he appeal to pathos (What are his
    emotional appeals)?
  • How does he appeal to ethos (What gives him
  • What modes of discourse does he use?description,
    narration, exposition (comparison, cause
    effect, contrast, classification, division,
  • What other rhetorical devises are
    used?parallelism, restatement, repetition,

The Crucibleby Arthur Miller
  • What did your research reveal?
  • How do the following names and terms apply?
  • Joseph McCarthy Marilyn Monroe
  • McCarthyism The Misfits
  • All My Sons witch hunts
  • Death of a Salesman Communism
  • Salem, Massachusetts Witch Trials

The Crucibleby Arthur Miller
  • Read the background
  • Author pages 1118-1119
  • In the authors own words pages 1120-1121
  • The play pages 1124-1125

Act 1 page 1126 Act 2 page 1161 Act 3 page
1187 Act 4 page 1217
The Crucible Reading Quiz 1
  • Classroom Discussion
  • 1. Who is the author of The Crucible?
  • 2. Briefly define McCarthyism.
  • 3. To which famous actress was the author of The
    Crucible married?
  • 4. Name one drama, other than The Crucible,
    written by this same author.
  • Background Reading
  • 5. In what year is The Crucible set?
  • 6. Name the container in which metals are melted
    or fused at his temperatures.
  • 7. Is the drama, The Crucible, historically
    accurate? YES NO
  • Overture
  • 8. Did the people of Salem Village consider it
    bad manners to mind other peoples business?
    YES NO Explain.
  • 9. Where did the Salem folk consider the
    Devils last preserve to be located?
  • 10. The people of Salem believed, in short,
    that they held in their steady hands the candle
    that would light the _________________.

The Crucible
  • Is it an allegory?
  • There were, as far as on can tell, no actual
    witches or devil-worshipers in Salem. However,
    there were certainly Communists in 1950s
    America. Some victims of McCarthyism were in
    the pay of the Soviet Union, but many who were
    accused suffered false accusations. So, no it
    isnt an allegory.
  • Is it historical?
  • No, its not entirely historically factual.
    Events correspond to the happenings in 1962
    Salem, but the characters are composites. And,
    the affair between proctor and Abigail is
    fictitious. All for dramatic purpose.

Crucible Journal(After reading Act 1)
  • What seem to be the motivating factors Miller
    presents in Act 1? How does he establish the
    hysteria at the root of the Salem Witch Trials?
    As an audience how do you relate to the
    charactershate any? sympathize with any? love
    any? If you have any other thoughts on Act 1,
    you may address those as well.

Think about it
  • The crucible introduces a community full of
    underlying personal grudges. Religion pervades
    every aspect of life, but it is a religion that
    lacks a ritual outlet to manage emotions such as
    anger, jealousy, or resentment.
  • Do you agree or disagree with this assessment?

The Crucible Reading Quiz 2 (Act 1)
  • Let him look to medicine and put out all thought
    of unnatural causes here. There be none. Who is
    the him mentioned here?
  • Who says, There is a faction that is sworn to
    drive me from my pulpit?
  • Who says, I have laid seven babies unbaptized in
    the earth?
  • You drank bloodYou didnt tell him that! Who
    is referred to with the pronoun you?
  • Who says, Let either of you breathe a word, or
    the edge of a word, about the other things, and I
    will come to you in the black of some terrible

The Crucible Reading Quiz 2 (Act 1)
  • 6. Who says, Abby, I never give you hope to wait
    for me?
  • 7. Who says, Bettyll wake when she tires of
  • 8. Who says, We cannot look to superstition in
    this. The Devil is precise?
  • 9. How can it be the Devil? Why would he choose
    my house to strike? Who is referred to with the
    pronoun my?
  • 10. Abigail says, She made me do it! She made
    Betty do it! Who is she?

Act 1
  • Overture (a piece of music played before the
    curtain goes upintroduces melodies to be heard
  • What might Miller be suggesting by this
  • What does Miller suggest about the people of
    Salem and their religion and politics in the
  • What reasons does Miller suggest for why the
    witch hunts began and developed into the mass
    hysteria we associate with Salem today?

The Crucible Theme (fundamental and universal
ideas explored in literature)
  • The Crucible is best read outside its historical
    contextas a powerful and timeless depiction of
    how intolerance and hysteria can intersect and
    tear a community apart.
  • What can be learned from these fundamental ideas
    explored in The Crucible?
  • Intolerance
  • Hysteria
  • Reputation

Are there other themes we should consider?
The Crucible and Motifs(recurring structures
that can help inform the themes)
  • How are these motifs developed and used in The
  • Empowerment
  • Accusations (guilt by association)
  • Confessions
  • Legal Proceedings

Are there other motifs we should consider?
The Crucible and Symbols(objects, characters,
figures, colors used to represent abstract ideas)
  • So, what do these symbols represent?
  • Crucible
  • Witch Trials
  • Forest

What other symbols should we consider?
The Crucible and Theocracy
  • Theocracy form of government by God (or through
    a priestly order)
  • In a theocracy, part of the states role is
    policing belief. Therefore, there is a good deal
    of pressure on the average citizen to inform on
    the blasphemous speech and actions of his or
    her neighbors in the name of Christian duty.

The Crucible The Tragic Hero
  • flawed figure who finds his moral center just as
    everything is falling to pieces around him
  • His downfall is usually due to excessive pride
  • He is doomed from the start, he bears no
    responsibility for possessing his tragic flaw,
    but bears responsibility for his actions.
  • He has discovered fate by his own actions, and
    not by things happening to him
  • He is usually a king, a leader of men his fate
    affects the welfare of a whole nation or number
    of people. Peasants do not inspire pity and fear
    as great men do. The sudden fall from greatness
    to nothing provides a sense of contrast.
  • The suffering of the hero must not be senseless
    it must have meaning!
  • The hero of classical tragedies is almost always

Crucible Journal(After Reading Act 2)
  • What are the conflicts that exist in the play?
    From where do these conflicts stem? Do you
    believe these conflicts can be resolved? Who has
    the ability to influence the community to solve
    its problems?
  • Also, what are your reactions to the events in
    Act 2?

The Crucible Reading Quiz 3 (Act 2)
  • What is the setting of Act 2?
  • Who says, I mean to please you Elizabeth?
  • Mary Warren says, I made a gift for you today
    Goody Proctor. What is this gift?
  • Who says, I am a stranger here, as you know. And
    in my ignorance I find it hard to draw a clear
    opinion of them that come accused before the
  • I see no light of God in that man. What man is
    Proctor speaking of here?

The Crucible Reading Quiz 3 (Act 2)
  • 6. Who says, There be no love for Satan in this
    house, Mister?
  • 7. Hale says, They have confessed it. Who
    responds with this logic And why not, if they
    must hang for denyin it? There are them that
    will swear to anything before theyll hang have
    you never thought of that?
  • 8. Who says, Question Abigail Williams about the
    Gospel, not myself!?
  • 9. Proctor says, Pontius Pilate! God will not
    let you wash your hands of this! Who does her
    refer to as Pontius Pilate?
  • 10. Who says, We are only what we always were,
    but naked now?

Consider Theme, Motif, SymbolAny to add?
  • Themes intolerance, hysteria, reputation,
  • Motifs empowerment, accusations, confessions,
    legal proceedings
  • Symbols crucible, witch trials, forest

Act 3 Think about it
  • Act 3 is filled with arguments. Consider who is
    arguing what. Make a list of the characters,
    their arguments, their evidence, and their
    motivations. Prepare to analyze these arguments.

The Crucible Reading Quiz 4 (Act 3)
  • Who said, And do you know that near to four
    hundred are in the jails from Marblehead to Lynn,
    and upon my signature?
  • Which of the girls confesses to the pretense of
    their accusations and actions?
  • Who said, Remember what the angel Raphael said
    to the boy TobiasDo that which is good, and no
    harm shall come to thee?
  • Who points out, There is a prodigious fear of
    this court in the country?
  • Who threatens Danforth with these words Let you
    beware, Mr. Danforth. Think you to be so mighty
    that the power of Hell may not turn your wits?
    Beware of it!?

The Crucible Reading Quiz 4 (Act 3)
  • 6. Who confesses, I have known her, sir. I have
    known her?
  • 7. Whose spirit comes in the form of a yellow
  • 8. Who does Mary Warren identify as the Devils
  • 9. Who says, God damns our kind especially, and
    we will burn, we will burn together?
  • 10. Who says, I denounce these proceedings, I
    quit this court!?

Irony Argument
  • In your groups, identify examples of each of the
    following from Act 3cite the exact lines!
  • Situational Irony
  • Verbal Irony
  • Dramatic Irony
  • Logosappeal to logic
  • Pathosappeal to emotion
  • Ethosethical appeal (credibility)
  • Logical Fallacy (2 examples)
  • Be prepared to discuss your findings and defend
    your answers.

The Crucible and Theocracy
  • What evidence of theocracy do you see in Act 3?
  • How are Danforths claims based on theocratic
    governmental practices?
  • How does Proctor challenge this?

Think about itdo you agree or disagree?
  • Proctor mistakes the court proceedings for
    an actual search for the guilty, when, in fact,
    the proceedings are better described as a power

The Crucible JournalAfter Reading Act 4
  • Analyze the ending of the The Crucible. What
    effect does the witch hunt have on Salem and
    its people? Are you satisfied with the ending?
    Do you think Miller makes his point? Explain.

The Crucible Reading Quiz 5 (Act 4)
  • What is the setting of Act 4?
  • Who says, Devil, him be pleasure man in
  • Who tells the court, Danforth, that Abigail has
    run away?
  • Who says, I cannot pardon these when twelve are
    already hanged for the same crime. It is not
  • Who says, I come to do the Devils work, I come
    to counsel Christians they should belie

The Crucible Reading Quiz 5 (Act 4)
  • 6. Who is pressed to death?
  • 7. Who says, I speak my own sins I cannot judge
  • 8. Who says, Damn the village! I confess to God,
    and God has seen my name on this! It is enough
    just before he tears his own confession?
  • 9. Who says, How may I live without my name? I
    have given you my soul leave me my name!?
  • 10. Who says, He have his goodness now. God
    forbid I take it from him?

The Crucible Act 4
  • Is this true?
  • Clearly, the most important issue for the
    officials of the court is the preservation of
    their reputations and the integrity of the court.
    As a theocratic institution, the court
    represents divine, as well as secular, justice.
    To admit to twelve mistaken hangings would be to
    question divine justice and the very foundation
    of the state and of human life.

Consider Theme, Motif, SymbolAny to add?
  • Themes intolerance, hysteria, reputation,
    hypocrisy, justice, theocracy, personal
    responsibility, fear, jealousy
  • How are these developed?
  • Motifs empowerment, accusations, confessions,
    legal proceedings
  • Symbols crucible, witch trials, forest, poppet,
    yellow bird, Proctor

Is The Crucible a tragedy?
  • What defines this play as a tragedy?
  • Is it a social or personal tragedy?

Is The Crucible an allegory?
  • What is an allegory?
  • What characteristics define it as allegory?

The Crucible The Tragic Hero
  • flawed figure who finds his moral center just as
    everything is falling to pieces around him
  • His downfall is usually due to excessive pride
  • He is doomed from the start, he bears no
    responsibility for possessing his tragic flaw,
    but bears responsibility for his actions.
  • He has discovered fate by his own actions, and
    not by things happening to him
  • He is usually a king, a leader of men his fate
    affects the welfare of a whole nation or number
    of people. Peasants do not inspire pity and fear
    as great men do. The sudden fall from greatness
    to nothing provides a sense of contrast.
  • The suffering of the hero must not be senseless
    it must have meaning!
  • The hero of classical tragedies is almost always

The CrucibleJohn Proctor as the Tragic Hero
  • Is Proctor a tragic hero?
  • Is he prideful? Is his downfall due to his
  • What is his tragic flaw?
  • Is he doomed from the start?
  • Is he a noble man? A man of nobility?
  • What is his fate? How did he reach this fate?
  • What is the purpose of his suffering?

Unit 2 A New Nation
  • Examine writers and documents associated with the
    founding of the new American nation.
  • Objectives
  • Identify defining themes in American Literature
    (i.e.. Exceptionalism)
  • Identify and explain the historical significance
    of Americas founding documents
  • Analyze how tone is established in persuasive
  • Analyze the use of literary elements in
    persuasive writing
  • Compare and contrast points of view on related
  • Analyze the qualities of an effective argument
  • Apply knowledge of effective argument when
    writing one of your own

Think about it
  • Patrick Henry said,
  • Give me liberty or give me death.
  • Are there things worth dying for?

Comparing and Contrasting Speeches
  • How do the writers employ the use of rhetorical
    devices and for what purpose?
  • What do Henry and Franklin want their audiences
    to think and do?
  • What rhetorical questions are used? What effect
    do they have?
  • What classical and Biblical allusions are used?
    Explain the purpose of each.
  • Compare and contrast the political assumptions
    (in relation to government) that each writer
  • Speech in the Virginia Convention
    Patrick Henry (99)
  • Speech in the Convention
  • Benjamin Franklin (105)

The Star Spangled Banner
  • Flew at Fort McHenry, located at the entrance to
    Boston Harbor, during the War of 1812
  • Flag measured 30 x 42 feetthe 15 stars were 2
    from point to point and the eight red and seven
    white stripes were 2 wide
  • The flag was sewn by Mary Young Pickersgill and
    her daughter Caroline
  • The cost was 405.90

The Star Spangled Banner
  • Francis Scott Key
  • Born 1779
  • Lawyer
  • Key was detained on a British ship during the
    attack on Ft. McHenry (September 13, 1814)he had
    gone their with Colonel John Skinner to negotiate
    the release of his friend Dr. Willaim Beanes who
    was captured during the attacks on Washington,
  • He watched the bombardment, which lasted 25
    hours, he began penning the poem after seeing the
    flag flying at dawn following the British retreat
  • Key completed the poem at a Baltimore hotel and
    then sent it to a printer
  • After the poems circulation, it was put to the
    music of an old English song
  • The song and flag became known as The Star
    Spangled Banner
  • Became the national anthem in 1931

The Star Spangled Banner
  • Identify
  • Poetic Elements
  • Tone
  • Style
  • Theme
  • What American ideals are present in this poem?
  • Why do you think this poem was made the national

Original Handwritten Text of The Star-Spangled
Poor Richards Almanacby Ben Franklin
  • Practical wisdom through aphorisms
  • an aphorism is a brief, wise statement
  • What qualities make these aphorisms easy to
  • Franklin felt these aphorisms were relevant in
    his own time. Which aphorisms are still relevant
    today? Mark these.
  • Write 3 aphorisms of your own that you believe
    would be relevant to your society.

Benjamin Franklins The Autobiography
  • How do you know this is an autobiography?
  • Identify the text features.
  • What is virtue?
  • n. moral excellence (patience is a virtue)
    chastity (her virtue is secure) good quality
    (what are your virtues?) or advantage (by virtue
    of his ability)

Benjamin Franklins The Autobiography
  • What does Franklin say about habits? Are you
    inclined to agree or disagree with him?
  • Consider Franklins 13 virtueswould acquiring
    these lead to a moral life? Are his goals
  • What does Franklins scheme or plan reveal about
    his character? Is it feasible?
  • Which virtue gives Franklin the most problem?
  • What is the result of Franklins endeavor?

Virtues Your turn
  • Think for a moment about the virtues you could
    benefit from acquiring. In other words, what
    habits would make you a better person?
  • Make a list of 13 virtues
  • Write a description for each virtue
  • Pick one and try it for a week
  • Keep a daily journal of your progress and

Foster on American Lit Franklins Autobiography
(from Twenty Five Books that Shaped America by
Thomas C. Foster)
  • What claims does Foster make about American
    Literature in general?
  • Foster says regarding his list, all make what
    seem to me important contributions to that
    story-in-progress that has been going on from the
    first writings. So, what does Franklins
    Autobiography contribute to the American story?

The Interesting Narrative of The Life of Olaudah
  • What is the Middle Passage?
  • What is a slave narrative? What is the general
    purpose of this type writing?
  • Analyzing the text
  • Who is the narrator?
  • What emotional appeals does the narrator make?
  • What effect doe these appeals have on the reader?
  • Is this narrative effective for its intended
    purpose? Why or why not?

The Declaration of IndependenceThomas Jefferson
  • Outline of the Argument
  • Where does Jefferson use logos, pathos, and

Classical ArgumentWhich of the unit 2 texts can
best be characterized as classical argument?
  • Exordiumintroduces the subject while winning the
    attention and goodwill of the audience
  • Narratioputs argument in context by presenting
    facts and explaining who, what, when etc.
  • Partitiodivides up the subject by explaining
    what the claim is, what the issues are, and in
    what order the subject will be treated
  • Confirmatiodetailed support
  • Refutatioacknowledges and refutes opposing
  • Perorationsummarizes the case and suggests action

Compare ContrastThe Declaration of
Independence The American Crisis
Preamble to the US Constitution
  • We the people of the United States, in order to
    form a more perfect union, establish justice,
    insure domestic tranquility, provide for the
    common defense, promote the general welfare, and
    secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and
    our posterity, do ordain and establish this
    Constitution for the United States of America.

Federalist Papers
  • Series of 85 articles promoting the ratification
    of the United States Constitution
  • Published between October 1787 and August 1788 in
    The Independent Journal and The New York Packet
  • Authors are believed to be Alexander Hamilton,
    James Madison and John Jay
  • Federalists advocated for strong central
    government and adoption of the constitution

James Madison
Alexander Hamilton
Federalist No. 1Alexander Hamilton
  • You are called upon to deliberate on a new
    Constitution for the United States of America.
    The subject speaks its own importance
    comprehending in its consequences nothing less
    than the existence of the UNION, the safety and
    welfare of the parts of which it is composed, the
    fate of an empire in many respects the most
    interesting in the world. It has been frequently
    remarked that it seems to have been reserved to
    the people of this country, by their conduct and
    example, to decide the important question,
    whether societies of men are really capable or
    not of establishing good government from
    reflection and choice, or whether they are
    forever destined to depend for their political
    constitutions on accident and force. If there be
    any truth in the remark, the crisis at which we
    are arrived may with propriety be regarded as the
    era in which that decision is to be made and a
    wrong election of the part we shall act may, in
    this view, deserve to be considered as the
    general misfortune of mankind.

Federalist No. 10James Madison
  • What is Madisons central argument?
  • Is the greatest appeal in this paper to logos,
    ethos, or pathos? Explain.
  • How does Madison construct his argument. Outline
  • What statements does he make that are
    profoundlets discuss these.

Unit 3 American Romanticism
  • The early 19th century was the first prolific
    period of American literature. It is important to
    understand how the romantics perceive
    individualism. It is also important to
    understand the similarities and differences among
    the romantics and transcendentalists.
  • Objectives
  • Define the major characteristics of American
    romanticism use of symbols, myth, and the
    fantastic veneration of nature celebration of
    the self isolationism theme of manifest
  • Define transcendentalism as an aspect of American
    romanticism and explain how it differs from
  • Trace characterization techniques in fiction
  • Analyze the structure and effectiveness of
    arguments in transcendentalist essays

  • Developed out of the American Renaissance
  • Exploration of self is as important as
    exploration of the landwriting describes
    individual quests for self definition
  • Romantic writers elevated imagination over
    reason, feeling over fact, and nature above all
  • Irving and Poe represent the fantastical nature
    of romanticism, while Melville and Hawthorne
    exemplify the agonized hero searching to define

Washington Irving
Nathaniel Hawthorne1804-1864
  • Descendent of New England Puritansborn in Salem,
  • His work is influenced by his Puritan background
    and a sense of inherited guilt that led to a
    dark vision of the world
  • He believed that evil was a powerful force in
    the world, a sentiment that infuses most of his
  • Wrote throughout his life to acclaim but monetary
  • Recognized for his powerful use of symbolism

Reading QuizDr. Heideggers Experiment The
Ministers Black Veil
  • Dr. Heideggers Experiment
  • How many guests does Dr. Heidegger invite?
  • What is believed to be contained in the curious
    black book in Dr. Hs study?
  • What does the rose prove to Dr. Hs guests?
  • What does Dr. H serve his guests?
  • To where are Dr. Hs guests going on a pilgrimage?

Reading QuizDr. Heideggers Experiment The
Ministers Black Veil
  • The Ministers Black Veil
  • What has changed Mr. Hooper into something
  • Who confronts Mr. Hooper and asks him to remove
    the veil?
  • What makes Mr. Hooper a very efficient clergyman?
  • True or False Mr. Hooper is removed from his
    position because he refuses to remove the veil.
  • True or False The veil hides a deformity, not a

The Ministers Black Veil
  • A symbol is an object, setting, or character that
    has meaning as itself but also stands for
    something greater, abstract. What symbols does
    Hawthorne use in this story?
  • A parable is a story that conveys a message.
    What message does this story convey?
  • By calling this story a parable, what
    expectations does Hawthorne set up for the
  • Explain how the veil might be a symbol of each of
    these abstract ideas sin/guilt, sorrow/mourning,
    isolation, mystery.
  • Do you think Hawthornes intentional use of
    ambiguity, or uncertain meaning, makes the story
    more or less effective?

Dr. Heideggers Experiment
  • Short Story Analysis
  • Point of View
  • Setting
  • Mood
  • Plot (Exposition, Rising Action, Climax,
  • Conflict
  • Characters Characterization
  • Symbols (with meaning)
  • Tone
  • Writers Style (elements used to create effect)
  • Theme

Hawthornes Style
  • What inferences can we make about Hawthornes
    style from these two examples?
  • What characteristics of American romanticism does
    Hawthornes work exemplify?

Edgar Allen Poe1809-1849
  • Born in Boston in 1809 father left and mother
    died he was taken in by the John Allan family
    lived with them in England from 1815-1820 before
    returning to US
  • Attended University of Virginia where dismissed
    for gambling debts
  • Attended West Point dismissed for violating
    academic procedures
  • Pursued a literary career, but lived in poverty
  • Suffered from depression and madness
  • Wife, Virginia, died in 1847 at the age of 25
  • Died in Baltimore in 1849 alone and unhappy

Literary Critics on Poe
  • Some critics believe that Poes despair over
    Virginias lingering illness and death explains
    his fascination with doomed female characters,
    such as the lost Lenore of The Raven, and the
    tormented Madeline Usher of The Fall of the
    House of Usher.
  • Poe is regarded as a brilliant original whose
    tireless exploration of altered mental states and
    the dark side of human nature changed the
    landscape of literature, both in America and
    around the world.

Gothic Literature
  • Began in England in the late 1700s
  • The word Gothic comes from architecturedescribe
    d castles and cathedrals that served as
    mysterious settings
  • Elements of Gothic Style
  • Bleak or remote settings
  • Macabre or violent incidents
  • Characters in psychological and/or physical
  • Supernatural or otherworldly elements
  • Strong language full of dangerous meanings

Poes Single Effect
  • As a literary critic, Poe believed that writing
    should achieve a certain unique or single
  • In other words, every detail in a short story,
    play, or poem, should contribute to one
  • Poes single effect is usually one of fear or
    ambiguity regarding what is real (mystery)

The Fall of the House of Usher The Raven
Gothic Style
Herman Melville1819-1891
  • Occupations worked on whaling ships, brief stint
    in navy, writer, inspector for NY customs house
  • Friend of Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • 1851 published The Whale (Moby-Dick)
  • Typee and Omoo were his only popular works other
    works were rejected during his lifetime
  • Rediscovered in 1920sMoby Dick is regarded as
    one of the finest novels in all of American

Moby-Dick Reading Quiz
  • Who said, Death to Moby-Dick! God hunt us all,
    if we do not hunt Moby-Dick to his death!?
  • What is the job of Queequeg, Tashtego, and Daggoo
    on the ship?
  • What does Ahab offer the man who spots the white
  • Who is described in the following quotation from
    Starbuck Moby-Dick seeks thee not. It is thou,
    thou, that madly seekest him!
  • What happens to the Pequod?

  • Complex Novel with Several Layers of Meaning
  • Literally its an adventure story of the voyage
    of a whaling ship
  • Figuratively its a quest story (Ahab seeks
    vengeance) its philosophical examination of
    humanity and its relationship to the natural
    world (whale vs. Ahab)
  • Its effect is largely based on its use of symbol.
    For example
  • Moby Dick is the most predominant symbol.
    Understanding this symbol can help us understand
    the theme.

Symbolism in Moby-Dick
  • white whale
  • sea
  • Pequod
  • Captain Ahab
  • ___________
  • ___________

Moby-DickA few things to considerfrom Foster
(of course)
  • Call me Ishmael. (Melville 11)
  • Whaling is one of the most preposterous
  • Moby-Dick is a revenge tragedy
  • This is not Ahabs story and not the whales.
    It is Ishmaels.
  • It is an epic. Good battles evil, but the
    existence of divine poles anchoring those forces
    is an unresolved issue.
  • Ahabs pursuit of something that much larger
    than himself, his overreaching toward the godly,
    may well remind readers of certain other
    endeavors in Melvilles still-new country.
    Manifest Destiny
  • Ahab as a Satan figure because he attempts to
    play God

Emily Dickinson1830-1886
  • If I feel physically as if the top of my head
    were taken off, I know that is poetry.
  • Read the background information on pages 404-406.
    What strikes you as important about Dickinson?
    How do you think these details will relate to her

Poetry of Emily Dickinson
  • Look for
  • Exact Rhyme (identical final stressed syllables)
  • Slant Rhyme (final sounds are similar but not
  • Paradox (statement that seems contradictory but
    presents a truth)
  • Elements of Romantic Literature
  • How does Dickinson compare to the other Romantic
    writers you have read so far?

  • Merging of literature, philosophy, and religion
  • Unique form of romanticism that is intuitive and
    ethically engaged
  • Search for truth
  • The individual is central and has a powerful
    capacity for intuition
  • Notable Writers Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry
    David Thoreau
  • Emerson contended that the human mind is so
    powerful it can unlock any mystery, from the
    intricacies of nature to the wonder of God

Key Concepts of Transcendentalism
  • Individual is celebrated
  • Natural world mirrors human life
  • Intuition is powerful to grasp fundamental truths

Walt Whitman1819-1892
  • Considered one of the greatest and most
    influential American poets although, he achieved
    only modest acclaim during his lifetime
  • Whitmans philosophy grew out of the ideas of
  • Poetry mainly derived from observationsWhitman
    had a keen sense of observation and an uncanny
    ability to comprehend and retain these
  • Leaves of Grass was his lifes workfirst
    published in 1855revised, reshaped, and
    expanded until his death in 1892
  • Work broke from poetic tradition and celebrated

Questions on Whitmans Work
  • Whitman is said to have written an American
    Epic. How does this differ from traditional
    epic? What epic themes do you see in the poetry
    of Whitmangive at least three examples. (Refer
    to pages 424-425 and your worksheet for
  • Compare and contrast the two poems, When I Heard
    the Learnd Astronomer and By the Bivouacs
    Fitful Flame. How are Whitmans ideas similar
    yet different in these two pieces of literature?

Emerson on Whitman
  • Leaves of Grass is the most extraordinary
    piece of wit and wisdom that American has yet

Thoreau on Whitman
  • We ought to rejoice in him greatly.He is
    awfully good.

Ralph Waldo Emerson1803-1882
  • Encouraged from a young age to think
    independently and explore thoughts
  • Son of a minister, Harvard graduate, pastor of
    Second Church of Boston, left the church and
    pastorate to write
  • Responsible for the Transcendentalist movement
  • Developed the idea of an Over-Soulevery soul
    and all of nature is part of an Over-Soul or
    universal spirit to which all beings return after
    deathevery being is part of Gods mind
  • His home in Concord, Massachusetts became a
    meeting place for the Transcendental
    Clubdeveloped a philosophical system that
    stressed intuition, individuality, and

Activities with Emersons Writing
  • Based on Nature, what are Emersons and the
    transcendentalists core beliefs?
  • Paraphrase the first paragraph of Self-Reliance.
  • Choose three statements from Self-Reliance and
    respond to them by discussing their meaning, your
    opinion, and how you believe these statements
    connect to America today.

Henry David Thoreau1817-1864
  • Considered eccentric as a child rarely followed
  • Teacher, but objected to corporal punishment and
    quit his first jobhe and his bother founded
    their own school
  • 1841 he moved into the home of Emerson
  • 1845-1847 lived alone in a one room cabin near
    Walden Pondresulted in the material for his
    collection Walden
  • Died at age 44 from tuberculosis

Emerson on Thoreau
  • Speaking at his funeral
  • The country knows not yet, or in the least part,
    how great a son it has lostHis soul was made for
    the noblest society he had in a short life
    exhausted the capabilities of his world wherever
    there is knowledge, wherever there is virtue,
    wherever there is beauty, he will find a home.

In "The American Scholar," Emerson described the
three basic stages of a transcendentalist's life
first, he learns all that is of merit in the
wisdom of the past second, he establishes a
harmonious relationship with nature through which
he is able to discover ethical truths and
communicate with the divine. With these two
stages, the transcendentalist has developed his
higher faculties he has cultivated his life and
"spiritualized" it. (We see the narrator of
Walden go through these two stages in his
progress toward spiritual rebirth.) After thus
cultivating his own spirit, the transcendentalist
does not selfishly remain content with himself.
The third stage he must attempt, after
self-renewal, is the renewal of society-at-large.
After being nurtured by books and nature, he must
attempt to share his spiritual gains with other
men who have not yet achieved their perfect
spiritual states. from
  • What is Thoreaus purpose and argument?
  • Transcendentalism focuses on gaining spiritual
    knowledge through recognizing ones connection to
    God and nature. How is it that Thoreau acquires
    knowledge during his time at Walden Pond? What
    is it that he has come to understand?
  • Identify examples of aphorisms (pronouncements)
    that Thoreau states in this text.

Civil Disobedience
  • What is it Thoreau means by the term civil
  • Thoreau is philosophically opposed to government.
    Where do you find evidence of this in the essay?
  • Ironically, Thoreau urges readers to make a
    better government? Why does he do this? Does
    this call to action strengthen or undermine his

Unit 4 A Troubled Young Nation
  • The literature of the late 19th century deals
    with particular themes related to the evolving
    young American nation
  • Challenges of westward expansion
  • Slavery
  • Changing role of women
  • Regionalism
  • Displacement of Native Americans
  • Growth of Cities
  • Immigration
  • Individualism
  • Pursuit of Liberty

Unit 4 A Troubled Young NationObjectives
  • Determine and analyze the development of the
    theme or themes in American literature of the
    nineteenth century freedom, the American dream,
    racism, regionalism, survival, individual vs.
    society, and civilized society vs. the
  • Compare the treatment of related themes in
    different genres
  • Explain how characters in fiction in late
    nineteenth century America express the challenges
    facing America at the time, citing both textual
    evidence from both fiction and nonfiction to make
    the case

The Civil War Era
  • Refer to pages 462-476
  • What do we need to know
  • Shapshot of the period (462-63)
  • Historical Background (464-65)
  • Essential Questions
  • How does literature shape or reflect society?
  • What is the relationship between place and
    literature? (470-71)
  • What makes American literature American? (472-73)
  • Contemporary Commentary (475-76)
  • Discuss periodization and how your own time
    might be periodized (refer to Extend Your
    Learning box on 476)

  • Compare and contrast
  • realism and naturalism.

Responding to The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
(Journal 1)
  • Now that you have read the first 18 chapters of
    the novel, discuss Twains commentary on one of
    the following topics
  • Domestic Abuse
  • Theft/Burglary
  • Murder
  • Slavery
  • Coming of Age (growing up)

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain
  • Who is Mark Twain?
  • Why are we reading this novel?
  • What is satire? (the mockery of human pretentions
    and failings) How does Twain use satire and for
    what effects?
  • What is ironic about this novel?

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finnby Mark Twain
  • As you read, mark passages relating to the
    following topics for discussion
  • Literary Techniques (style, POV, figurative
    lang., symbolism..)
  • Characterization of Huck, Tom, other
    significant characters
  • Hucks innocence experience
  • Twains satire and humor
  • Superstitions
  • sivilizing Huck
  • Hypocrisy
  • Crime
  • Slavery
  • Freedom

Reading Quiz 1Chapters 1-18
  • Fill in the blank You dont know about me ,
    without you have read a book by the name of The
    Adventures of ___________________________.
  • When Huck refers to the River, which river is
    he speaking of?
  • Who has a cross in his left boot-heel made with
    big nails, to keep of the devil?
  • Who are the two people hiding on Jacksons Island
    at the same time?
  • Who says, You wouldn tell on me ef I uz to
    tell you, would you, Huck?...II run off?
  • What event do Huck and Jim believe brings them
    bad luck starting with Jim being bitten by a
    snake and continuing with various separations and
    run-ins with questionable people?
  • What is the real identity of Sarah Mary Williams
    and George Jackson?
  • According to Huck, what is the difference between
    Paps view on borrowing and the Widow Douglass
  • Who says, Is a free man, en I couldnt ever ben
    free ef it hadn ben for Huck?
  • Who is Huck talking to when he says, Spose
    youd a done right and give Jim up would you
    felt better than what you do now?

Reading Quiz 2Chapters 19-23
  • At which time of day do Huck and Jim travel?
  • Huck says, It didnt take me long to make up my
    mind that these liars warnt no kings nor dukes,
    at all, but just low-down humbugs and frauds.
    Why does Huck keep this knowledge from Jim?
  • Name one of the Shakespearean plays the Duke and
    King attempt to perform.
  • Who diesSherburn or Boggs?
  • He was thinking about his wife and his children,
    away up yonder, and he was low and homesick
    because he hadnt ever been away from home before
    in his life. Who is the he being referred to
    in this passage?

  • Direct Characterization author gives the reader
    specific details about the character and his/her
  • Indirect Characterization author reveals
    character and personality traits through events,
    dialogue, and interaction
  • Characterize Huck Finn using the diagram
    provided. Be creative with your drawing.
    Surround him with quotations, paraphrases, and
    comments relating to his character and
    personality. Include page numbers with the
    quotations, paraphrases, and comments.

Discussion after Chapter 26
  • Literary Techniques (style, POV, figurative
    lang., symbolism..)
  • Characterization of Huck, Tom, other
    significant characters
  • Hucks innocence experience
  • Twains satire and humor
  • Superstitions
  • sivilizing Huck
  • Hypocrisy
  • Crime
  • Slavery
  • Freedom
  • Religion
  • Morality/Ethical Behavior

Write a Response
  • What is the significance of Hucks statement,
    All right, then, Ill go to hell? Be sure to
    discuss how this comment relates to the
    characterization of Huck, the novel as a whole,
    and Twain claims.

Reading Quiz Chapters 24-34
  • Who do the Duke and King impersonate in order to
    steal an inheritance?
  • Who says to the King and Duke, Take the six
    thousand dollars, and invest for me and my
    sisters any way you want to, and dont give us
    no receipt for it?
  • Where does Huck hide the money-bag when he is
    almost discovered?
  • When the lawyers says, I wouldnt strain myself,
    if I was you, I reckon you aint used to lying,
    it dont seem to come handy what you want is
    practice, who is he speaking to?

Reading Quiz Chapters 24-34
  • 5. Who says, Out with you Jim, and set her
    loose! Glory be to goodness were shut of
  • 6. How much money does the King get for Jim?
  • 7. Who says, All right, then, Ill go to hell?
  • 8. Who is Huck mistaken for when he gets to the
    Phelps plantation?
  • 9. Who says, Ill help you steal Jim?
  • 10. How do Huck and his comrade intend to free

Reading Quiz Chapters 35-Last
  • Who says, Well, if that aint just like you,
    Huck FinnWhy, haint you ever read any books at
  • What do Tom and Huck attempt to dig Jim out
    withthe result is blistered hands?
  • Name one of the items Huck and Tom steal from the
  • What is ironic about how the boys get the
    grindstone into Jims cabin?
  • Who says, I never knowed bfo, t was so much
    bother and trouble to be a prisoner?

Reading Quiz Chapters 35-Last
  • 6. Who gets shot during Jims escape?
  • 7. Who arrives back at the Phelps plantation
    wearing her calico dress?
  • 8. Who says, They haint got no right to shut
    him up!...Turn him loose! he aint no slave hes
    as free as any cretur that walks this earth!?
  • 9. How much does Tom pay Jim for being prisoner
    for Tom and Huck so patient?
  • 10. When Jim says, He aint a comin back no
    mo, Huck, to whom is Jim referring?

Thomas C. Foster on Huck Finn
  • Why does he include Adventures of Huckleberry
    Finn in Twenty-Five Books that Shaped America?
  • What are Fosters thoughts on social criticism,
    innocents narrative, Huck himself, the last
    chapters, Hucks language, Twains contribution
    to literature, and the controversy?

Archetypes in Huck Finn
  • Archetype denotes recurrent narrative designs,
    patterns of action, character-types, themes, and
    images which are identifiable in a wide variety
    of works of literature, as well as in myths,
    dreams, and even social rituals
  • How do archetypes relate to symbolism?
  • What archetypes are present in Huck Finn?

Themes in Huck Finn
  • The institution of slavery is immoral
  • Race is a filter through which individuals are
    judgedyet this is unfair, even immoral
  • Conscience should guide morality however, moral
    standards are largely taught and determined by
    society and are hard to overcome
  • Every person deserves personal freedom
  • Friendship is based on trust and respect
  • Check out for others

Identifying Irony in Huck Finn
  • Irony is generally defined as the contrast
    between expectation and reality
  • Situational Irony events dont occur as the
    character or audience expects
  • Verbal Irony meaning implied is different than
    the meaning expressed (sarcasm is a crude form of
    verbal irony characterized by a harmful intent
    and inflection of the voice)
  • Dramatic Irony the audience shares with the
    author knowledge of which the character is

Literary Criticism and Huck Finn
  • Literary criticism is the evaluation, analysis,
    description, or interpretation of literary works.
    It is usually in the form of a critical essay,
    but in-depth book reviews can sometimes be
    considered literary criticism. Criticism may
    examine a particular literary work, or may look
    at an author's writings as a whole.

Literary Criticism and Huck Finn
  • What is your initial impression of the critical
    analysis you have read? Do you find the writers
    credible? Their arguments convincing?
  • What do the Doren, Brooks, and Johnson essays
    have in common?
  • What else do you find insightful in these
    critical analyses?
  • What interpretations do they share with Foster?

Literary Criticism and Huck Finn
  • Based on your reading of the February 20, 1885
    review from the Hartford Courant, how was
    Huckleberry Finn received?
  • What is Smileys interpretation of Huck Finn?
    What does she argue? How does she support this
  • How does Pinsker respond to Smiley? What is her
  • Which writer, Pinsker or Smiley, has the stronger
    argument? Why?

Huck Finn Test Prompt
  • Develop a point of view on the value of The
    Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as an American
    novel. Synthesize information from the essays
    you have read by Foster, Pinsker, Smiley, Brooks,
    Doren, and Johnson, as well as the article from
    the Hartford Courant. You are required to use
    information from at least three of these sources
    to support your argument. Your references must
    be documented with in text citations.

SpiritualsGo Down, Moses Swing Low, Sweet
  • Folk songs often sung by enslaved African
  • What purpose did the spirituals serve in the
    slave community?
  • Why do they have refrains?
  • How are they allegorical?
  • What allusions exist in the spirituals? What is
    their purpose?

The Gettysburg AddressAbraham Lincoln
  • Why is the Gettysburg Address considered one of
    Americas most important speeches?
  • What are Lincolns purposes for this speech? How
    does he accomplish these purposes?
  • Why is his diction important?
  • What can we learn about rhetoric from this speech?

Letter to His SonRobert E. Lee
  • Who is Robert E. Lee?
  • What does this letter reveal about Lee and his
    attitudes toward the impending Civil War?
  • How is his diction important to our understanding
    of the significance of this letter?

Short Story Presentations
  • An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
  • by Ambrose Bierce
  • Plot of the story
  • Organization of Plot
  • Point of View
  • Stream of Consciousness
  • Irony
  • Writers tone influence
  • Theme/Message
  • Insight into Civil War
  • An Episode of War
  • by Stephen Crane
  • Plot of the story
  • Naturalism Examples
  • Theme/Message
  • Character of lieutenant
  • Irony
  • Insight into Civil War

Realism Naturalism
  • Realism originated as a reaction to
    Romanticismwriters began to focus on portrayals
    of real life as ordinary people lived it
    intent was to show characters and events in an
    hones, objective, almost factual way
  • Naturalism wanted to portray real life but
    believed lives were controlled by forces beyond
    human understanding or control
  • indifferent nature, blind fate, heredity, and
    pure chance determined the lives of men and women
  • Naturalists questioned ideas about human goodness
    and the beauty of nature
  • Characters are often victims of their own choices
    or of a violent world

The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County
Reading Quiz
  • What story does Simon Wheeler tell the narrator?
  • What is Jim Smileys hobby?
  • Who is Andrew Jackson in the story?
  • What is the name of the Smileys frog?
  • When its time for the contest, why cant
    Smileys frog jump?
  • Does the narrator get the desired information
    from Simon Wheeler?

Twains Humor
  • Humor is writing intended to amuse
  • Humorists Devices
  • Incongruity using a serious tone to de
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