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NATO ARW Life Cycle Analysis for Assessing Energy and Environmental Impacts of Information Technolog

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Title: NATO ARW Life Cycle Analysis for Assessing Energy and Environmental Impacts of Information Technolog


1
NATO ARW Life Cycle Analysis for Assessing
Energy and Environmental Impacts of Information
Technology 1 Sep 2003 - 3 Sep 2003. Budapest,
Hungary Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and
Systematic Approach (SA) as the theoretical base
of information and communications technology
(ICT) facilities production Tools and Methods
for Cleaner Production (CP) and Pollution
Prevention (P2P)
Prof .William Zadorsky Ukrainian Ecological
Academy of Sciences Ukrainian State University of
Chemical Engineering
2
CP concept (as and sustainable
development concept) includes three aspects
ecological, economic and social. Only mutually
balanced simultaneous comprehensive tackling of
the three tasks (economical growth with
simultaneous improvement of ecological conditions
and decision of social problems) will allow
realizing progressive CP strategy. The system
analysis shows strong interaction and feedback
among the mentioned three factors of CP strategy.
Underestimating any of these facets will lead to
a distortion in this equilateral triangle and to
a deviation from the overall strategy of
sustainability. This strategy can only be
implemented when the three tasks are fulfilled
simultaneously.
3
Ukraines Aheading of Development (similar
Chinese Large Jump)
Systematic approach
Informatic



SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Ecology Economy
Sociality

4
  • Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the systematic
    analysis and assessment from the cradle to the
    grave not only of an information and
    communications technology (ICT) facilities, but
    and of the ICT processes. Analyses of LCA
    application shows that this method already has
    wide using especially for quantitative assessment
    and choose of solving variants.

5
  • Statistic analysis of LCA implementation shows
    that there are some difficulties with and
    barriers to the LCA application, first of all
    methodological problems
  • Methodology complexity
  • Definition of system boundaries
  • Collection and quality of data
  • Difficulties with assessment/interpretation
  • Cost of recourses involved.

6
  • Statistic analyses shows that further
    dissemination of LCA will be successful only if
    LCA will be combined with other methods and
    instruments (first of all with systematic
    approach - SA) and if this methodology will be
    clearer and will be written simple manual on LCA
    using. As it will be show LCA can be combined
    with SA only on the tiers Consumption sector
    and Manufacturing. In the bottom it will be
    shown that every period of life requires own
    methods of CP and P2P problems solving.

7
  • Following are the basic assumptions underlying
    the LCA concept for transfer economy countries
  • At this time of a deep economic crisis, the
    economic and environmental challenges must be met
    simultaneously, in keeping with LCA strategy.
  • A move towards a cleaner economy must focus not
    on consumption, but rather on perfecting those
    entities that are actual or potential polluters.
  • The success of LCA promotion will be largely
    determined by the availability of professionals
    well trained in the LCA theory and practice.

8
Systematic approach. Life Cycle Assessment.
Logistics (for every project/object)
Q
3
1 latent period
4
2
2 - childhood
3 maturity
1
4 - degradation
?
Every period requires own methods of Management
9
Following are the basic assumptions underlying
the cleaner economy concept for transfer economy
countries        At this time of a deep
economic crisis, the economic and environmental
challenges must be met simultaneously, in keeping
with one strategy of cleaner economy.         A
development towards a cleaner economy must focus
not on consumption, but rather on perfecting
those entities that are actual or potential
polluters.         The success of a cleaner
economy policy will be largely determined by the
availability of professionals well trained in the
theory and practice of economy clean-up and
environmental management.         No cleaner
economy will be possible without creating an
environmentally sound market.  
10
The system approach prescribed in the base of
proposed strategy for systematic reduction of
environmental loads. It expects that previously,
than problems on methods of industrial waste
conversion or utilization choose will be solve,
it is necessary to consider questions for
systematic reduction of environmental loads at
the tier of strictly production.
11
  • Its very important to realize economic
    justified variants of removal or essential waste
    reducing by selectivity of main process raising
    at the lowest hierarchical object tiers. CP
    algorithm is a sequence of following actions
  • DECOMPOSITION of hierarchical tiers (levels)
  • IDENTIFICATION of limiting tier
  • Transition from macro- to micro-level
  • SELECTIVITYINTENSITY INCREASING.
  •  
  •  

12
DECOMPOSITION. Hierarchy level determination and
technical system decomposition. The analysis of
the initial information including inspection of
industrial manufacture, with the purpose of its
decomposition on typical levels of hierarchy (for
example, manufacture plant item - installation
apparatus or machine - contact device -
molecular level)
13
  • Two aspects of the system approach to cleaner
    production are addressed
  • Vertical hierarchy. It implies that any subsystem
    of a system may be regarded either as a
    lower-level system in relation to the upper tier
    or as an upper-level system for the lower tier.
  • Match between a tier in a hierarchy and the
    methodology of characterization, assessment or
    influence used at this tier. This aspect does not
    seem to have been sufficiently covered previously
    and deserves a closer look. The tools used to
    analyze, study and influence an object should
    match the respective tier dimensions and
    frequency in the order of magnitude.

14
HIERARCHY of SYSTEM, CP Tools and Methods
N
15
  IDENTIFICATION of an initial level. Revealing
of the bottom level of hierarchy limiting from
the point of view of pollution to an environment.
Definition of limiting/limitings hierarchical
level/levels. Herewith reasonable move on the
hierarchical stairway from top to bottom and use
methods of expert evaluations
16
SELECTIVITYINTENSITY INCREASE. Increase of
selectivity and intensity of actually
technological stages of processing at a limiting
level of hierarchy. Choice of CP methods
depending on the limiting level scale (defining
size) corresponding with parameters of influence
method to the system from the database
17
  • Engineering techniques and methods for Cleaner
    Production
  • Q Flexible synthesis systems and adaptive
    equipment to embody them.
  • Q Process engineering for high throughput to cut
    processing time and reduce byproducts and wastes,
    and industrial symbiosis as a basis for
    management of secondary materials and energy.
  • Q Minimization of time of processing and surplus
    less toxic reagent, resulting all to increase of
    selectivity and reduction of formation of
    by-products.

18
  • Synthesis and separation in an aerosol to
    increase
  • intraparticle pressure and reaction rate.
  • Self-excited oscillation of reacting phase flows
    at frequencies and amplitudes matching those at
    the rate- limiting tiers of the system.
  • Recirculating flow of the least hazardous agent
    taken in excess over its stoichiometric value.
  • Isolation (close-looping in structure) of flows
    of substance and energy by recirculating,
    resulting to idealization of modes of synthesis
    and significant reduction of speed of by-
    processes.

19
  A databank on methods of influence on systems
at various hierarchical tiers for purposes of
ecologization (this Russian termini integrates
CP, EM, WM, P2P, LCA) will be available in
special table. The methods included in the bank
have passed industrial tests and/or are used in
industrial conditions. There should be a match
between a tier in a hierarchy and the methodology
of characterization, assessment or influence used
at this tier.
20
Table. Tactical receptions of realization of
systematic ecologization principles  
21
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22
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23
  Separative reactions organizing (synthesis and
dividing processes organizing in the same palace
and in the same time), allowing to reduce
formation of by-products by removal of a target
product from a reactionary zone at the moment of
its formation.    Controlled heterogenization of
the contacting phases for softer conditions and
improved selectivity. Flexibility and
adaptability of technology and equipment allowing
to ensure reliable work of technical system by
"internal" reserves (flexibility) of installation
using, that reduces an opportunity of harmful
substances pollution or reception of a
sub-standard product.
24
  • Chemical production ecologization supposes
    to use some special methods of ecologization
    sumaltenously with the traditional ones for any
    field of engineering (closed-loop structure and
    multifunctionality of equipment,
    intensification)
  •  minimizing of treatment time and the excess of
    one reagents, resulting most frequently in the
    increase of selectivity and in the reduction of
    by-products formation
  •  recuperation, closed cycle of substance and
    energy fluxes, resulting as M.F.Nagyev had
    shown in "idealization" of the synthesis regimes
    and in a significant reduction of side reactions
    rate
  • combining the synthesis and separation,
    heterogenization, resulting in significant
    reduction of by-products formation by carrying
    the target product outside the reaction zone at
    the moment of its formation
  •   adaptability of the technique and equipment,
    allowing to secure a reliable operation of the
    technical system through the "intrinsic" reserves
    of the installation, resulting in minimizing the
    possibility of "volley" polluted ejections out of
    the installation.
  • The specific conception of the ecologization of
    chemical productions is not to render harmless
    the mixed liquid or gas effluent "in general",
    but to make it harmless locally as near as
    possible to the source of its formation.

25
Some tools and methods for CP   Transition from
macro- to micro-level (on the samples for the
optimisation of the capillary-porous compounds
impregnation process)   Jointly with my
followers we were developing steps for the CP
and technology optimisation of the
capillary-porous compounds impregnation
processes, that are applied not only in chemical
practice, but many others. Earlier without the
special success such processes they tried to
optimize at a level of installation, individual
device, individual product. We try to go on a
limiting level of object (with macro level to
level of capillaries). We have been able to solve
a great number of practical tasks through
non-traditional approaches.
26
CATALYST IMPREGNATION The method eliminates
vacuum or high pressure equipment and may require
only minor, if any, modifications in the existing
equipment. It relies on a simple three-step
treatment of the catalyst support pellets
directly before impregnation. The pretreatment
removes all air trapped in the open pores and
involves the following steps carried out in quick
succession heating the catalyst pellets,
introducing a specific nonreactive gas, and
removal of the gas. It activates every open pore
and results in their quick and complete filling
during subsequent dipping. The nonreactive gas
characteristics and the timing are unique to each
support/catalyst impregnant system. This
necessitates their tailoring to the system at
hand. The gas will invariably be selected among
those inexpensive and readily available ones.
Flexible modular units were developed that can be
operated in a wide range of temperature, pressure
etc. to process pellets of various materials and
shapes.
27
  IMPREGNATION OF ELECTRODES AND OTHER
CARBON/GRAPHITE ARTICLES The method requires
only minor additions to the existing equipment.
It relies on a simple three-step treatment of the
carbonaceous material directly before
impregnation. The pretreatment removes all air
trapped in the open pores and involves the
following steps carried out in quick succession
heating the charge, introducing a specific
nonreactive gas, and removal of the gas. It
activates every open pore and results in their
quick and complete filling during the
impregnating step. The nonreactive gas
characteristics and the timing are unique to each
carbon/impregnant system. This necessitates their
tailoring to the system at hand. The gas will
invariably be selected among those inexpensive
and readily available ones. Laboratory and
industrial-scale experiments with articles over 1
m in diameter like graphite electrodes revealed
that the method may cut down the number of
impregnation steps to unity. The impregnation
step as such was effected very rapidly and
resulted in complete filling of the pores. This
increased production rate, enhanced product
quality and reduced exposure time and emissions
of pollutants. The method is believed to be
patentable because it has not been disclosed and
no analog to it has been found in the literature.
28
  SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION FOR PHARMACEUTICS, FOOD
PROCESSING AND PULP INDUSTRY It relies on a
simple three-step treatment of the starting
material directly before contacting. The
pretreatment removes al air trapped in the open
pores and involves the following short-time steps
carried out in quick succession heating the
charge, introducing a specific nonreactive gas,
and removal of the gas. It activates every
interstice and open pore and results in their
quick and complete filling during the contacting
step. An advantage of the pretreatment is that it
can be conveniently combined with other means of
activation like self-excited oscillations, pulsed
pressure and acoustic fields. The nonreactive gas
characteristics and the timing are unique to each
solid/extractant system. This necessitates their
tailoring to the system at hand. The gas will
invariably be selected among those inexpensive
and readily available ones. Laboratory
experiments and commercial use with medicinal
plants demonstrated that the method is both
effective and readily adaptable to various
production routes. The contacting step as such
was effected very rapidly and resulted in
complete contact between the solid and the
solvent. This increased production rate, enhanced
product quality and reduced wastes. The method is
believed to be patentable because it has not been
disclosed and no analog to it has been found in
the literature.
29
IMPREGNATION OF TEXTILE FIBERS, AND FIBER
REINFORCEMENTS OF RESIN-MATRIX COMPOSITES The
method eliminates vacuum or high pressure
equipment and may require only minor, if any,
modifications in the existing equipment. It
relies on a simple three-step treatment of the
fiber material directly before impregnation. The
pretreatment removes all air trapped in the open
pores and involves the following steps carried
out in quick succession heating the fiber
material, introducing a specific nonreactive gas,
and removal of the gas. It activates every open
pore/interstice and results in their quick and
complete filling during the impregnating step.
The nonreactive gas characteristics and the
timing are unique to each fiber/resin system.
This necessitates their tailoring to the system
at hand. The gas will invariably be selected
among those inexpensive and readily available
ones. The equipment will be the same for any
system to be processed. The process allows
continuous and batch operation alike.
Experiments with graphite and glass
reinforcements revealed that the method may
improve the fiber surface area coverage by 30
and shorten the impregnating step time 2-fold.
Importantly, no selective sorption of any
components of impregnant occurred
30
LEACHING AND EXTRACTION FOR WINNING OF
METALS   The project is aimed at developing a
rapid, effective, environmentally friendly and
low-cost method to ensure complete extraction of
valuable components from solid materials. The
method requires only minor additions to the
existing equipment and may make expensive
high-pressure equipment unnecessary. It relies on
a simple three-step treatment of the starting
material directly before contacting. The
pretreatment removes all air trapped in the open
pores and involves the following short-time steps
carried out in quick succession heating the
charge, introducing a specific nonreactive gas,
and removal of the gas. It activates every
interstice and open pore and results in their
quick and complete filling during the contacting
step. An advantage of the pretreatment is that it
can be conveniently combined with other means of
activation like self-excited oscillations, pulsed
pressure and acoustic fields. The nonreactive gas
characteristics and the timing are unique to each
solid/extractant system. This necessitates their
tailoring to the system at hand. The gas will
invariably be selected among those inexpensive
and readily available ones. Laboratory and
industrial-scale experiments revealed that the
method is both effective and readily adaptable to
various production routes. The contacting step as
such was effected very rapidly and resulted in
complete contact between the solid and the
extractant. This increased production rate,
enhanced product quality and reduced wastes.
31
INFILTRATION OF CARBON/GRAPHITE COMPACTS IN
MAKING METAL-CARBON COMPOSITES  
Metal-graphite materials and refractory metal and
carbide-base composites are among the most common
in sliding electric contacts. Another major area
of their application is sliding bearings.
Infiltration is used extensively for making such
composite materials. Powder of graphite, a
refractory metal or a carbide is first compacted
into a skeleton of the desired shape. Silver or
copper is then infiltrated into the pores of the
skeleton. Infiltration with copper alloys is also
employed to improve properties of ferrous powder
metallurgy materials. The project is aimed
at developing a quick, effective and low-cost
method enabling perfect infiltration of skeleton
bodies with metals like copper and silver.
The method eliminates the need for vacuum or
high pressure equipment and may require only
minor, if any, modifications in the existing
equipment. It relies on a simple three-step
treatment of the skeleton directly before
impregnation. The pretreatment removes
all air trapped in the open pores and involves
heating the skeleton body, introducing a specific
nonreactive gas, and removal of the gas. It
activates every open pore and results in their
ready and complete filling during infiltration.
The nonreactive gas characteristics and the
timing are unique to each powder/infiltrant
system.  The cost of equipment adaptation to
the new process is negligible as is the running
cost for the new appliances. At the customer's
side, the gain will come directly from reduced
prices and also indirectly from improved service
properties and extended life of product. Sliding
bearings for various machines and sliding
contacts for electric locomotives etc. are among
prospective applications.
32
IMPREGNATION IN MAKING ELECTRODES FOR
NICKEL-CADMIUM CELLS The project is aimed at
developing a rapid, effective, environmentally
friendly and low-cost method to ensure perfect
impregnation of porous substrates with aqueous
impregnants. The method requires only minor
additions to the existing equipment. It relies on
a simple three-step treatment of the porous
material directly before impregnation. The
pretreatment removes all air trapped in the open
pores and involves the following short-time steps
carried out in quick successionheating the
porous piece, introducing a specific nonreactive
gas, and removal of the gas. It activates every
open pore and results in their quick and complete
filling during the impregnating step. The
nonreactive gas characteristics and the timing
are unique to each substrate/solution system.
This necessitates their tailoring to the system
at hand. Laboratory and industrial-scale
experiments with substrates intended for making
metal-ceramic nickel oxide electrodes revealed
that the method is both effective and readily
adaptable to various production routes. The
impregnation step as such was effected very
rapidly and resulted in complete filling of the
pores. This increased production rate and
enhanced product quality.  
33
IMPREGNATION OF WOOD AND PAPER Wood and
paper are routinely impregnated with protectants
like antiseptics and insecticides, with various
processing liquids, and also with high-molecular
compounds to make laminates and wood plastics. A
simple, inexpensive, environmentally friendly,
precise and rapid method to impregnate
intermediate and processing products, including
paper, is thus desired. The method eliminates
vacuum or high pressure equipment and may require
only minor, if any, modifications in the existing
equipment. It relies on a simple three-step
treatment of wood and products directly before
impregnation. The pretreatment remove all air
trapped in the pores and involves the following
steps carried out in quick succession heating
the material, introducing a specific nonreactive
gas, and removal of the gas. It activates every
pore and results in their instantaneous and
complete filling during subsequent dipping. The
nonreactive gas characteristics and the timing
are unique to each product/impregnant system.
This necessitates their tailoring to the system
at hand. The gas will invariably be selected
among those inexpensive and readily available
ones. Railroad sleepers were impregnated with
creosote using the process at hand. The
production rate of the dipping step was found to
increase by a factor of 2 to 100. In experiments
with railroad sleepers, the depth of penetration
in one dip was increased 1.7- to 2.2-fold
depending on wood species. Some reduction in the
amount of antiseptic absorbed was observed.
Possibilities to control the coverage in the
range from 2 to 25 by use of special measures
were revealed. Importantly, no selective sorption
occurred, so the processing liquid composition
was maintained throughout the processing period.
34
GETEROGENIZATION - is the highest results we
have when geterogenization is used as a part of
Reactive Separation Processes (RSP) ideology
(will be below). It is below discussed also
number of possible mechanisms of chemical
reactions improving with increasing of their
selectivity when mass transfer process joints
with chemical one in particularities at bubbles
mode of phases interaction
35
  It is below discussed number of possible
mechanisms of chemical reactions improving with
increasing of their selectivities when mass
transfer process joints with chemical one in
particularities at bubbles mode of phases
interaction. Such approach allows to enlarge a
concentration of reagents in the reactionary
area, modificated a system in heterogenous one
and remove products of reaction in that phase,
where reaction does not go that reduces a
possibility of forming the by-products to the
account parallel running reactions with products
of main reactions.
36
RSPs are in principal distinguished from
chemosorption processes as reaction products
promotes an increasing of a velocity of
reversible process in according with Le Chatelier
principle, but for inconvertible - in consequence
of the law of action of masses, since in the
reactionary mass at the product tap to reactions
increases reagents concentration. Increasing a
RSP velocity promotes a faster change of surface
tension on the border among the phases and their
density that causes a reinforcement of a surface
turbulence which accelerates a mass-transfer
process - a reaction product evacuating from
the liquid phase in gas that, in turn, makes more
intensive a chemical process in the liquid. On
hand strong mutual influence of reactionary and
mass-transfer processes. This phenomena can be
not described by dependencies, tinned by joint
deciding the equations of diffusion and kinetics.
37
Since pulsation frequencies in bubbling zone
(1...10)6 ?-1) on much orders frequencies less
than own molecule oscillations, probably, in the
system must not occur chemical change in
consequence of resonance phenomenas, and
changing the dominating frequencies in the system
in the specified range will hardly tell on
dynamics of chemical conversion. However, appear
acoustic currents, causing an intensive mixing of
phases and accelerating in several times
heat-mass-transfer processes, since action of
acoustic flows turns out to be vastly more
efficient, than hydrodynamic ones, because of the
smaller boundary layer thickness. In the fluid
phase herewith appear effects, similar cavitation
ones, promoting to the bubbles growing and to its
departure by acoustic currents. Formation and
complex bubble moving (for sample, effect of
"dancing" bubbles), change their once-measures,
slamming, coalescence generate pulses of
compression in liquids and can cause a local
warming of the phase. So, under the adiabatic
compression of cavitation bubble its temperature
can reach 104 K. Increasing of temperature
promotes the molecules transfer on the border and
in bubbles in the agitate condition and fission
them on radicals (relationship breakup and
forming the radicals, according to different
sources, occurs under 350-10000?), which can
recombine and interact on the known mechanism.
Velocity of formation and spending the radicals,
probably, will render herewith significant
influence upon the general integral velocity of
process.
38
Parallel reactive separation processes
(RSP)   Parallel reactive separation
processes (RSP) are using as Clean Reaction
Technologies for increasing a purity of
production, Waste Reduction and for Pollution
Prevention. Usually reactive zone and
distillation zone is the separate zone in similar
units. But we will have a lot of additional
effects if these zones will be combined in joint
volume. Then in the reactive-separation zone not
only the reaction heat will cause additional mass
transfer between vapor and liquid phases but it
will be increase a rate of the chemical process.
Running a chemical reaction in the same place and
at the same time with some physical process of
separation in the resultant reaction zone is an
effective way to increase chemical processing
rates. The reason is that removal of reaction
products as they form promotes reversible
processes in accordance with Le Chatelier
principle, and irreversible processes in
accordance with the law of mass action, because
reagent concentrations in the reaction zone are
increased as the products are removed. With
increasing rates of reaction and mass transfer,
the interface tension and phase densities change
more rapidly, resulting in more vigorous surface
turbulence. This promotes mass transfer, namely
the removal of products from the liquid into the
gas phase, which, in its turn, increases the rate
of reaction in the liquid.
39
Using RSPs (on the example of 1.4-dioxane
production).     It is shown the increasing of
production purity when using RSPs (on the example
of 1.4-dioxane production). For increase of
1.4-dioxane manufacture cleanliness the
above-stated algorithm was used. The system
analysis has shown, that ecologization of this
object by improvement of quality of burning of
the resin results in significant complication and
rise in price of manufacture. It was not possible
to utilize the resin with the rest of perfecting
catalyst - a sulfuric acid. Thus, at the expense
of overlapping chemical and mass transfer
processes we have received substantial growth of
speed of target reaction of 1,4-dioxane
synthesis, of chemical reactor intensity,
increase of the process selectivity, and the
reduction of asphaltization practically up to
absence. Last circumstance has solved a difficult
ecological problem of resin with the rests of the
sour catalyst burning. Results of kinetics
studies and their use for one of the most
significant RSPs are illustrating considered
approach to raising ecological efficiency
chemist-technological objects.
40
The results of 1,4-dioxane RSP synthesis
laboratory researches at As 9,91 mole/m3, Us
0,541 m3/s, reactor volume 0,13 liter  
41
Imposition of bubbling separating process on
chemical one can cause an increasing an observed
velocity of process, stipulated of variety
diffusion effects, in accordance with formation
an interphase surface, breakup of ) continuity
under gas bubbling in the liquid and forming the
areas of increased pressure, phase transition at
the interleaving of condensations and
evaporations on each contact stage, introduction
to the system of a quite numbers of energy with
the gas flow from outside. At the homogeneous
system transfer to heterogenous one, for
instance, under bubbling, appear, as it is well
known, pulsation of pressure and velocities,
causing effects, similar effects, appearing at
the influence to the ultrasonic fluctuation
system. Appearance and
collapse of bubbles under steam (gas) bubbling
in the liquid is related to in than-that to the
phenomena an cavitation, under which in liquids
appear pulsing bubbles, pervaded by steam (gas)
or their mixture (at desorption by the inert
gas).
42
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43
  • Improving of nanocomposite materials
    production technique with treatment of
    gaseous/vaporous submicrometer particles-cleaned
    phases
  • The goal of the project is unification of
    technology and equipment for production of some
    of Innovative Products of nano-capillary porous
    materials with new impregnation technologies in
    module installations usage.

44
  • The main stages of the
    project are
  • 1. Creation of combine module and technology
    for air removing from capillaries and porous of
    matrix, multiple cycles of matrix
    impregnation/drying. The key principle of the
    advanced technology is based on the following
    approach articles made from capillary-porous
    materials are preliminary heated by known means
    and subsequently treated with superheated vapours
    of the impregnating liquid (or vapours of other
    substances that readily dissolve in or react with
    the impregnating liquid). Then, the articles are
    immersed into the impregnating liquid which has
    the temperature lower than the temperature of
    vapour condensation. Implementation of this
    technology does not require complex technological
    equipment. It is sufficient to have an
    impregnating chamber operating under atmospheric
    pressure, loading/unloading devices and heating
    devices (aerodynamic, induction, convective,
    etc.). Also, the equipment should include an
    apparatus for evaporation and superheating of
    vapours of impreg

45
  • 2. Creation of modules for removing of
    submicrometer particles from both gas/vapor phase
    and solvent for impregnation in nanocomposite
    production and for ultra-pure substances for the
    semiconductor and fibre-optic industries
    production.
  • 3. Development of new nanocomposite materials
    production with usage p. 1-2 technologies and
    equipment.
  • 4. Searching of application areas for new
    developed materials.

46
  • Advantages of the new advanced technology
  • Increase in the process rate (reduced process
    time) by a large factor
  • Simplification of the process equipment (pressure
    / vacuum equipment is not required)
  • Low capital and operating costs
  • Ability to impregnate large items or large groups
    of items, as the new technology has significantly
    lower requirements to strength and sealing of
    impregnating apparatuses
  • Ability to control the depth and rate of
    impregnation
  • Improved environmental characteristics of the
    impregnation process due to the reduction of
    process time and elimination of contamination
    threats associated with vacuuming systems.

47
  • Results of this work will allow to improve
    design and build materials and devices on an
    atomic scale for manufacturing of Nano- and
    Microfiber-Based Composites, Carbon, Metals,
    Ceramic and Polymer Matrix Composites. Developing
    synthetic nanostructures on this scale will lead
    to many new and improved technologies. It will be
    to develop Ukrainian microelectronics,
    glass-fiber optics, semiconductor, cermet,
    graphite-metal electric contacts production, to
    improve aero-space and wood-based production
    (furniture), construction building, paper
    production, High-surface Nanofibrous Materials
    for Medicine and etc.

48
  • Wide program of mutually beneficial
  • collaboration
  • joint scientific research, including
    participation in international scientific
    programs and joint developments for industrial
    enterprises and other organizations,
  • transfer of new high technologies, joint analysis
    of developments in science, industry, education
    and social policies in the NIS countries,
  • joint research in permanent areas of applied
    chemistry, chemical processing and chemical
    engineering, chemical industry, metallurgy,
    engineering, food-processing and pharmaceutical
    industries,
  • exchange of leading scientists and specialists,
    exchange of visiting professors that deliver
    lectures on the chosen themes.

49
We can observe the tendency to come to an
agreement about nature, man and industrial
complex interaction by the way of
natural-technical systems creation, which allow
reaching higher technical indexes under
favourable ecological indexes. System analysis of
complex system man industry environment
shows the necessity of ecologization conception
combination with human adapting to life
conditions, partly even under ecologically
non-favourable conditions and with human life
support system application to the environment to
guarantee human survival.
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