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SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL

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Title: SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL


1
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
SEMINAR-WORKSHOP ON SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND
INNOVATION INDICATORS CURRENT ISSUES AND
CHALLENGES FOR SOUTH-EAST ASIA Phnom Penh,
Cambodia 18-20 Nov 2008
2
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Country Presentation
Dinesh R BHUJU Nepal Academy of Science and
Technology
Sitaram P BYAHUT National Science
Council Tribhuvan University
3
Acknowledgements
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • UNESCO
  • Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology,
    Government of Nepal
  • Nepal Academy of Science and Technology

4
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
CONTENTS
  • GENERAL OVERVIEW
  • INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITIES
  • HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
  • DISCIPLINARY DEVELOPMENT
  • DEVELOPMENT PLANS POLICY

5
General OverviewFederal Republic of
NepalCOUNTRY NOTES
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • Area 141,181 Sq Km
  • Population25 million (2001)
  • Literacy gt60 KEI 1.61
  • Topography Mountainous (gt70)
  • Major Economic Activity Agriculture,
  • Tourism, Remittance
  • Potentials
  • Natural Resources Water Resources (gt6,000
    rivers 225 b cu m/yr, Biodiversity (gt34
    ecosystems), High Altitude Mountains (60m-8,848m
    asl)
  • Human Resources Intellectual Plurarism,
    Technical Advances (IOL and IT received
    Magasessey Awards), Higher Education, Indigenous
    Knowledge System, Micro-Hydro, Community Forestry
    Conservation etc.

High Altitude Research Lab 5,50m, Nepal
6
General Overview HISTORICAL TRENDS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • Pre-Modern (Before 1800)
  • The Gopal Up to 1000 BC
  • The Kirat 700 BC-110 AD
  • The Lichhavi 110-879 AD
  • The Thakuri 879-1200 AD
  • The Malla 1200-1768 AD
  • Modern
  • Isolation (1800 1950 AD)
  • Post-isolation (1950 AD onwards)

7
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table Records of scientific knowledge and
technological innovations in Nepal before 1950
8
Nyatapola Five-Storied Temple Bhaktapur, Built
1703
13th Century
9
General OverviewHISTORICAL TRENDS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • Pre-Modern (Before 1800)
  • Modern
  • Isolation (1800 1950 AD)
  • Post-isolation (1950 AD onwards)

10
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Chronological order major ST institutions
established in the country
11
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Chronological order major ST institutions
established in the country contd.
12
Institutional CapabilitiesEDUCATION SYSTEM
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
SCHOOL EDUCATION Primary Tier Grade
1-5 Lower Secondary Tier Grade 6-8 Secondary
Tier Grade 9-10 Higher Secondary Tier Grade
11-12 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION Bachelors 3-5 yrs
(after Higher Secondary) Masters 2 yrs after
Bachelors Degree MPhil and PhD Programs
13
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Distribution of 2 schools (science
stream) in and outside Kathmandu valley
Source Higher Secondary Education Board 2005
14
Institutional CapabilityVOCATIONAL EDUCATION
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • Technical School 1932
  • Council for Technical Education and
  • Vocational Training (1989)
  • Technical Schools 19
  • Affiliated Institutes 170
  • Areas gt 20 (Agriculture, Electrical,
    Electronics, Nursing)

15
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Technical institutions operated by CTEVT
16
Institutional CapabilityHIGHER EDUCATION
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • Tri-Chandra College 1918
  • Tribhuvan University 1959
  • Nepal Sanskrit University 1986
  • Kathmandu University 1991
  • Purbanchal University 1995
  • Pokhara University 1997
  • BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences 1998
  • National Academy of Medical Sciences 2003
  • Lumbini University

17
Institutional CapabilityMAJOR UNIVERSITIES
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY
  • Institutes Science and Technology, Medicine,
    Engineering, Forestry, Agriculture and Animal
    Science
  • Campuses gt300 Courses Nearly 200
  • Students gt200,000 Faculties 7,000
  • KATHMANDU UNIVERSITY
  • PURBANCHAL UNIVERSITY
  • POKHARA UNIVERSITY

18
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Number of students in different institutes
of Tribhuvan University
19
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Number of teachers in different ST
related institutions of Tribhuvan Univeristy
Source Planning Division, Tribhuvan University
Today, 1999
20
Institutional CapabilityHUMAN RESOURCE
DEVELOPMENT
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
1977 1995 2005
21
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Human Resource Development in Science and
Technology
22
Institutional CapabilityST ORGANIZATIONS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
National Council for Science and Technology 1976
(dissolved) Nepal Academy of Science and
Technology 1982 Ministry of Environment, Science
and Technology 1996
23
Institutional CapabilityGOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • Department of Agriculture 1924
  • Department of Mines and Geology 1926
  • Department of Survey 1958
  • Department of Plant Resources 1959
  • Department of Food Research and Quality
  • Control 1960
  • Department of Meteorology Hydrology 1962
    Department of Forest Research Survey 1963
  • Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed
    Management 1974
  • Department of National Parks and Wildlife
    Conservation 1980
  • Department of Drug Administration 1980

24
Institutional CapabilityOTHER ORGANIZATIONS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • Water and Energy Commission 1981
  • National Agriculture Research Council 1991
  • Environment Protection Council 1992
  • National Health Research Council 1992
  • High Level Commission for IT 1996
  • NGOs- gt15,000 registered with Social Welfare
    Council (Environment Conservation 926, Health
    Care 339, etc.)

25
Disciplinary DevelopmentMAJOR SUBJECTS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • Applied Science
  • Medicine
  • Engineering
  • Agriculture
  • Forestry
  • Natural Science
  • Physics
  • Chemistry
  • Mathematics
  • Statistics
  • Botany
  • Zoology
  • Geology
  • Emerging Subjects
  • Computer and IT
  • Environmental Sc
  • Conservation Biology
  • Microbiology
  • Biotechnology

26
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Major research areas in some ST
Institutions in Nepal
27
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Major research areas in some ST
Institutions in Nepal (Contd.)
28
Disciplinary DevelopmentNATIONAL SCIENCE CONGRESS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Number of Papers Received in Science Congress
1982 1988 1994 1999 2004 2008
29
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Subject-wise breakdown of papers presented
in national conferences on ST
30
Disciplinary DevelopmentPROFESSIONALS
/INCLUSIVENESS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Professional Society gt100 Journal Publication
gt60 Women Participation Women Scientific
Manpower lt15 of the total 95 engaged in
agriculture Marginalized Group in ST Negligible
31
Development Plans Science PolicyBUDGET
OUTLAYS IN DEV. PLANS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. Total outlays and their sector-wise
distribution in percent in development plans
32
Development Plans Science PolicyDEVELOPMENT
PLANS
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • FIVE-YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLAN
  • Since 1956
  • ST Policy Statement in Sixth Plan (1980-1985)
  • Science and Technology Policy 2005, Ministry of
    Environment, Science and Technology

33
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
34
Development Plans Science PolicyOVERVIEW
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
  • SCIENCE ANDTECHNOLOGY POLICY
  • Efforts of GON and UNESCO since 1960s
  • National Policy on Science and Technology 1989
    forwarded by NAST through First National
    Conference on ST
  • Science and Technology Policy 2005, Ministry of
    Environment, Science and Technology

35
Development Plans Science PolicyINVESTMENT IN
ST
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Table. RD Expenditure in Some of the ST
sectors (Average of 1991-1996)
Source Adhikary et al.(1998)
36
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY IN NEPAL
Development Plans Science PolicyINVESTMENT IN
ST
RD Expenditure of GDP
1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
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