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ECE 480 Presentation of Universal Design and Assistive Technology

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Title: ECE 480 Presentation of Universal Design and Assistive Technology


1
ECE 480 Presentation of Universal Design and
Assistive Technology
2
Question 1
  • What is the most important training course and
    learned skill for a design engineer

3
AIAA Design Engineering Survey conducted this
past November
  • Most important course
  • Respondents were asked to name the one course
    they believed to be most important in learning
    the skills required to be a design engineer.
    Nearly all of the responses were engineering
    department courses, labs or projects - half
    included the word "design" in the course name.
  • Most important skill
  • When asked, 83 of all participating design
    engineers agree that greater practical experience
    from their undergraduate training would have
    better prepared them for their first engineering
    job.

4
Question 2
  • As a design engineer, how much of an impact do my
    decisions make.

5
"The computer programmer is a creator of
universes for which he alone is the lawgiver.....
No playwright, no stage director, no emperor,
however powerful, has ever exercised such
absolute authority to arrange a stage or field of
battle and to command such unswervingly dutiful
actors or troops." Joseph Weisenbaum, Computer
Power and Human Reason
6
Poor design is a waste of time
  • One employment lifetime 40 hours 49 weeks 40
    years 78,400 person hours
  • Efficient appliance saves user 25 seconds (three
    times a day. Life of appliance is 5 years. 1
    Million of these appliances were sold.
  • 25/3600 Hours 3 Times/day 365 days 5 years
    1 million appliances 38,020,833 person hours
  • the working lives of 485 people
  • 19,398 years

7
Question 3
  • Why is it important to consider the needs of
    people with disabilities in designing .

8
  • How many people are affected by disabilities?
  • According to HalfthePlanet Foundation The
    disability community includes 150 million people
    within the U.S. One-half the population are
    touched by disabilities in some way, either
    directly or through close ties to someone they
    know with a disability. With an ever-growing
    aging population, the universe of people with
    disabilities also continues to grow.

9
Examples of disabilities include
  • blind, partially sighted, mobility disabilities,
    limited strength, hard of hearing, deaf, color
    blind, dyslexic, learning disabled, deaf blind,
    speech disability, cerebral palsy, language
    disability, etc.

10
  • Accessibility-related agencies and acts
  • Section 508 Access Board
  • Department of Justice
  • Federal Communication Commission FCC
  • Americans with Disabilities Act ADA
  • U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
  • W3C World Wide Web Consortium

11
http//www.w3.org
http//www.w3.org
You've heard it the World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C) creates Web standards. W3C's mission is to
lead the Web to its full potential, which it does
by developing technologies (specifications,
guidelines, software, and tools) that will create
a forum for information, commerce, inspiration,
independent thought, and collective
understanding.
12
Question 4
  • Do engineers in large corporations depend on
    administrators and usability teams to help them
    make their designs accessible?

13
Assistive Technology and its know how overcomes
barriers and directs everyones path to a more
productive future
14
  • Each of the three 8300 pound satellite costs
    roughly 100 million and is launched into orbit
    by a three-stage Russian-built Proton rocket from
    Kazakhstan, for another 100 million each, not
    including insurance. With three satellites in
    orbit and one spare on the ground for
    emergencies, Sirius has invested over 700
    million on just the space segment of the system,
    not including ground stations.

15
A team of 100 designers worked on the
horrifically complex radio receiver chip set.
  • Serial data rate is approximately 7.5 Mbits/s.
    including forward-error-correction coding
    (Reed-Solomon outer code and convolutional inner
    code) and encryption, we're left with an audio
    bit stream of about 4.4 Mbits/s. This 4.4-Mbit/s
    bit stream has 100 channels, averaging 44 kHz
    each

16
100 channel Sirius receiver
Total cost for Sirius system so far is about 2
billion
1929 Atwater Kent
In what way is the Atwater Kent better? Ignorance
created a barrier
17
PDAs need to be accessible
With voice synthesis
Non talking
18
Question 5
  • Where is technology headed?

19
Computers will achieve the memory capacity and
computing speed of the human brain by around the
year 2020 Once a computer achieves a human
level of intelligence, it will roar past it.
By the year 2029 sensory enhancement devices
will be used by most of the population Ray
Kurzweil, The Age of Spiritual Machines
20
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21
Where is this machine intelligence taking us?
22
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23
Question 6
  • What are our challenges in designing accessible
    products?

24
Most Challenging Product Design Features
  • Human-machine interface is often the weakest
    link
  • Usability and accessibility must be considered
    early in the design process
  • A diverse population of users needs to be
    considered
  • Superior technology is designed to easily accept
    alternative interface options

25
Many other resources are available for help in
making your products accessible
  • http//trace.wisc.edu/world/ Designing a More
    Usable World
  • Universal Design Handbook with CD-ROM edited by
    Wolfgang Preiser and Elaine Ostroff

26
Almost all products can be designed better with
knowledge of Assistive Technology, Universal
Design, and Usability testing
  • More user friendly
  • Ergonomic
  • Wider market potential
  • Legal fulfillment
  • Advertises image of high moral standard
  • Contains accessible product instructions and
    documentation.

27
Question 7 What Is Universal Design?
  • Universal design means products and buildings
    that are accessible and usable by everyone,
    including people with disabilities.
  • Edward Steinfeld, Professor of Architecture,
    Director, Center for Inclusive Design
    Environmental Access, State University of New
    York at Buffalo.

28
Universal Design Principles
  • Principle 1 Equitable use
  • The design is useful and marketable to people
    with diverse abilities.
  • Guidelines
  • Provide the same means of use for all users
    identical whenever possible equivalent when not.
  • Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users.
  • Provisions for privacy, security, and safety
    should be equally available to all users.
  • Make the design appealing to all users.  

29
PRINCIPLE TWO Flexibility in Use The design
accommodates a wide range of individual
preferences and abilities.
  • Guidelines
  • 2a. Provide choice in methods of use.
  • 2b. Accommodate right- or left-handed access and
    use.
  • 2c. Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision.
  • 2d. Provide adaptability to the user's pace.

30
PRINCIPLE THREE Simple and Intuitive Use Use of
the design is easy to understand, regardless of
the user's experience, knowledge, language
skills, or current concentration level.
  • Guidelines
  • 3a. Eliminate unnecessary complexity.
  • 3b. Be consistent with user expectations and
    intuition.
  • 3c. Accommodate a wide range of literacy and
    language skills.
  • 3d. Arrange information consistent with its
    importance.
  • 3e. Provide effective prompting and feedback
    during and after task completion.

31
PRINCIPLE FOUR Perceptible Information The
design communicates necessary information
effectively to the user, regardless of ambient
conditions or the user's sensory abilities
. Guidelines 4a. Use different modes
(pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant
presentation of essential information. 4b.
Provide adequate contrast between essential
information and its surroundings. 4c. Maximize
"legibility" of essential information. 4d.
Differentiate elements in ways that can be
described (i.e., make it easy to give
instructions or directions). 4e. Provide
compatibility with a variety of techniques or
devices used by people with sensory limitations.
32
PRINCIPLE FIVE Tolerance for Error The design
minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of
accidental or unintended actions.
Guidelines 5a. Arrange elements to minimize
hazards and errors most used elements, most
accessible hazardous elements eliminated,
isolated, or shielded. 5b. Provide warnings of
hazards and errors. 5c. Provide fail safe
features. 5d. Discourage unconscious action in
tasks that require vigilance.
33
PRINCIPLE SIX Low Physical Effort The design can
be used efficiently and comfortably and with a
minimum of fatigue
Click for Help
Guidelines 6a. Allow user to maintain a
neutral body position. 6b. Use reasonable
operating forces. 6c. Minimize repetitive
actions. 6d. Minimize sustained physical effort.
Click Here
34
PRINCIPLE SEVEN Size and Space for Approach and
Use Appropriate size and space is provided for
approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless
of user's body size, posture, or mobility.
Guidelines 7a. Provide a clear line of
sight to important elements for any seated or
standing user. 7b. Make reach to all components
comfortable for any seated or standing user. 7c.
Accommodate variations in hand and grip size. 7d.
Provide adequate space for the use of assistive
devices or personal assistance.
35
Universally designed documentation and web
pages 1. Installation instructions 2. User
manuals 3. Service manuals 4. Internet (html)
documentation 5. Video / multimedia guides 6.
Interactive diagnostic computer software
Available in multiple formats Etext Audio/video Pi
ctures and words Tactile and Braille Accessible
html (see W3C)
36
Question 8
  • What are some examples of universal designed
    products?

37
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38
Phonoautograph LP record
39
Development of the voice synthesizer
At the Speech Communication Group of the Research
Laboratory of Electronics
Dennis Klatt
Creator of an Electronic Model of the vocal tract
and DecTalk voice
40
Jacuzzi Brothers
41
ABC DEF GHI JKL MNO PQRS TUV WXYZ Delete
T9
42
Examples of assistive technology designs that led
to new inventions
  • Phonoautograph
  • A phonautograph was a device for converting sound
    into visible traces so the deaf can see the
    sound.
  • Telephone
  • Invented while pursuing the phonautograph
    mentioned above.
  • Text Scanners and OCR software
  • Kurzweil Reading Machine was invented for the
    blind to be able to read
  • LP record
  • Phonograph books for the blind
  • Jacuzzi
  • Originally invented to help improve motorically
    disabled.
  • Carbon Paper
  • Invented to aid the blind in writing and typing
  • http//trace.wisc.edu/world/ Designing a More
    Usable World
  • Text to speech products
  • Closed-captioned television, created to help the
    deaf
  • Curb cuts
  • large-handled can openers
  • Auto PC, an in-car voice control
  • Searchable PDF documents

43
Question 9 What is Assistive Technology?
  • Adaptive technology? Enabling technology?
    Accommodating technology? Access Technology?
    Liberating technology? Augmentative technology?
    Empowering technology?
  • ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY DEFINED In the broadest
    sense, assistive technology is any technology
    which enables someone to do something they
    otherwise couldn't

44
MSU RCPD ( Resource Center for Persons with
Disabilities)
45
  • JAWS for Windows, the world's premier screen
    reader software http//www.hj.com/Index.html
  • Started by Ted Henter, a 27-year old mechanical
    engineer and one of the world's top ten
    motorcycle racers who was involved in an
    automobile accident that left him blind.
  • JAWS (Job Access With Speech)

46
Zoomtext screen magnification software
47
CCTV
48
Braille Embossers and tactile printers
49
Talking tactile maps
50
Scanning and reading systems
51
Adjustable workstations for easy wheelchair access
52
Bob Blanchard MSU Student uses Kurzweil 3000 and
his computer to navigate and read his course
material on line.
53
Kurzweil 3000 highlights text as it reads
  • Schrödinger equation can be considered as the
    limiting case of a relativistically invariant
    wave equation when the velocity of light goes to
    infinity. Therefore it is not particularly
    surprising that an explicitly non-local
    description such as the transactional model may
    have intrinsic inconsistencies with the
    Schrödinger equation and may require certain
    properties of relativistically invariant wave
    equations.

relativistically
54
with the Schrödinger equation and may require
certain properties of relativistically invariant
wave equations
Kurzweil 3000 defines words on command
  • The Schrödinger Equation
  •   In 1925, Erwin Schrödinger and Werner
    Heisenberg independently developed the new
    quantum theory. Schrödinger's method involves
    partial differential equations, whereas
    Heisenberg's method employs matrices however, a
    year later the two methods were shown to be
    mathematically equivalent. Most textbooks begin
    with Schrödinger's equation, since it seems to
    have a better physical interpretation via the
    classical wave equation. Indeed, the Schrödinger
    equation can be viewed as a form of the wave
    equation applied to matter waves.

55
Question 10
  • What kind of new assistive technology is being
    created today.
  • Often new innovative developments are discovered
    in this process.?

56
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Commercially available augmentative communication
device
(VOCA) Voice Output Communication Aid
59
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Special input Devices
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CUSTOM VOCA SYSTEM
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73
Jim Renuk demonstrates method of access to the web
74
Jim uses an infrared transmitter and receiver to
communicate with his desktop system
IR Transmitter on wheelchair
Desktop IR receiver
75
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