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UNC Respiratory Protection Program for Environment, Health & Safety Department Emergency Responders Presented by UNC-CH Environment, Health & Safety


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Title: UNC Respiratory Protection Program for Environment, Health & Safety Department Emergency Responders Presented by UNC-CH Environment, Health & Safety

UNC Respiratory Protection Program for
Environment, Health Safety Department Emergency
Responders Presented byUNC-CH
Environment, Health Safety
Class Objectives
  • Be able to explain the Importance of the
    Respiratory Protection Program in relation to
    UNC-CH policy, OSHA and EPA-HAZWOPER standards.
  • Understand protection controls and EPA/OSHA
    levels of respiratory protection for hazardous
    material response and hazardous waste sites.
  • Be able to discuss the importance of the
    Selection Process for different Types of
    Respirators for Emergency Response
  • Be able to demonstrate the limitations and Safety
    Issues with the use of negative pressure air
    purifying respirators

Class Objectives
  • Be able to select, demonstrate the limitations
    and use of Air Purifying Respirator Filters and
    Respirator Chemical Cartridges
  • Be able to demonstrate the inspection, donning
    and doffing procedures for air purifying
  • Be able to demonstrate, using a negative pressure
    respirator, the required negative and positive
    user seal check procedures
  • Discuss the importance of Fit-Testing Procedures
  • Discuss Maintenance Storage Requirements
  • Review and Post Test

  • The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    (UNC-CH) Respiratory
  • Protection Program (RPP) describes written policy
    and procedures for the
  • use of respirators to protect the health of
    employees in accordance with the
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administrations
    (OSHA) Respiratory
  • Protection Standard, 29 CFR 1910.134 (General
    Industry Respirator
  • Standard).
  • Under 29 CFR 1910.134, OSHA requires a formal
    written program for the
  • selection and use of respirators. The two basic
    objectives are to protect the
  • worker from respiratory hazards and to prevent
    injury to the wearer from the
  • incorrect use or malfunction of the respirator.
    This program includes
  • protocols for the selection, training, fitting
    use, storage, and maintenance of
  • respirators.
  • For additional guidance regarding UNC-CH
    Respiratory Protection Program
  • policies and procedures, click on the EHS
    Workplace Safety Respiratory
  • Section at
  • http//www.ehs.unc.edu/workplace_safety/rpp.shtml

  • Some employees are also enrolled in the RPP for
    other specific standards
  • (e.g. 29 CFR Subpart Z-Toxic and Hazardous
    Substances 1910.1001-
  • asbestos) or the potential to exceed limits in
    other specific standards.
  • For UNC-CH EHS Emergency Responders, personal
    protective equipment
  • use requirements are also designated in the OSHA
    Hazardous Waste
  • Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER)
    Standard, 29 CFR
  • 1910.120.
  • Respirators should only be used as a "last line
    of defense" when engineering
  • control systems are not feasible. Engineering
    control systems, such as
  • adequate ventilation should be used to negate the
    need for respirators.

Use of Controls for Protection
  • 1910.120(g)(1)(i) Engineering controls, work
    practices and PPE for
  • substances regulated in subparts G and Z, states
  • Engineering controls and work practices shall be
    instituted to reduce and
  • maintain employee exposure to or below the
    permissible exposure limits for
  • substances regulated by 29 CFR part 1910, to the
    extent required by subpart
  • Z, except to the extent that such controls and
    practices are not feasible.
  • Engineering controls which may be feasible
    include the use of pressurized
  • cabs or control booths on equipment, and/or the
    use of remotely operated
  • material handling equipment.
  • Work practices which may be feasible are removing
    all non-essential
  • employees from potential exposure during opening
    of drums, wetting down
  • dusty operations and locating employees upwind of
    possible hazards.

Use of Controls for Protection
  • 1910.120(g)(1)(ii) states Whenever engineering
    controls and work
  • practices are not feasible or not required, any
    reasonable combination of
  • engineering controls, work practices and PPE
    shall be used to reduce and
  • maintain employee exposures to or below the
    permissible exposure limit or
  • dose limits for substances regulated by 29 CFR
    part 1910, subpart Z.

Use of Controls for Protection
  • 1910.120(g)(1)(i) Engineering controls, work
    practices and PPE for
  • substances not regulated in subparts G and Z,
  • An appropriate combination of engineering
    controls, work practices and
  • personal protective equipment shall be used to
    reduce and maintain
  • employee exposure to or below published exposure
    levels for hazardous
  • substances and health hazards not regulated by 29
    CFR part 1910, subparts
  • G and Z.
  • The employer may use the published literature and
    MSDS as a
  • guide in making the employers determination as
    to what level of protection
  • the employer believes is appropriate for
    hazardous substances and health
  • hazards for which there is no permissible
    exposure limit or published
  • exposure limit.

Review of Levels of PPE
  • Selecting the proper PPE for a response involves
    identifying the potential
  • hazards that may be faced, the work requirements,
    and task-specific
  • conditions, as well as assessing the durability
    and performance of the PPE
  • material. PPE ensembles are classified into 4
    levels outlined by 29 CFR
  • 1910.120, as Level A, B, C and D.

Review of Levels of PPE
  • Level A The hazardous substance has been
    identified and requires the
  • highest level of protection for the skin, eye,
    and respiratory system based
  • on either the measured (or potential for) high
    concentration of atmospheric
  • vapors, gasses, or particulates or the site
    operations and work functions
  • involve a high potential for splash, immersion,
    or exposure to unexpected
  • vapors, gasses, or particulates of materials that
    are harmful to skin or
  • capable of being absorbed through the skin.
  • Substances with a high degree of hazard to the
    skin are known or suspected
  • to be present, and skin contact is possible
  • PPE consists of totally encapsulated chemical
    protective suit and positive
  • pressure full-facepiece self-contained breathing
    apparatus, chemical
  • protective gloves, and boots .
  • All 5 senses are impaired when in this level of

Review of Levels of PPE
  • Level A Another Illustration
  • Courtesy of the Environmental Protection Agency
    (EPA) Website

Review of Levels of PPE
  • Level B Protection should be used when the type
    and atmospheric
  • concentration of substances have been identified
    and require a high level of
  • respiratory protection, but less skin protection.
  • The atmosphere contains less than 19.5 oxygen or
    the presence of
  • incompletely identified vapors or gasses is
    indicated by a direct-reading
  • instrument, but vapors and gasses are not
    suspected of containing high
  • levels of chemicals harmful to the skin or
    capable of being absorbed
  • through the skin.

Review of Levels of PPE
  • Level B The highest level of respiratory
    protection consisting of either a
  • positive pressure, full-face piece self contained
    breathing apparatus or
  • positive pressure supplied air respirator with
    escape SCBA.

Review of Levels of PPE
  • Level C Protection should be used when all
    types of air contaminants
  • have been identified, concentrations measured,
    and an air-purifying
  • respirator is available that can remove the
    contaminants and
  • all criteria for the use of air-purifying
    respirators are met.
  • PPE includes a full-face or half face
    air-purifying respirator (NIOSH
  • approved). Hooded chemical-resistant clothing
    such as tyvek, inner and
  • outer gloves, and steel shank chemical resistant

Review of Levels of PPE
  • Level D Should be used when the atmosphere
    contains no known hazard
  • and work functions preclude splashes, immersion,
    or the potential for
  • unexpected inhalation of or contact with
    hazardous levels of any chemicals.
  • Modified D No inhalation hazard present.
    However, potential skin
  • contact with chemicals may occur.
  • Courtesy of the EPA website
  • Exxon Valdez Spill Recovery Note no respiratory
    protection is used, but
  • chemical protective clothing is used.

Review of Levels of PPE
  • Courtesy of the EPA website
  • This Superfund site, called the Valley of the
    Drums, was one of the earliest
  • and most serious hazardous waste sites because it
    involved a vast quantity
  • of illegally disposed material. Discovery of this
    site helped motivate
  • Congress to develop the Superfund law. (Courtesy
  • Can you find the workers in this picture?

Selection of Respiratory Protection-Types
  • There are two primary types of respirators
    Air-purifying and
  • Atmosphere supplying.
  • 1) Air-Purifying Respirator (APR) Both
    Negative Positive Pressure Types. Removes
    contaminants by mechanical removal of
    particulates using filters and chemical
    cartridges used for the removal of gasses
    vapors by adsorption (surface binding). They
    cant be worn in oxygen-deficient or IDLH
    atmospheres. The air concentration must be
    within the maximum use concentration of the
  • 2) Atmosphere Supplying Provides fresh
    breathing air (Grade D quality) from an
    external source. Examples of types of supplied
    air are Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
    (SCBA), and Airline respirators, .

Selection of Respiratory Protection-Types
An Air-Purifying Respirator (APR) is a respirator
with an air- purifying filter, cartridge, or
canister that removes specific air contaminants
by passing ambient air through the air-purifying
element. An APR can be either a negative
pressure or positive pressure type.
Selection of Respirators-Types
  • A Positive Pressure Respirator is a respirator in
    which the
  • pressure inside the respirator inlet covering
    exceeds the
  • ambient air pressure outside the respirator.
  • A Powered-Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) is an
  • example of a positive pressure respirator. It
    uses a blower
  • motor (generally battery powered) to force the
    Ambient air
  • through air-purifying elements to the inlet

Selection of Respiratory Protection-Use Factors
  • To select an Air Purifying Respirator you must
  • The Identity of the contaminant. Generally the
    contaminants can be found on the material safety
    data sheet or product label. However, specific
    chemical reactions can create additional hazards.
  • The Concentration of the contaminant The
    airborne concentration of the contaminant must
    not exceed the maximum use limit of the
    respirator (with cartridges and filters).
  • The Exposure Limit for the contaminant. This
    value is typically found on the product material
    safety data sheet, NIOSH pocket guide to chemical
    hazards, or IH can provide this information.

Selection of Respiratory Protection-Use Factors
  • To select an Air Purifying Respirator you must
  • IDLH for the contaminant. The airborne
    concentration of the chemical substance must not
    be exceeded the IDLH value. The NIOSH pocket
    guide to chemical hazards provides this
    information. http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg.
    Also on product MSDS.
  • The Odor Threshold for the contaminant. A
    warning property exists when a chemical vapor has
    a distinct odor or taste, or when it causes
    respiratory tract or eye irritation.
  • The type of Chemical Cartridge to use for the
    contaminant. The chemical substance must be able
    to be filtered, absorbed, or neutralized by the
  • The Oxygen Level atmospheric level of oxygen
    must be above 19.5

Selection of Respiratory Protection-Use Factors
  • The following conditions exclude or may exclude
    use of an Air Purifying Respirator
  • Oxygen Deficiency
  • IDLH concentrations of specific substances
  • Entry into an unventilated or confined area where
    the exposure conditions have not been
  • Presence or potential presence of unidentified
  • Contaminant concentrations are unknown or exceed
  • maximum use concentrations (explained on
    following slides).
  • Identified gasses or vapors have inadequate
    warning properties.
  • High relative humidity (may reduce the protection
    offered by the sorbent).

Selection of Respiratory Protection-Supplied Air
  • Atmosphere-Supplying Respirator is a respirator
  • supplies the user with breathing air from a
    source independent of
  • the ambient atmosphere. Types include
    supplied-air respirators
  • (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus
    (SCBA) units.

Selection of Respiratory Protection-Supplied Air
  • Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) is an
  • atmosphere supplying respirator for which the
    breathing air
  • source is designed to be carried by the user.
    This type of respirator
  • is considered to provide the highest level of
    respiratory protection.
  • Pressure-demand types of SCBAs are used for fire
  • rescue, emergency response, and other situations.
    They are
  • acceptable for oxygen-deficient conditions, and
    against a wide
  • variety of contaminants, and for entry into IDLH
  • Disadvantage is that the work time is limited to
    amount of air in the
  • external tank and the extra weight of the tank.

Selection of Respiratory Protection-IDLH
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)
    is an
  • atmosphere that posses an immediate threat to
    life, would cause
  • irreversible, adverse, debilitating health
    effects, or would impair an
  • individuals ability to escape.
  • For example, Oxygen-deficient atmospheres, less
    than 19.5 oxygen by
  • volume at sea level are considered (IDLH).
    Examples where IDLH
  • situations may occur include entry into
    unventilated silos, boilers, tanks,
  • sewers, etc.
  • Other examples of IDLH situations include
  • -When a specific chemical exceeds its established
    IDLH concentration. IDLH values are published by
    the National Institute of Occupational Safety and
    Health (NIOSH) in the NIOSH Pocket Guide to
    Chemical Hazards. http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg.
  • -Chemical concentrations that are in excess of
    their published IDLH value and in excess of their
    Lower Explosive Limit are considered IDLH.
  • -Firefighting and Emergency Response to an
    unknown contaminated atmosphere are considered

Selection of Respiratory Protection-IDLH
  • Is the below picture an example of a potential
    IDLH environment?
  • What other hazards are present?

Selection of Respiratory Protection-APFs
  • Assigned protection factors (APFs) APFs are very
    important part of the selection process.
  • The assigned protection factor is the expected
    workplace level of respiratory protection that
    would be provided by a properly functioning
    respirator or a class of respirator to properly
    fitted and trained users. APFs are a measure of
    the overall effectiveness of a respirator used in
    conjunction with a good respirator program.
  • Many groups have developed lists of APFs. In the
    United States, the two main lists of APFs are
    from the American National Standards Institute
    (ANSI) and NIOSH however, respirator
    manufacturers also recommend assigned protection

Selection of Respiratory Protection-APFs
  • Assigned protection factors (APFs) In these
    studies measurements (air samples) are taken
    simultaneously outside and inside the respirator
    as the worker does his or her normal job.
  • An APF of 10 means that the respirator
    will reduce the contaminant's concentration
    actually breathed in by 10 times compared with
    the actual airborne concentration.
  • Examples of Assigned Protection Factors (NIOSH
  • 1. Half face piece APR both filtering face
    piece and elastomeric dual cartridge 10
  • 2. Full face piece APR 50 or 100 ( PF 100,
    e.g. North 7600 8A series)
  • 3. Powered Air Purifying Respirator (full
    face) 1,000
  • 4. Self Contained Breathing Apparatus 10,000

Selection of Respiratory Protection-MUC
  • Maximum Use Concentration (MUC) A respirator
    may not be used at a concentration greater than
    the contaminants occupational exposure limit
    times the assigned protection factor for the type
    of respirator used.
  • This is called the Maximum Use Concentration of
    the respirator. It is determined by multiplying
    the PEL or Occupational Exposure Limit by the
  • MUC PEL (OEL) of contaminant X
    APF of the respirator
  • However, other factors must be
    considered. For example the MUC will be limited
    by the following
  • IDLH value
  • Chemical cartridge rating
  • Oxygen Deficient Atmospheres

Selection of Respiratory Protection-MUC
  • Maximum Use Concentration (MUC)
  • MUC PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of the
  • For example, Toluenes PEL is 200 PPM. A ½ face
    APR has
  • an APF of 10. What is the MUC? Could a ½ face
    APR be
  • used safely for this environment if the air
    concentration was
  • 2,000 PPM?.
  • Do any other factors apply?

Selection of Respiratory Protection-MUC
  • Maximum Use Concentration (MUC)
  • MUC PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of the
  • Answer The MUC for the ½ face APR is 2,000 PPM.
  • However, other important factors must be
    considered besides the MUC
  • calculation.
  • The chemical cartridges would probably experience
    breakthrough at
  • 1,000 ppm.
  • In addition, the NIOSH IDLH value for Toluene is
    500 ppm.
  • Therefore at this concentration, a ½ face APR
    can not be used due to
  • an IDLH environment and due to over saturation of
    the chemical
  • cartridges.
  • Only a positive pressure SCBA or positive
    pressure supplied
  • air line respirator with an escape cylinder could
    be used.!!!!

Selection of Respiratory Protection-MUC
  • Maximum Use Concentration (MUC)
  • MUC PEL (OEL) of contaminant X APF of the
  • For example, there is a large spill of Acetic
    Anhydride. After initial
  • investigation in Level B protection, air
    monitoring determined an air
  • concentration of 100 ppm. What would be an
    appropriate respirator to
  • use for response to clean up the spill?
  • -The PEL 5 PPM
  • -IDLH value 200 PPM
  • -Assume a cartridge rating of 0.1 by volume
    1,000 PPM
  • Answer A half face APR could not be used. MUC
    PF 10 X 5 50
  • A full face APR could be used! MUC PF 50 X 5

Safety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators
  • The use of Personal Protective Equipment
    (including a respirator) can
  • itself create significant worker hazards such as
  • -Heat stress,
  • - Physical and psychological stress,
  • - Impaired vision, impaired mobility, and
    impaired communication.
  • In general, greater levels of PPE can cause the
    associated risk to increase.
  • The next couple of slides addresses specific
    problems with use of a
  • respirator.

Safety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators
  • Facial Hair- facial hair that lies along the
    sealing area of the respirator
  • such as beards, sideburns, or even a few days of
    growth of stubble, shall
  • not be permitted because wit will prevent a good
    seal and may cause
  • leakage of the respirator, which could cause
    contaminants to enter your
  • breathing zone.
  • The use of a

Safety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators
  • Prescription Eye Glasses Responders can not
    wear prescription
  • glasses with a full- face air purifying
    respirator or SCBA face piece. Eye
  • glasses with temple bars or straps that pass
    between the sealing
  • surface of a full face piece and can cause the
    mask to not fit tightly on the
  • face. This will produce a break in the face to
    face piece seal and can
  • cause leakage and cause contaminants to enter
    your breathing zone.
  • Special inserts with corrective lenses can be
    placed inside a full-facepiece
  • respirator and are available from all
    manufactures of full-facepiece
  • respirators.
  • Eye glasses or goggles may interfere with
    half-face respirators. When
  • interference occurs, a full-facepiece with
    special corrective lenses should
  • be provided and worn.

Safety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators
  • Impaired Vision Peripheral vision is impaired
    when using most types
  • of full face respirators. Dependent on the type
    of respirator, you can
  • only see a limited field of view. In addition,
    certain weather conditions
  • such as high humidity and cold weather can fog
    the interior lens of the
  • respirator which can further impair vision.
  • Impaired Situational Awareness With the
    respirator donned, you
  • must be cognizant of the surrounding work
    environment such as
  • distance away from hazardous equipment, moving
    objects, potential slip,
  • trips, and fall hazards, moving vehicles, etc.
  • Impaired Communication Is much more difficult.
    Especially if
  • using radios or talking to a buddy in PPE with
    background noise.

Safety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators
  • Heat Stress In the summer months, this is a
    major concern. Ensure
  • everyone is aware of the signs and symptoms of
    heat related injuries (e.g.
  • heat rash, heat exhaustion, heat stroke).
  • In addition, a person working in high
    temperatures is under increased levels of
  • stress. Wearing a respirator causes additional
    stress. A respirator that
  • provides low breathing resistance is recommended
    under these conditions (e.g.
  • supplied air respirator or powered-air purifying
    respirators). Such a respirator
  • used in low or high temperature atmospheres may
    be equipped with a vortex
  • tube to cool the air inspired. Also recommend
    drinking plenty of water before
  • and during the response action.
  • Also heat stress is a major concern with the
    various levels of PPE used during a
  • response. Cooling packs are recommended to help
    cool responders. They come
  • in different styles by safety manufacturers.

Safety Issues/Problems with Use of Respirators
  • Fatigue has both a physical and psychological
    effect. During major
  • response events, 1st Responders and support staff
    could be faced with a
  • work schedule where routine meals or breaks are
    suddenly interrupted.
  • Work conditions suddenly change from an office or
    training environment
  • to real conditions.
  • Recommendations consist of adequate work/rest
    cycles Use of the
  • buddy system to identify signs of fatigue and
    enforcement of operational
  • periods and fatigue recommendations in the field.

Selection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges
  • Filters are an integral component used with
    negative and positive
  • pressure air purifying respirators to remove
    solid or liquid aerosols such as
  • dusts, mists, fibers, and metal fumes.
  • This type of element "filters" particulate matter
    by physically trapping it in
  • the fibrous filter material. In addition, the
    wool-felt filters contain an
  • electrostatic charge that increases filter
    efficiency by electrostatically
  • attracting the particles to the fibers. Although
    mechanical filters become
  • more efficient as they are used, they should be
    changed when breathing
  • resistance becomes excessive.

Selection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges
  • Particulate filters have different
    classifications of filter efficiency based on
  • the testing procedures for protection against oil
  • P100 filter designation is the primary type of
    HEPA used for protection
  • against dusts, mists, fumes, smokes (any
    particulates). It has been
  • tested for a 99.97 filter efficiency when tested
    against 0.3 um docytl
  • phthalate (DOP- oil mist) particles.
  • P100 filters are color coded purple/magenta.

Selection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges
  • There are 9 classes of respirator particulate
  • 3 Series Types
  • N Not oil resistant
  • R Resistant to oil
  • P oil Proof
  • 3 Efficiency Percentages
  • 95 efficient
  • 99 efficient
  • 100 efficient
  • Filter Classifications can be any combination of
    the listed Series
  • and Efficiency
  • (e.g.. N-95, N-pp, N-100, R-95, R-99, R-100,
    P-95, P-99, P100)

Selection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges
  • Canister or Cartridge is a container with a
    filter, sorbent, or
  • catalyst, or combination of these items, which
    removes specific
  • contaminants from the air passed through the
    container. They
  • differ from aerosol filters in that they use
    sorbents, generally
  • carbon to remove harmful gasses and vapors.

Selection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges
  • To make it easier for the user to identify
    respirator cartridges and
  • filters, they have designated colors. The color
    is based on the type
  • of air contaminant (s) which the user will be
    wearing the respirator
  • for protection against. Examples of filter and
    cartridge colors and
  • associated contaminant type include
  • Acid gasses White
  • Organic vapors- Black
  • Ammonia gas- Green
  • Acid gasses and organic vapors- Yellow
  • P100 HEPA filters- Purple/magenta
  • Mercury Vapor- Orange

Selection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges
  • The service life of the chemical cartridge varies
  • based on variables including
  • -Chemical weight (carbon and molecular weight) of
  • vapor,
  • -The cartridge media
  • -The concentration of vapor in the atmosphere,
  • -The relative humidity of the atmosphere,
  • -The breathing rate of the respirator wearer.

Selection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges
  • It is important to implement a Chemical Cartridge
    Change Out
  • Schedule. The change schedule described in the
    plan for canister
  • and cartridges must be based on objective
    information or data
  • (e.g. industrial hygiene air monitoring data)
    that will ensure that
  • canisters or cartridges are changed before their
    end of service life.
  • This will help prevent break-through of the
    chemical cartridge
  • and will prevent the wearer from being exposed to
  • contaminants as a result of overuse of a
    saturated chemical
  • cartridge.
  • If uncertain about the length of use, recommend
    disposing of the
  • chemical cartridges after the response action or
    the work shift and
  • obtain new ones.

Selection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges
  • When using a respirator for protection for gasses
  • vapors, if you detect a chemical taste, smell, or
    irritation, you
  • should exit to a clean area and replace the
    cartridges and inspect
  • the respirator immediately.
  • Additional assistance in determining chemical
    cartridge change
  • schedules can be found under the Workplace
  • Protection Section of our website at
  • If uncertain about the length of use, recommend
    disposing of the
  • chemical cartridges after the response action or
    the work shift and
  • obtain new ones.

Selection of Filters and Chemical Cartridges
  • What type of filter or cartridge is the below?

Types of RespiratorsReview of the
Characteristics of Specific Types of Respirators
Medical Evaluation
  • Using a respirator may place a physiological
    burden, which varies
  • with type of respirator worn, the job and
    workplace conditions in
  • which the respirator is used, and the medical
    status of the
  • employee. Potential negative physical demands of
    wearing a
  • respirator include
  • Extra strain on the heart
  • Increased body temperature
  • Heat Stress
  • Dehydration
  • Other ill health effects
  • Each employee assigned to wear a respirator in
    carrying out his/her
  • job responsibilities is to receive a medical
    evaluation to determine
  • his/her ability to wear a respirator. The
    medical evaluation must
  • be performed to determine the employees ability
    to use a
  • respirator, before fit testing and use.

Inspection Procedures
  • All respirators used in routine situations are to
    be inspected before
  • and after each use and during cleaning. Before
    donning and using
  • the respirator check for any malfunctions such
  • Broken/loose connectors
  • Receptacles
  • Cracked distorted facepieces
  • Deformed valves
  • Unclean respirators
  • Check that you have the correct filter/cartridge
    and that the service life has not been exceeded.
  • If something is damaged or worn, get a
    replacement part before using it.

Respirator Inspection
  • Donning the respirator There are general steps
    you take with
  • any respirator-try different respirator sizes
    until you are sure of
  • fit and comfort. For example, if a half-mask
    respirator does not
  • fit, you may have to wear a full face respirator.
  • Steps Place chin in the respirator, pull it over
    your head,
  • tighten straps, check for tight seal.
  • Always perform a positive and negative pressure
    user seal
  • check to ensure a good seal (explained in more
    detail in the
  • following slides).
  • Respirators that fail an inspection or are found
    to be defective
  • are to be removed from service, and either
    discarded, repaired,
  • or adjusted. Repairs or adjustments are to be
    made by persons
  • appropriately trained.

Respirator Inspection
  • Each individual who uses a tight-fitting
    respirator is to perform
  • a user seal check to ensure that an adequate seal
    is achieved
  • each time the respirator is put on. This can be
    achieved by
  • performing a positive and negative pressure
  • Positive Pressure Check
    Negative Pressure Check

Respirator Inspection
  • Negative Pressure Check Close off the inlet
    opening of the
  • canister or cartridges by covering with the palm
    of the hand or
  • by replacing the filter seal, inhale gently so
    that the face piece
  • collapses slightly, and hold the breath for ten
    seconds. This
  • test can be performed by covering the inlet
    opening of the
  • cartridge with a thin latex or nitrile glove. If
    the face piece
  • remains in its slightly collapsed condition and
    no inward
  • leakage of air is detected, the tightness of the
    respirator is
  • considered satisfactory.

Respirator Inspection
  • Positive Pressure Check Close off the
    exhalation valve (place
  • palm of your hand over exhalation valve) and
    exhale gently into the
  • face piece. The face fit is considered
    satisfactory if a slight positive
  • pressure can be built up inside the face piece
    without any evidence of
  • outward leakage of air at the seal.

Fit-Test Procedures
  • Employees at UNC-CH are required to receive a
    quantitative fit test
  • with the respirator that they will be using. The
    fit-testing will occur
  • prior to initial use of the respirator, or
    whenever a different respirator
  • face piece (size, style, model, or make) is used,
    and at least annually
  • thereafter.
  • An additional fit-test is conducted annually
    thereafter and whenever
  • the employee, supervisor, the Environment,
    Health, and Safety Office,
  • or the UEOHC makes visual observations of changes
    in the employees
  • physical condition that could affect respirator
  • Such conditions include, but are not limited to,
    facial scarring, dental
  • changes, cosmetic surgery, or any obvious change
    in body weight. The
  • employee may select a different respirator if
    he/she does not think the
  • respirator fit is acceptable, even after passing
    the test.

Fit-Test Procedures
  • Quantitative fit testing is an assessment of the
    adequacy of
  • respirator fit by numerically measuring the
    amount of leakage
  • into the respirator. Testing is accomplished by
    modifying the
  • face piece to allow sampling inside the face
    piece in the
  • breathing zone of the user, midway between the
    nose and
  • mouth. This requirement is accomplished by using
    a sampling
  • adapter designed to temporarily provide a means
    of sampling
  • air from inside the face piece.

Fit-Test Procedures
  • A quantitative fit-test determines a fit-factor
    for the employee based on the type of
  • the respirator used. A fit-factor is a
    quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular
  • respirator to a specific individual, and
    estimates the ratio
  • Fit Factor Concentration of particles in
    the ambient air
  • Concentration of particles
    inside the respirator when worn
  • Fit Factor Range 1 to greater that 10,000
  • Particle Size Range 0.02 to greater than 1.0

Maintenance Storage Requirements
  • All respirators are to be stored to protect them
    from damage,
  • contamination, dust, sunlight, extreme
    temperatures, excessive
  • moisture, and damaging chemicals. They are to be
    packed or
  • stored to prevent deformation of the face piece
    and exhalation
  • valve.
  • Store respirators in a sealed plastic bag in a
    clean and preferably
  • cool area such as a storage cabinet or locker.
  • Emergency use respirators are to be kept
    accessible to the work
  • area and stored in compartments or in covers
    that are clearly
  • marked as containing emergency respirators and
    stored in
  • accordance with any applicable manufacturer

Maintenance and Storage Requirements
  • Maintenance and Care of Respirators Employees
    are to be
  • provided with respirators that are clean,
    sanitary, and in good
  • working order. Respirators are to be cleaned and
    disinfected using
  • procedures recommended by the respirator
    manufacturer. Review the
  • respirator instruction manual for specific
    procedures for cleaning and
  • disinfecting the respirator.
  • Respirators are to be cleaned and disinfected at
    the following
  • intervals
  • -As often as necessary to be maintained in a
    sanitary condition
  • -Generally after each use
  • -If the respirator is shared among employees it
    must be disinfected
  • and cleaned after each use.

  • Review

Respiratory Protection- Review
  • UNC-CH has established rules about hazardous
    atmospheres to protect you at work?
  • True or False
  • You are required to perform and positive and
    negative pressure check every time you don an air
    purifying respirator?
  • True or False
  • The type of hazards you are exposed to determines
    the respirator selection process?
  • True or False.
  • Which of the following is NOT a method of
    engineering control for airborne contaminants?
  • Respirators.
  • Substitution.
  • Local Exhaust Ventilation

Respiratory Protection- Review
  • The two primary classifications of respirators
    are called?
  • Air-Purifying
  • Atmosphere Supplying
  • A P100 filter is what kind of filter and what
    color code is it?
  • High efficiency particulate air/purple-magenta
  • An organic vapor chemical cartridge (color coded
    black) can be used for what work operations?
  • Paint and solvent vapors when there is a
    potential vapor exposure hazard
  • What type of maintenance should you perform on
  • Inspect it.
  • Proper storage.
  • Clean it.

Any questions regarding UNC-CH Respiratory
Protection Program, please callWorkplace
SafetyPhone 919.962.5507 Web
1120 Estes Drive Ext. Campus Box 1650 Chapel
Hill, NC, 27599
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