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Human Body Systems Technology Project


Human Body Systems Technology Project by R. Leonard Human Body Systems THE DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER WAY Digestive Respiratory Integumentary Immune Lymphatic Muscular ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Body Systems Technology Project

Human Body Systems Technology Project
  • by R. Leonard

Human Body SystemsTHE DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER WAY
  • Digestive
  • Respiratory
  • Integumentary
  • Immune
  • Lymphatic
  • Muscular
  • Circulatory
  • Skeletal
  • Nervous
  • Endocrine
  • Excretory
  • Reproductive

And Levels of Organization
Human Body Systems
  • This slide presentation is meant to help you
    study the major systems of the human body.
  • Use it as an introduction or as a review. Follow
    the instructions as you move along to explore and
    learn. You can go through the entire program
    slide by slide, or you skip to focus on any one

Believe it or not, you are organized!
  • The main levels of organization are
  • Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ Systems, and You
    (the Organism).

Can you identify label the 3 levels of
organization shown here?
Well, at least your body is!
Levels of Organization The Human Body has
several layers of organization beginning with
the simplest and becoming more complex.
Answers to previous slide cell, tissue, organ
(small intestine).
By the way, is your room organized like this!?!?
Here They Are Your Body Systems (Part 1).
And Your Body Systems (Part 2)
So Lets Begin!
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER PresentsYour Digestive System
Your digestive system is like a complicated
chemical processing plant, and performs many
What major tasks does your digestive system help
you accomplish?
Your Digestive System
  • breaks down food into molecules the body can
  • passes these molecules into the blood to be
    carried throughout the body.
  • works to eliminate solid wastes from the body.

The Parts of Your Digestive System
How well do you know them?
Label the parts of your digestive system on your
handout then correct them using the following
Parts of Your Digestive System
Now for the Digestive Journey
The Digestive Journey
  • Digestion begins in your mouth with action of
    your teeth and tongue (mechanical digestion) and
    your salivary glands (chemical digestion).
  • The salivary glands produce enzymes that are
    mixed with the food, breaking down the starches.
    Peristalsis is the muscular action that moves the
    food through the esophagus and into your stomach
    after you swallow.

Your Stomach
The food moves into your stomach, which contains
chemicals such as hydrochloric acid and pepsin.
Pepsin breaks proteins, and other enzymes break
down fat. Your stomach gradually releases these
materials into the upper small intestine
(duodenum), where digestion is completed. Your
stomach also has a thick coating of mucus to
protect it form the acids and to keep it from
digesting itself!
By the way, your stomach really does look like a
muscular bag!
Your Liver, Pancreas, and Gall Bladder
Located in the upper portion of your abdomen,
your liver is the largest and heaviest organ of
your body. It is like a busy chemical factory
that plays many roles. For example, your liver
breaks down many substances and toxins, and
produces bile- a substance that helps break down
fat. The bile flows from the liver into the gall
bladder, where it is stored until needed. The
pancreas lies between the stomach and the
duodenum and produces enzymes that flow into the
small intestines, helping to break up complex
starches, proteins, and fats.
Your Small Large Intestines
After the solid food has been digested the fluid
remaining is called chyme When it is thoroughly
digested it passes through an opening (called the
pylorus sphincter) into the small intestines. In
the small intestines all the nutrients are
absorbed leaving undigestible wastes. These
wastes pass into the large intestines, where
water is removed. Then the wastes are stored in
the rectum until they are released by the anus.
Cross Section of Your Intestines
The Villi add surface area to increase absorption
of food and nutrients. On the left you see how
the villi line your small intestines, and on the
left you see 1 villi with its capillaries.
Its a (Intestinal) Gas, Baby!
  • The human large intestine, or colon, is home to
    many microorganisms, such as the bacterium
    Escherischia coli (E. coli). Certain foods
    contain large amounts of carbohydrates that our
    digestive enzymes cannot break down.
  • When these carbohydrates reach the large
    intestine, our gut microbes respond by "having a
    party (reproducing rapidly, giving off gases
    such as methane and hydrogen sulfide as natural
    by-products of their activities). This is the
    cause of the discomfort and flatulence associated
    with eating beans, cabbage, and other
    gas-promoting foods.
  • Fortunately for gas sufferers, the enzymes that
    enable our microbes to break down complex
    carbohydrates are now available in pill form. If
    these are taken before a meal, the enzymes break
    down the carbohydrates in the small intestine so
    that they can be absorbed by the body before they
    reach the hungry throngs of bacteria living in
    the colon.

Web Sources and Resources http//www.colorado.e
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER PresentsYour Respiratory
The Functions of Your Respiratory System
  • Your respiratory system moves oxygen from the
    outside environment into your body. It also
    removes carbon dioxide and water from your body
    (this image shows all the tiny bronchioles that
    carry air into your alveoli for gas exchange).

The Path of Air
Please label the parts of your respiratory system
on your handout. Can you describe the path that
air takes as it enters and leaves your body?
Check Your Answers Here.
How You Breathe 1 The Diaphragm
How You Breathe 2 The Alveoli
The Respiratory and Circulatory Systems Working
  • Working together the respiratory and circulatory
    systems form the cario-pulmonary system, which is
    an integral connection between the heart and

The Cardio-Pulmonary System
Respiratory Disease Pneumonia
  • Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the
    lungs most commonly caused by a bacteria or
    virus. Pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling
    vomit or other foreign substances.

Web Sources and Resources
ration/ lungs.html
Respiratory Disease Lung Cancer
The cancerous lung (right) shows how much damage
smoking can do over time to your respiratory
X-Rays can help detect cancer, and surgery and
radiation are some treatments for the disease.
Web Sources and Resources
s/ lesson11.htm
Please Take Care of Your Lungs and Dont Smoke
Web Sources and Resources Usborne Science
Encyclopedia pgs. and Quicklink Images
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER PresentsYour Integumentary
(Its Your Skin!)
Your skin covers your body and prevents the loss
of water. It protects the body from injury and
infection. The skin also helps to regulate body
temperature, eliminate wastes, gather information
about the environment, and produce vitamin D. The
skin is organized into two main layers, the
epidermis and the dermis.
Can You Name the Parts of Your Skin?
Skin Anatomy
What is Botox?
Botox is the commercial name given to a toxin
which is produced from botulism toxin. a medical
protein that is injected into a muscle to cause
temporary (months) paralysis of that muscle. This
helps prevent the appearance of wrinkles.
With Botox will everyone look the same? What do
you think?
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER PresentsYour Immune System
Your Immune System
  • Your Immune system protects you from foreign
    invaders. Special cells react to each kind of
    pathogen with a defense targeted specifically at
    that pathogen.

Your Immune System Has Many Specialized Cells!
  • White blood cells that target specific pathogens
    are called lymphocytes. There are two major kinds
    of lymphocytesT cells and B cells.
  • A major function of T cells is to identify
    pathogens by recognizing their antigens. Antigens
    are molecules that the immune system recognizes
    as either part of your body, or as coming from
    outside your body. B cells produce chemicals
    called antibodies.

How Your Immune System Works
  • Our immune system protects us against threats.
    These include viruses, bacteria and parasites
    causing infectious diseases, from ordinary flu to
    full-blown malaria. The white blood cells of the
    defense system are produced in the marrow of our
    bones. The cells are carried in the blood to
    specialized organs, where they develop and
    communicate to launch immune responses against
  • http//

DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents Your Lymphatic
The Functions of Your Lymphatic System
  • Your lymphatic system and the cardiovascular
    system are closely related structures that are
    joined by a capillary system. The lymphatic
    system is important to the body's defense
    mechanisms. It filters out organisms that cause
    disease, produces certain white blood cells and
    generates antibodies. It is also important for
    the distribution of fluids and nutrients in the
    body, because it drains excess fluids and protein
    so that tissues do not swell up.

DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents Your Muscular System
Types of Muscles
  • Your body has three types of muscle
    tissueskeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and
    cardiac muscle.

Skeletal Muscle
  • Skeletal muscles are attached to the bones of
    your skeleton. Because you have conscious control
    of skeletal muscles, they are classified as
    voluntary muscles. These muscles provide the
    force that moves your bones. Skeletal muscles
    react quickly and tire quickly. At the end of a
    skeletal muscle is a tendon. A tendon is a strong
    connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
    Note- ligaments connect bones together.

Smooth Muscle
  • Smooth muscles are called involuntary muscles
    because they work with your conscious effort.

Cardiac Muscle
  • Cardiac muscles are involuntary muscles found
    only in the heart. Cardiac muscles do not get

A Cardiac Muscle Cell
Voluntary Muscles
  • The muscles that are under your direct control
    are called voluntary muscles. Smiling and turning
    the pages in a book are actions of voluntary

Involuntary Muscle Action
  • The muscles that are not under your conscious
    control are called involuntary muscles. Your
    colon (left) is lined with smooth muscle, and
    your heart (right) is comprised of cardiac muscle
    which works automatically pumping blood around
    your body.

How Do Muscles Work?
  • Muscles work by contracting, or becoming shorter
    and thicker. Because muscle cells can only
    contract, not extend, skeletal muscles must work
    in pairs. While one muscle contracts, the other
    muscle in the pair returns to its original
    length. For example, in order to move the lower
    arm, the biceps muscle on the front of the upper
    arm contracts to bend the elbow. This lifts the
    forearm and hand. As the biceps contracts, the
    triceps on the back of the upper arm returns to
    its original length. To straighten the elbow, the
    triceps muscle contracts while the biceps returns
    to its original length.

Anatomy Of A Muscle
Can You Name the Major Muscles of your Body. Try
Some More Muscles
Some Major Voluntary Muscles
Some Really Big Muscles!And on to the
Circulatory System.
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents Your Circulatory
Your Circulatory System is Responsible for
Delivering and Removing Materials from Every Cell
in Your Body
Web Sources and Resources Usborne Human Body
  • Blood is the fluid of life, transporting oxygen
    from the lungs to body tissue and carbon dioxide
    from body tissue to the lungs.
  • Because it contains living cells, blood is alive.
    Red blood cells and white blood cells are
    responsible for nourishing, cleansing, and
    protecting the body. Since the cells are alive,
    they too need nourishment. Vitamins and Minerals
    keep the blood healthy. The blood cells have a
    definite life cycle, just as all living organisms
  • Approximately 55 percent of blood is plasma, a
    straw-colored clear liquid. The liquid plasma
    carries the solid cells and the platelets which
    help blood clot. Without blood platelets, you
    would bleed to death.
  • When the human body loses a little bit of blood
    through a minor wound, the platelets cause the
    blood to clot so that the bleeding stops. Because
    new blood is always being made inside of your
    bones, the body can replace the lost blood. When
    the human body loses a lot of blood through a
    major wound, that blood has to be replaced
    through a blood transfusion from other people.

Can You Name The Major Parts of Your Heart and
Trace Its Blood Flow? Try It.
Now Check To See How You Did.
Heart Dissections
  • Your Heart is a Very Muscular Organ!

Artificial Hearts
  • The action of the artificial heart is entirely
    similar to the action of the natural heart. There
    is, however, one huge difference the natural
    heart is living muscle, while the artificial
    heart is plastic, aluminum, and Dacron polyester.
    As a result, the artificial heart needs some
    external source of "life." An external power
    system energizes and regulates the pump through a
    system of compressed air hoses that enter the
    heart through the chest. Since the system is
    cumbersome and open to infection, the use of an
    artificial heart is meant to be temporary.
  • http//

Now Its On To Your Skeletal System
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents Your Skeletal System
Your Skeletons Functions
  • Your skeleton has five major functions. It
    provides shape and support, enables you to move,
    protects your internal organs, produces blood
    cells, and stores certain materials until your
    body needs them

The Structure of Bone
  • Many bones have the same basic structure. A thin,
    tough membrane covers all of a bone except the
    ends. Blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
    the bone through the membrane. Beneath the
    membrane is a layer of compact bone, which is
    hard and dense, but not solid. Small canals run
    through the compact bone, carrying blood vessels
    and nerves from the bones surface to the living
    cells within the bone. Just inside the compact
    bone is a layer of spongy bone, which has many
    small spaces within it.

Bone Anatomy
  • Cartilage provides a smooth surface between bones
    or sometimes a more flexible extension of bone,
    as in the tip of your nose. As an infant, much of
    your skeleton was cartilage. By the time you stop
    growing, most of the cartilage will have been
    replaced with hard bone tissue.

  • A joint is a place in the body where two bones
    come together. Joints allow bones to move in
    different ways. Immovable joints connect bones in
    a way that allows little or no movement. Movable
    joints allow the body to make a wide range of
    movements. Movable joints include ball-and-
    socket joints, pivot joints, hinge joints, and
    gliding joints. The bones in movable joints are
    held together by a strong connective tissue
    called a ligament.

Take Care of Your Bones!
  • A combination of a balanced diet and regular
    exercise can start you on the way to a lifetime
    of healthy bones. As people become older, their
    bones begin to lose some minerals. Mineral loss
    can lead to osteoporosis, a condition in which
    the bodys bones become weak and break easily.
    Regular exercise and a diet rich in calcium can
    help prevent osteoporosis.

Do You Know Your Bones?
  • Fill in the blanks on the next slide or on your
    handout, and check the following slide for the

Test Your Knowledge
How Did You Do?
  • Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become
    fragile and more likely to break. If not
    prevented or if left untreated, osteoporosis can
    progress painlessly until a bone breaks.

Its on to the Nervous System
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents Your Nervous System
  • Your nervous system receives information about
    what is happening both inside and outside your
    body. It also directs the way in which your body
    responds to this information. In addition, the
    nervous system helps maintain homeostasis. A
    stimulus is any change or signal in the
    environment that can make an organism react

Your Nervous System
  • Your nervous system consists of the central and
    peripheral systems. The central nervous system
    (CNS), includes the brain and spinal cord the
    peripheral system includes the nerves to the rest
    of the body.

What Is Homeostasis?
  • Homeostasis and Negative Feedback
  • Homeostasis is one of the fundamental
    characteristics of living things. It refers to
    the maintenance of the internal environment
    within tolerable limits. All sorts of factors
    affect the suitability of our body fluids to
    sustain life these include properties like
    temperature, salinity, acidity, and the
    concentrations of nutrients and wastes. Because
    these properties affect the chemical reactions
    that keep us alive, we have built-in
    physiological mechanisms to maintain them at
    desirable levels. When a change occurs in the
    body, there are two general ways that the body
    can respond. In negative feedback, the body
    responds in such a way as to reverse the
    direction of change. Because this tends to keep
    things constant, it allows us to maintain
    homeostasis. On the other hand, positive feedback
    is also possible. This means that if a change
    occurs in some variable, the response is to
    change that variable even more in the same
    direction. This has a de-stabilizing effect, so
    it does not result in homeostasis. Positive
    feedback is used in certain situations where
    rapid change is desirable (see Positive Feedback
    for an example).
  • To illustrate the components involved in negative
    feedback, we can use the example of a driver
    trying to stay near the speed limit. The desired
    value of a variable is called the set point.
    Here, the set point is a speed of 55 mph in
    controlling body temperature, the set point would
    be 98.6 degrees. The control center is what
    monitors the variable and compares it with the
    set point. Here, the control center is the
    driver for body temperature, it would be the
    hypothalamus of the brain. If the variable
    differs from the set point, the control center
    uses effectors to reverse the change. Here, the
    effector is the foot on the accelerator pedal in
    controlling body temperature, it would include
    the glands that sweat and the muscles that

Web Sources and Resources http//www.colorado.ed
  • The cells that carry information through your
    nervous system are called neurons, or nerve
    cells. The message that a neuron carries is
    called a nerve impulse. A neuron has a large cell
    body that contains the nucleus. The cell body has
    threadlike extensions. One kind of extension, a
    dendrite, carries impulses toward the cell body.
    An axon carries impulses away from the cell body.
    Axons and dendrites are sometimes called nerve
    fibers. A bundle of nerve fibers is called a

The Anatomy of a Neuron
A NEURON viewed under a electron microscope. Can
you locate the cell body, axon, and dendrites?
Your Central Nervous System- The Brain and Spinal
Central Peripheral Nervous Systems Working
  • The yellow parts are CNS parts and the purple are
    parts of your peripheral nervous system.

Reflexes Some nerve signals go only to the
spinal cord and back.
The knee jerk reflex (seen in the figure to the
above) is called a monosynaptic reflex. This
means that there is only 1 synapse in the neural
circuit needed to complete the reflex. It only
takes about 50 milliseconds of time between the
tap and the start of the leg kick...that is fast.
The tap below the knee causes the thigh muscle to
stretch. Information is sent to the spinal cord.
After one synapse in the ventral horn of the
spinal cord, the information is sent back out to
the muscle...and there you have the reflex.
Your Brain- The Command Center
  • The human brain is a complex organ that allows
    us to think, move, feel, see, hear, taste, and
    smell. It controls our body, receives
    information, analyzes information, and stores
    information (our memories).
  • The brain produces electrical signals, which,
    together with chemical reactions, let the parts
    of the body communicate. Nerves send these
    signals throughout the body.
  • The average human brain weighs about 3 pounds. At
    birth, the human brain weighs less than a pound.
    As a child grows, the number of cell remains
    relatively stable, but the cells grow in size and
    the number of connections increases. The human
    brain reaches its full size at about 6 years of

Most nerve signals are interpreted by your brain
and motor nerves then carry out your instructions.
The Stroop Effect- Your Brain Can Get Confused!
  • TRY IT!- The famous "Stroop Effect" is named
    after J. Ridley Stroop who discovered this
    strange phenomenon in the 1930s. Here is your
    job name the colors of the following words. Do
    NOT read the words...rather, say the color of the
    words. For example, for the word BLUE, you should
    say "RED". Say the colors as fast as you can. It
    is not as easy as you might think!

Major Brain Sections
brain stem
Your Brain Has Very Complicated Anatomy All Its
Alzheimers Disease
  • Alzheimer's disease attacks the brain it is not
    a normal part of aging. People with AD have a
    gradual memory loss and difficulties with
    language and emotions.
  • The progressive loss of intellectual abilities is
    termed dementia. As the disease advances, the
    person may need help in all aspects of life
    bathing, eating, and using the restroom.
  • Because of this round-the-clock care, families
    and friends of people with AD are greatly
    affected. The disease is irreversible and there
    is currently no cure.

Ouch! In the movie MATRIX, Neo and the others
are plugged into the matrix through their CNS
!(Central Nervous System)
Your Senses Are Your Nervous Systems Bridge to
the Outside World
Sight, Taste, Touch, Hearing, Smell
Web Sources and Resources Usborne Science
Encyclopedia pgs. 370-375 and Quicklink Images
Quick Quiz
  • How well do you know your own nervous system?
    Fill in the blanks on the slides that follow.
    Then go back and check your work if needed.

(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Which Way Does The Impulse Travel?
DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents Your Endocrine
  • The endocrine system is a collection of special
    organs in the body that produce hormones. These
    organs are usually called the "glands." They are
    located in different parts of the body. For
    example, the pituitary is in the brain, the
    thyroid is in the neck, the adrenal glands are
    just alone the kidneys and the sexual glands
    (ovaries and testes) are located in the sexual
    organs. Each gland produces a hormone into the
    blood, which travels all through the body.
    Hormones regulate our body activities, for
    example growth, sleep, sudden actions, feelings
    and blood sugar for energy.

DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents Your Excretory
  • Your excretory system collects wastes produced by
    cells and removes these wastes from your body.
    The removal process is known as excretion. The
    two kidneys are the major organs of the excretory
    system. The kidneys filter your blood and remove
    urea, excess water, and some other waste
    materials from your blood. Urea is a chemical
    that comes from the breakdown of proteins. The
    filtering process produces a watery fluid called
    urine. Each kidney contains about a million

Your Excretory System
Web Sources and Resources Usborne Science
Encyclopedia pg. 362 and Quicklink Images
Kidney Tubules (Nephrons)
Urine Production The kidneys regulate the body
fluids, maintaining desirable levels of acids and
bases, salts, nutrients and wastes. Each kidney
is made up of over a million tiny tubes known as
nephrons, or kidney tubules. The tubules act in
parallel to filter the blood and produce the
urine. As the blood filtrate passes along the
tubule, the composition of the fluid is changed
in complex ways. In some ways the tubule
resembles an industrial processing plant, and the
cells lining the walls of the tubule can be
thought of as technicians who modify the filtrate
as it passes by. The first step in urine
production is called filtration. This occurs at
the glomerulus, which is really a ball of
capillaries that makes close contact with the end
of the nephron. Driven by the beating of the
heart, blood plasma (the fluid component of
blood) is forced out of the capillaries and into
the nephron. Because this transfer occurs through
narrow spaces (represented by a sieve in the
cartoon), the larger molecules (mainly proteins)
are left behind in the blood. Blood cells (not
shown in the cartoon) are many times larger
still, and are also left behind. Finally, the
tubule empties its contents into one of the many
collecting ducts. The urine now contains a
concentrated solution of whatever the body
currently considers to be "wastes." Water
continues to be reabsorbed in the collecting
duct, so that little water is wasted in the
process of excretion (elimination of wastes).
Finally, all the urine collects together in the
kidney and is passed out through the ureter, and
from there to the bladder.
Web Sources and Resourceshttp//
Kidney Stones
  • Kidney stones are created when certain substances
    in urine -- including calcium and uric acid --
    crystallize and the crystals clump together.
    Usually, they form in the center of the kidney,
    where urine collects before flowing into the
    ureter, the tube that leads to the bladder. Small
    stones are able to pass out of the body in the
    urine and often go completely unnoticed. But
    larger stones irritate and stretch the ureter as
    they move toward the bladder, causing
    excruciating pain and blocking the flow of urine.
    Rarely, a stone can be as large as a golf ball,
    in which case it remains lodged in the kidney,
    creating a more serious condition

DR. I.I.L. MCSNEER Presents Your Reproductive
The Female Reproductive System
  • The role of the female reproductive system is to
    produce eggs, and if an egg is fertilized, to
    nourish a developing baby until birth.

The Menstrual Cycle
  • During the menstrual cycle, an egg develops in an
    ovary. At the same time, the uterus prepares for
    the arrival of the fertilized egg. Once the egg
    is released, it can be fertilized for the next
    few days if sperm are present in the oviduct. If
    the egg is not fertilized, it begins to break
    down, and it passes out of the vagina along with
    some tissue from the lining of the uterus in a
    process called menstruation.

Can you name the parts of the female reproductive
system? Check your answers on the following page.
Key to the Female Reproductive System
The Male Reproductive System
  • Produces sperm- tiny packages of chromosomes that
    can swim to fertilize the egg, and the hormone
    testosterone, which controls the development of
    the males physical characteristics.

Can you name the parts of the male reproductive
system? Check your answers on the following page.
Key to Male Reproductive System
  • Takes place when sperm egg merge.

Human Development
  • The fertilized egg, or zygote, is about the size
    of a period in your textbook. The zygote develops
    into an embryo, and then into a developing fetus,
    which results in....

You! fetus.jpg
Thank You For Visiting Human Body Systems by DR.
Try These Sites for More InfoNote if they dont
work by clicking on them, just type the address
into your browser.
  • A Look Inside the Human Body http//
  • MY BODY FOR KIDS http//
  • Find out how your body works! http//
  • Take and Anatomy Quiz at the Smithsonian
  • Hillendale Health Site- Learn About Your Body
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