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What is Cross Border Higher Education?

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Cross Border Higher Education: India's Response for A Regional Conference on Strategic Choices for Higher Education Reform December 3-5, 2007 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is Cross Border Higher Education?


1
Cross Border Higher Education India's
Response forA Regional Conference on
Strategic Choices for Higher Education
ReformDecember 3-5, 2007 organized
byMinistry of Higher Education Malaysiathe
World Bank Asha Gupta Director, Directorate of
Hindi Medium Implementation University of Delhi
2
What is Cross Border Higher Education?
  • According to the Global Education Digest (2006),
    students mobility surged from 1.75 to 2.5
    million during 1999-2004, a rise of 40.
  • Cross border higher education is in vogue these
    days. By CBHE we imply higher education that
    takes place in situations where teachers,
    students, programmes, institutions/providers or
    course materials cross national jurisdictional
    borders.
  • It may include higher education by public/private
    and not-for profit/for profit providers. Though
    small in scale, it has bigger impact than
    for-profit higher education. It can take various
    forms ranging from face to face higher education
    to e-learning.
  • Though the term cross-border is used
    interchangeably with global, international,
    borderless, transnational or multinational,
    it is not correct to do so.
  • In fact, the term cross-border implies an
    awareness and recognition of national borders and
    all that means in terms of political, social and
    cultural specific norms and realities found
    within.
  • One can have access to international higher
    education without crossing the borders.
    Internationalization of higher education implies
    integration of international, intercultural
    and/or global dimension into the goals, functions
    and delivery of higher education.
  • By CBHE, we usually imply students following a
    course or programme of study that has been
    produced, and maintained, in a country different
    from ones country of residence.
  • Source John Daniel, Asha Kanwar and Stamenka
    Uvalic-Trumbic A Tectonic Shift in Global Higher
    Education. Change. July /August 2006.

3
Modes of CBHE Supply
4
Why Cross Border Higher Education?
  • With massification of higher education, we find
    sudden escalation in the demand for higher
    education that cannot be met by most governments
    on their own. CBHE is the natural choice.
  • The estimates are that by 2020 there will be 165
    billion people seeking higher education,
    including 7.2 billion international students.
  • About 60 of demand is likely to come from India
    and China, the two most populous states, emerging
    economies and world power in making.
  • In the wake of knowledge-based and
    technology-driven economies, it is necessary to
    upgrade ones skills constantly.
  • CBHE helps in capacity building, human resource
    development, practical and relevant education,
    professional training, broadening ones outlook,
    acceptance of multiculturalism, ethnic or
    linguistic diversities, etc.
  • It can be seen both as a political strategy and
    economic device towards educational
    internationalism and cooperation.
  • The media too is found playing a proactive role
    in promoting the consumption of higher education
    by spreading/strengthening the myth that the more
    you learn the more you earn!
  • The very purpose of CBHE has changed from pursuit
    of knowledge to gaining job-oriented skills.
  • Source Asha Gupta. Education in the 21st
    Century Looking Beyond University. (forthcoming,
    Shipra, 2008, New Delhi).

5
Whither Higher Education in India?
  • India is more than a state and almost like a
    continent. We find development underdevelopment
    juxtapositioned.
  • It has the credit of running the 3rd largest
    higher education system after China and US.
  • It has 348 including 62 deemed to be
    universities, 17973 colleges, 11 centers for open
    learning, 11.8 million students and 0.5 million
    teachers (2006-07).
  • India has inherited the British system of
    affiliation. Only the universities have degree
    granting power.
  • About 70 of higher education institutions are
    privately managed. They are affiliated to public
    universities or open learning centers. There are
    only 10 private universities.
  • India has the advantage of 350 million middle
    class willing to invest into quality higher
    education.
  • It has demographic advantage of having 60 of its
    population below the age of 25.
  • Only 8-10 of adults are in continuing education.
  • India has robust economic growth at the rate of
    9. About 60 contribution comes from the service
    sector
  • India has great potential of becoming a hub for
    Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO), especially
    in leagl services, data analysis, animation and
    design, business and market research,
    biotechnological and intellectual property
    research
  • The economic growth is led by private sector that
    is willing to invest into higher education and
    professional training.
  • India spends only 0.68 of its GDP on higher
    education. Only 13 of the youth have access to
    higher education.

6
Indias Response to Cross Border Higher Education
  • India became more outward looking, globally
    connected and innovation-driven after economic
    liberalization in July 1991.
  • The new economic policy has a definite bearing on
    higher education in India though it has a record
    of CBHE as early as 4th and 5th century when
    scholars from far off places flocked to Nalanda
    and Taxila in quest of knowledge for the sake of
    knowledge and cultural diversity.
  • Shanti Niketan, established in 1929, attracted
    many scholars from abroad. Its founder Rabindra
    Nath Tagore used to assert that India has an
    obligation to offer the hospitality of her best
    culture and it has the right to accept from
    others their best.
  • Today, India is sending a large number of
    students abroad in pursuit of higher education
    and professional training, at the exorbitant
    costs of US 4 billion per annum.
  • Indian government is now willing to allow 100
    FDI in higher education in India. Most of the
    CBHE in India falls in the category of Mode 3
    (commercial presence) or Mode 1 (higher education
    through distance learning). 5 seats are now
    reserved for foreign students.
  • Joint degrees and collaborative programmes are
    becoming more popular. Manipal Academy has
    collaboration with Malaysian Medical College at
    Maleka, BITS Pilani has launched a business
    school in Dubai and Wharton has a management
    programme in Hyderabad, IIT with French
    collaboration in Singapore.
  • India has the advantage of 350 million people
    having English language skills (UK has 60, US 250
    and China 200 million).
  • India has the credit of providing 3rd largest
    pool of skilled personnel worldwide. It is one of
    the five telecom giants and has 4th biggest
    economy in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
    despite 13 access to higher education.
  • We find national mind in favour of CBHE but
    national heart against it. It applies to
    globalization, economic liberalization and
    privatization as well.
  • It is feared that CBHE can adversely affect
    national sovereignty and boost hegemony of the
    West and English language.
  • In the absence of proper regulatory regime,
    certain unscrupulous foreign institutions can
    take undue advantage of unmet demand in India by
    operating fly by night institutions of low
    caliber or by offering degrees/diplomas not even
    recognized in their own countries.
  • Students and their families can be easily duped
    and exploited by full page advertisements in
    local and national dailies. Such institutions may
    also be found lacking in terms of linguistic,
    ethnic, gender, religious, regional or cultural
    sensitivities.
  • India is now planning to develop ways and means
    for dealing with this situation.

7
Pros and Cons of CBHE
  • Leads to intellectual enrichment, broadening of
    cultural outlook, and forging of meaningful
    international ties.
  • Can be useful in managing globalization and
    enhancing human capital.
  • Creates scope for business-academia interface and
    exposure to work scenario in future.
  • Leads to entrepreneurship-hallmark of knowledge
    based and technology driven economy.
  • Being a young nation, a sizeable demand for
    Higher education is likely to come from India
    itself. It is rich both in terms of quality as
    well as quantity as far as human resource is
    concerned.
  • Helps in brain circulation and brain gain rather
    than brain drain.
  • Enhances professional skills through diversity,
    critical thinking and innovation.
  • Strengthens communication skills through group
    discussions and interactive sessions in
    multi-cultural and multi-lingual settings.
  • Exposes to latest educational technology and
    practical insights.
  • India can hope to improve its share in the
    business of higher education through CBHE by
    adopting supportive policies and removing some of
    the undue apprehensions and bottlenecks.
  • Indian psyche is against commercialization of
    education. It considers imparting education as a
    noble task.
  • No distinction is made between profit and
    profiteering',' self-interest and selfish
    interest.
  • CBHE is seen as detrimental to national interests
    due to huge disparities in exports and
    imports of higher education.
  • More Indians go abroad at exorbitant costs,
    whereas India can provide quality education that
    can also be cost effective.
  • Indians feel that India should become an
    educational hub itself as it is multi-cultural
    and has the advantage of English as medium of
    instruction.
  • Indians are averse to exploitation and low
    quality higher education by foreign providers.
  • They are critical of fly by night operations by
    dubious stakeholders.
  • India is known for adopting cautious approach .It
    saved itself from Asian Crisis.
  • Many Indians feel that CBHE is not easily
    accessible, affordable and available to the vast
    majorities.
  • It can only widen the already prevailing chasm
    in terms of socio-economic, regional, cultural or
    gender perspectives.

8
Regional Disparities in India in Terms of CBHE
9
Disincentives for Foreign Stakeholders for
Starting Branch Campuses in India
  • Large endowments expected of foreign universities
  • Remittances/profits not allowed
  • Government plans to impose social responsibility
    even on foreign universities, such as, free
    ships, reservation, etc.
  • Too many regulations, very little support
  • No clear legal direction
  • Frequent judicial interventions
  • Too much politics, less business

10
Types of Foreign Collaborations in India
  • Foreign HEIs can be diversified into 4 categories
    on the basis of a survey carried out by National
    Institute of
  • Educational Planning and Administration (now
    NUEPA) in 2004

11
Rise of For-Profit Private
  • In ancient India it was believed that Saraswati
    (the Goddess of Learning) cannot co-exist with
    Lakshmi (the Goddess of Wealth).
  • The brahmins (the learned) were accorded higher
    social status than the kshatriyas (the warriors),
    vaishyas (the commercial class) and the shudras
    (manual workers).
  • Imparting knowledge was seen as a noble task and
    profit-seeking was considered demeaning.
  • Though profit-seeking is still illegal and a
    taboo, institutions, such as, National Institute
    of Information Technology (NIIT) and APTECH (a
    computer and online training courseware) are
    making huge profits.
  • Aptech systems revenue was in excess of Rs.
    9226.70 million (208.75 million USD) in 2006 and
    is listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and
    National Stock Exchange, India.
  • NIIT is also doing remarkably well on the stock
    market. In 2006-07, its profit scaled up by 22.
    It has a tie up with Intel Corporation for
    developing a multi-core training curriculum.
  • APTECH and NIIT are registered with the Ministry
    of Trade and not with the Ministry of Human
    Resource Development. They have branches in more
    than 35 countries ranging from US to Africa.
  • NIIT was set up in 1981 as a computer training
    institution. Today it has become a leading
    provider of IT services worldwide.
  • They have devised special curriculum to meet the
    short-term and long-term demands of the
    knowledge-based and technology-driven economy. It
    blends classroom teaching with on-line learning.
    They are highly practical.
  • Today they enjoy full-fledged status of deemed to
    be university.

12
Deemed to be University A Short Cut?
  • Under Section 3 of the UGC Act of 2000, this
    status can be conferred to those post-secondary
    institutions, including private and foreign
    collaboration, which are either
  • Engaged in teaching programme and research in
    chosen fields of specialization, which are
    innovative, and of very high academic standards
    at the Masters (or equivalent) and/or research
    levels. It should have a greater interface with
    society through extra mural, extension and field
    action related programmes.
  • Making in its area of specialization, distinct
    contribution to the objectives of the university
    education system through innovative programmes
    and on being recognized as a university capable
    of further enriching the university system as
    well as strengthening teaching and research in
    the institutions and particularly in its area of
    specialization.
  • Competent to undertake application-oriented
    programmes in emerging areas, which are relevant
    and useful to various development sectors and
    society in general.
  • Institution should have the necessary viability
    and a management capable of contributing to the
    university ideas and traditions.
  • Source www.ugc.ac..in

13
Role of Private Sector in Enhancing Access to
Higher Education (2004)
  • Country of Enrolment Receives
    Sends
  • in Private from abroad abroad
  • Australia 1 166,954(16.6) 6,434
    (0.5)
  • New Zealand 7 26,359(13.5)
    6,513 (2.4)
  • Japan 77 117,903 (2.7) 60,424 (0.8)
  • South Korea 81 7,843 (0.2)
    1,339 (0.1)
  • Brazil 68 1,260 (-) 19,619 (0.1)
  • Philippines 66 4,744 (0.2) 6,974
    (0.1)
  • Russian Federation 11 75,786 (0.9)
    34,473 (0.3)
  • Malaysia 32 27,731 (4.4) 40,884 (1.9)
  • India 31 7,738 (0.1) 123,559 (0.1)
  • USA 24 572,509 (3.4) 41,181 (0.2)
  • Macao, China 67 14,627(58.9) 853
    (2.4)
  • UK 100 300,056(13.4) 23,542 (0.6)
  • South Africa 9 (2001) 49,979
    (7.0) 5,619 (0.1)
  • Indonesia 61 ----- 31,687 (0.1)
  • Source UNESCO Institute for Statistics on
    Global Education Digest 2006132-37. Figures in
    bracket are from PROPHE.

14
What Needs to be Done?
  • Be prepared for the diversity of cross border
    providers. It can take various forms, such as
    franchise, branch campus, study centers,
    twinning, joint or double degree, validation,
    articulation by way of credit transfers,
    e-learning,etc.
  • It is important to assure quality of higher
    education provided instead of putting barriers.
    Students should have access to all relevant
    information and documents.
  • It is important to develop regional network to
    check undue commercialization, fake universities,
    lower standards or high fees.
  • It is important to be sensitive to local culture,
    languages and needs as providers or receivers of
    CBHE services.
  • Strengthen the regulatory framework by roping in
    both for-profit and non-profit private/ community
    colleges.
  • Quality without equity or access has no meaning
    in a democratic set up. The purpose of quality
    should be to promote innovation and creativity
    rather than enforcing uniformity, discipline or
    central control in a federal set up.
  • There can be a separate set up for domestic and
    foreign providers. Assessment and accreditation
    can be mandatory or voluntary.
  • Cross border higher education should be seen as a
    contribution towards human, social, cultural,
    scientific and economic development.
  • There should be proper guidelines for all the
    stakeholders and providers for short-term and
    long-term partnerships in mutual interest.

15
A Case for the Foreign Universities Bill
  • The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human
    Resource Development has shown support towards
    collaborations with foreign universities in its
    172nd report (May 22 , 2006).
  • The idea is to expand equity, relevance, quality,
    governance and funding.
  • The Committee acknowledged the lack of database
    on foreign HEIs already functioning in India.
    Most of the existing 150 foreign HEIs are
    supposed to be functioning illegally.
  • While many foreign institutions, including,
    Harvard, Yale, Stanford, Carnegie Mellon and
    Purdue universities are keen to come to India and
    need simpler rules.
  • The foreign universities/stakeholders, such as,
    Sylvania Lauriat, are turning away from India due
    to lack of clear guidelines and ambiguity in
    regulatory environment.
  • The NAAC, responsible for assessment and
    accreditation of HEIs in India has not been able
    to evolve quality assurance mechanisms for
    foreign higher education institutions.
  • Fiscal and other incentives can work better than
    rigid adherence to rules and regulations. Like
    the telecom sector, higher education can also be
    de-regularized in public interest.
  • India needs innovative and creative solution as
    only 15 of its trained engineers are employable
    in global markets, only 13 of its youth have
    access to higher education including
    polytechnics, private and part-time education and
    93 of its workforce remains in unorganized
    sector.
  • It needs blending of national and foreign,
    academic and vocational, face to face and
    distance, job oriented and lifelong learning in
    various permutations and combinations.

16
Important Provisions of the Pending Bill
  • Foreign Educational institutions (Regulation and
    Operation, Maintenance of Quality and Prevention
    of Commercialization) Bill was to be introduced
    in the Rajya Sabha in May 2007. Due to resistance
    from the Left, it could not be introduced. The
    main highlights were
  • Section 2(e) defined FEI as an institution
    established or incorporated outside the territory
    of India which has been offering educational
    services in India or proposes to offer courses
    leading to award of degrees or diplomas through
    conventional method in the territory of India
    independently or in collaboration, partnership or
    in a twinning arrangement with any educational
    institution situated in India.
  • Section 2(o) defined twinning arrangement as a
    programme whereby students enrolled with the FEI
    complete their study partly in any other
    educational institution situated outside India.
  • Section 3(1) held no FEI shall admit students,
    levy or collect any fee from a student in the
    territory of India for ant course of study
    leading to the award of a degree or a diploma, by
    whatever name called, unless such institution has
    been notified by the central government as an
    institution deemed to be university under
    Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act
    of 1956.
  • Once a FEI is declared a deemed to be university,
    it will be known as Foreign Education Provider
    (FEP) under Section 2(f). No FEP can start
    functioning in India unless accorded Deemed to be
    University status first.
  • Section 3 clearly stipulated that the provisions
    of this Act would apply only if a FEI wants to
    start an educational institution independently.
    It would not apply in case joint arrangement are
    made with any recognized institution.
  • The prime object of this Act is to stop
    unscrupulous private higher education
    institutions entering into collaboration with the
    FEIs just to make huge profits by
    commercialization of higher education and also to
    stop FEIs from duping the students in India by
    making false propaganda.
  • Section 5(1) made provision for assuring quality
    regarding the curriculum methods of teaching and
    faculty offered by a FEP comparable to those
    available in the country of its origin.
  • Section 5(2) prohibited a FEP from offering a
    course adversely affecting the sovereignty and
    integrity of India or hurting the cultural and
    linguistic sensitivities of people of India.
  • Section 5(3) made it mandatory for a FEP for
    depositing 25 of the income into the corpus fund
    and the rest for the development of the HEI in
    India. No restriction was provided for the
    repatriation of surplus in revenue generated in
    India by way of fee collection.
  • Under Section 7, a provision was made that if a
    FEP violated any provision of this Act, the UGC
    Act or any other Act in force in India having
    bearing on maintenance of standards , then its
    status as Deemed to be University could be
    cancelled and alternate arrangements made for the
    students.
  • A provision was made under Section 9(1) to exempt
    certain FEIs from this Act provided they had high
    reputation and standing and were wiling to invest
    at least 51 of the total capital expenditure
    required for the institute and gave an assurance
    that no part of the surplus revenue generated in
    India would be invested for any other purpose
    except for the growth and development of the HIE
    in India.
  • This provision gave overriding powers to Central
    Government, its Advisory Body, UGC, AICTE and
    MCI.
  • Source Vijender Sharma FEI Bill Crass
    Commercialization of Higher Education. Peoples
    Democracy. May 27, 2007.

17
Existing Policy vs. Desired Policy
  • At present, the entry of foreign universities in
    India is resisted as there is no policy
    guidelines on foreign universities despite the
    craze for foreign degrees by the affluent middle
    class.
  • Foreign education is seen as market-driven and
    polemic and not substantial for meeting the
    challenges offered by life.
  • Indian political economy is not yet ready to
    grant full autonomy to foreign providers as far
    as syllabus, faculty, fee structure and degree
    granting powers are concerned.
  • The influx of foreign private and for-profit
    HEIs, such as, Phoenix University run by Apollo
    Group, is seen as private good and contrary to
    national interest and public good.
  • The politics of coalition does not allow the
    government to take either swift decisions or
    strong measures.
  • Though legally privatization and for-profit
    higher education is not allowed, the ground
    realties favour them.
  • India needs a proper legislation on foreign
    universities.
  • It is important to lay down clear guidelines to
    resolve the dilemmas and gaps between theory and
    practice.
  • Profiteering should not be confused with marginal
    profit-making nor should self-interest be selfish
    interest.
  • It is important to provide the necessary
    incentives to higher education providers and
    stakeholders instead of regulating them too much.
  • In the era of massification and market economy,
    higher education cannot be imparted as charity.
  • Necessary quality assurance mechanisms can be
    developed for HEIs keeping in mind the need for
    academic freedom and accountability instead of
    avoiding foreign institutions.
  • It is no longer sustainable to allow only foreign
    universities of repute to enter India as there
    cannot be any consensus or fixed parameters to
    judge quality or measure repute.
  • It makes sense to let foreign HEIs to collaborate
    with private HEIs as long as they are able to
    deliver quality education and market-oriented
    skills.

18
A Quick Look at the UK Scenario
  • In 2006-07, 60 UK HEIs offered programmes through
    Indian partners to approximately 5000 students at
    undergraduate and postgraduate level.
  • Twinning and dual degrees are more popular than
    franchising and branch campuses. Branch campuses
    are illegal to date.
  • In 2007, there were more than 23000 students from
    India in the UK (5 fold increase in less than a
    decade).
  • The number of student visas issued to
    self-financed students from India increased from
    mere 4000 in 1999 to about 19000 in 2006,
    contributing 300 million Pound to the UK economy.
  • To a survey by New York based McKinsey, the
    middle class in India with annual disposable
    income of US 4,382 to 21,890 almost doubled to
    200 million in last decade.
  • According to the same survey, 55 of the
    population in India has an annual household
    income of less than US 1,970 or about US 5.40 a
    day.
  • India sends second largest number of students to
    UK. 14 UK universities have full-time offices in
    India.
  • Source http//www.international.ac.uk/country_p
    rofiles

19
Risks Involved
  • Though cross border higher education has become
    acceptable in the present scenario, to promote
    business and research interests, there are many
    risks involved.
  • Reputation of a country is at stake if it fails
    to deliver quality product. Thats why a lot of
    attention is paid to quality control by a tiny
    country but a big exporter of higher education,
    like Australia.
  • UK has also suffered some damage for lack of
    desired quality of the educational programmes run
    by it in Dubai and other Middle East countries.
  • Problems may occur if the faculty and
    administrative staff involved is not properly
    equipped or trained to devise and deliver
    collaborative learning and assessment overseas.
  • Governments may not be yet ready with proper
    regulatory framework and cross border higher
    education may be seen as an assault on national
    sovereignty by their opponents.
  • If the government is unable to meet the sudden
    surge in demand at the national level, it may
    have to face flight of capital and brain drain.
    Moreover, it needs to assure quality of higher
    education provided by foreign universities for
    which it might be ill-equipped.

20
Conditions Laid Down by AICTE
  • All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
    was set up in 1945 for engineering and
    technological education in India. It became a
    statutory body in 1987 under Parliament of India
    Act.
  • It is responsible for planning, coordination,
    promotion, regulation and maintenance of
    technical education, its norms and standards.
  • Technical education involves engineering,
    architecture, town planning, management,
    pharmacy, hotel management and catering, applied
    arts and crafts, etc.
  • It is responsible for the approval of private /
    foreign institutions, new courses and expansion.
    Its motto is to provide world class technical
    education that is both accessible and affordable.
  • Technical education has grown from 46 engineering
    colleges and 3 pharmacy institutions in 1947, 8
    management programmes in 1962, 146 MCA programmes
    in 1997 to 1559 engineering colleges and 602
    pharmacy institutions, 1147 MBA programmes, 1024
    MCA programmes and 110 School of Architect in
    2006.
  • There are many short-term and long-term diploma
    now available with the help of private, NGOs,
    foreign and open learning.
  • AICTE established the National Board of
    Accreditation (NBA) in 1994 to evaluate the
    quality of programmes offered by technical
    institutions in India.
  • NBA has evolved a 3-step process for assessment
    and accreditation at submission, validation and
    recommendation stage.
  • AICTE notified regulations for foreign
    collaboration for the first time in May 2005 in
    order to safeguard the interests of the students,
    on the one hand, and ensure uniform maintenance
    of norms and standards, on the other.
  • It is necessary for foreign institution to apply
    on prescribed format with requisite fee and a
    certificate from their own embassy saying that
    the institution is accredited in its home country
    along with a detailed project report.
  • The Standing Committee of Advisers recommends a
    case for registration under the UGC Act. It is
    bound by UGC and AICTE rules from time to time.
  • An MoU may be signed between AICTE and EQA
    (External Quality Assurance Agency) for
    regulating quality.
  • Details on AICTE regulations can be retrieved
    from its website www.aicte.ernet.in

21
Vedanta University An Amalgam of Public, Private
Foreign
  • Anil Agarwal, a business tycoon from metals and
    mining company, entered into collaboration with
    Orissa Government to set up Vedanta University on
    8,000 acre land.
  • Enrolment for 100,000 students, comprising
    national and international, from various
    disciplines will start in 2008.
  • The idea is to have a university town in Orissa
    on the pattern of Silicon Valley.
  • Anil Agarwal donated US 1 billion as endowment.
    His vision is that Vedanta should emulate
    American Universities with programmes in liberal
    art, science, engineering, medicine, law,
    business and performing art.
  • Ayers Saint Gross, responsible for planning the
    architect for John Hopkins, Duke, Virginia and
    Carnegie Mellon, is engaged for Vedanta Univ.
  • Dr. Werner Kreuz, Managing Director of A. T.
    Kearney, Germany, has been engaged as a
    consultant for handling this project.
  • The mission of this university is to provide
    world class, multi-disciplinary and practical
    education to Indian and foreign students on no
    profit basis.

22
  • There cannot be any single or predetermined path
    for cross border higher education in India but
    multiple pathways. It would be in the interest of
    India to forge alliances with neighbouring
    countries to check western hegemony. It can learn
    a great deal from Malaysian experiences as far as
    regulation of cross border higher education is
    concerned.
  • Thank you
  • Dr Asha Gupta
  • Director, Directorate of Hindi
  • Medium Implementation
  • University of Delhi, India.
  • E-mail ashagupta_at_vsnl.com
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