Solid State Chemistry for Physics, Information Technology Devices and Energy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Solid State Chemistry for Physics, Information Technology Devices and Energy

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Title: Solid State Chemistry for Physics, Information Technology Devices and Energy


1
Solid State Chemistry for Physics, Information
Technology Devices and Energy
Art Ramirez Director Device Physics Research Bell
Labs
2
SSC and Condensed Matter Physics
  • Superconductivity High, low, symmetry ??
  • Quantum phase transitions
  • Magnetism 1D, 2D, SDW
  • Charge Density, Heavy Fermion, Ferroelectics

MgB2
Akimitsu et al Nature 2001
  • Cross cutting themes
  • Artificial spatial dimensionality
  • Geometrical Frustration Spin Liquid, Spin Ice,
    Negative thermal expansion in ZrW2O8
  • Mixed valence
  • Multifunctionality

Paulings Ice Entropy
Ramirez et al, Nature 1999
3
SSC and CMP Nations Status
Recent Major Discoveries based on
SSC Water-intercalated superconductivity H2ON
aCoO2 Berrys phase transport
Nd2Mo2O7 Multi-Ferroics from ISB magnetism
TbMnO3 Single-molecule metal Ni(tmdt)2 3d Heavy
Fermion Metal LiV2O4 MgB2 2-band
Superconductivity p-wave Superconductivity in
Sr2RuO4 Field-induced superconductivity in
?-BETS2FeCl4
Tanaka et al, Science 2001
Approach materials discovery by crystal growth
4
New Materials Crystal Growth NRC Proposal
  • Crystals are new materials with technological
    importance
  • Much of CMP physics originates with NMCG
  • NMCG funding suffered from reduction of
    industrial labs
  • NMCG funding also not in line with major
    facility funding

5
Moore's Law
10 um
Modern CMOS
Beginning of Submicron CMOS
1 um
Deep UV Litho
90 nm in 2004
34 Years of Scaling History
100 nm
  • Every generation
  • Feature size shrinks by 70
  • Transistor density doubles
  • Wafer cost increases by 20
  • Chip cost comes down by 40
  • Generations occur regularly
  • On average every 2.9 years over the past 34 years
  • Recently every 2 years

Presumed Limit to Scaling
10 nm
1 nm
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
Courtesy of D. Buss, TI
6
SSC CMOS Roadmap
  • Scaling CMOS to the End of Roadmap will require
    sophisticated condensed matter physics.
  • Gate stack Atomic and electron orbital
    understanding of this complex material system
  • Quantum behavior of carriers
  • High perpendicular E field
  • Stress
  • Non-equilibrium Boltzmann transport
  • Tunneling Gate insulator and Drain-to-Substrate
  • Simulation
  • Sophisticated condensed matter physics will also
    be required to invent and develop electronics
    beyond CMOS
  • Single Electron Transistor (SET)
  • Carbon Nano-tube (CNT)
  • Molecular Electronics
  • Spintronics
  • Quantum Computing

SSC needed for new IT materials!
Courtesy of D. Buss, TI
7
Micro- Electro- Mechanical Systems - MEMS
  • Mechanical device functionality resonators,
    capacitors, microfluid, light control
  • Silicon lithography high Q, materials
    integratable
  • Materials compatible

MEMS microphone
Microcompass magnetometer
Lambda Router Mirror
8
Solid-state Chemistry Information Device Physics
  • - Colossal MR
  • Ferroelectrics
  • Multiferroics
  • Organics

  • Heterogeneous electronic phases, charge patterns
  • Strongly coupled charge/ spin/lattice degrees of
    freedom

1
4
6
5
9
Solid-state Chemistry Information Device Physics
  • - Colossal MR
  • Ferroelectrics
  • Multiferroics
  • Organics

CaCu3Ti4O12
Subramanian et al, 1999

SSC Challenge to combine local polarizability
and strong interactions, but to destabilize long
rage order
ZrW2O8
1
4
6
5
10
Solid-state Chemistry Information Device Physics
  • - Colossal MR
  • Ferroelectrics
  • Multiferroics
  • Organics

TbMnO3 IC magnetism
Ni3V2O8 A Kagome Staircase

Kimura et al, Nature 2003
  • large ME effect related to structures that
    induce IC magnetism
  • Large opportunities for materials that combine
    AF, helical FM, and large polarizability

1
4
6
5
Al, Cava, et al
11
Multiferroics are Rare
Look at common mineral types that combine FE and
FM ions Spinel AB2O4 Perovskite ABO3
Pyrochlore A2B2O7 - hard to find A4 and B2,3.
12
Solid-state Chemistry Information Device Physics
  • - Colossal MR
  • Ferroelectrics
  • Multiferroics
  • Organics

Structure of (EDT-TTF(CH2OH)2)2Mo6O19 From
Batail et al.
  • Charge Transfer Salts
  • Doping Carbon
  • Carbon Nanotubes
  • Plastic Electronics

1
4
6
5
13
Solid State Chemistry and Energy
14
Art Nozik, DOE Solar Energy Workshop, 2005
15
Solid-state chemistry and energy
  • Saving solid state lighting O and inO
  • Conversion fuel cells, solar fuels,
    photovoltaics
  • Storage primary and secondary batteries
  • Issues for OLEDs conversion efficiency,
    operational life
  • Small molecules improve triplet harvesting,
    spectral range

Luminous efficiency of monochrome OLEDS
16
Solid-state chemistry and O-Solar Cells
  • Materials issues similar to OLEDs injection
    efficiency, transport efficiency, emission
    efficiency
  • Need new molecules that are strong,
    light-absorbing, band-gap and exciton level
    tunable
  • C60 undergoes little structural distortion
    upon electron transfer

17
Solid-state chemistry and energy control
Conversion High thermoelectric figure of merit
in Na0.75CoO2
Cava, Ong, Science 2004
18
Solid-state chemistry and energy
  • Transmission technologies superconducting
    electric cables
  • Fuel stream purification technologies hydrogen
    separation membranes . How to make hydrogen?
  • Fuel transportation containers, hydrogen
    storage materials
  • Cuts across chemistry, materials science,
    chemical engineering, mechanical engineering
  • Hybrid Organic/Inorganic

19
Self-Assembled Materials and Organic Electronics
  • Potential Organic Materials Advantages
  • Printable/manufacturable
  • Flexible
  • Multi-functional materials/ molecular design (i.
    e. low-dielectric constant with high EO
    coefficient)
  • Low-cost

drain
Market Potential - Flexible displays -
Smart Tags - Photovoltaics - 10B in 10
years - Lucent has 25 patents
0.1 mm channel
20
TFT semiconductor Single crystal insulator
  • - Polycrystalline thin film transistors
  • Semiconductor spun on or evaporated
  • Almost all of plastic electronics
  • Naturally occurring free-carrier density 1017
    carriers/cm3 ?

Tetracene
3 mm
Yang et al, APL 2002
  • ?Single crystals grown from vapor transport or
    melt
  • Insulating, free carrier density 10-12
    carriers/cm3
  • ? No fundamental understanding of doping or
    trapping in OFETs
  • Similar situation in oxides

Tetracene single crystal
21
Surface States in Single Crystals OFETs
22
The Role of Single Crystals for Organic
Electronics
  • Single Crystal FETs
  • Easily fabricated
  • High purity
  • Address issues of relevance for plastic systems
    grain boundaries, deep traps, doping, reliability

pentacene
  • Purity
  • Commercial stock extremely dirty
  • E.g. in pentacene (to left) have few dihydra,
    and quinone impurities
  • Need e.g. a pilot manu- facturing program

Palstra group, APL 2004
23
Identify individual H-related traps in pentacene
A
A
C
Ea 0.21 eV
C
Au pads on a Pentacene crystal
Ea 0.55 eV
D. V. Lang et al, PRL, 2004
24
Crystal FETs from many different molecules
C. Kloc, R. Zeis
25
PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ORGANICS
Symbol
picture
Band gap
B
N
6 eV
5 eV
Name
Benzene
Napthalene
T
C
A
P
3.9 eV
3.1 eV
2.2 eV
Du
CH3
CH3
Tetracene
Pentacene
Coronene
Anthracene
CH3
CH3
Py
Cl
Durene
Corannulene
Perylene
Ru
Tc
ET
. . .
Vi
C60
C2n
TCNQ
BEDT

2.3 eV
Fullerite
Fullerites
Blue melts at atmospheric pressure
26
Bell Labs Crystal Growth Archive Many samples
from both our archives and from ongoing research
projects are available for measurement by request
http//www.bell-labs.com/research/crystal.html
27
end
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