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Chemical and Biological Safety Training

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OSHA . Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a Federal agency . BUT in Illinois, the OSHA regulations are administered by the Illinois Department of Labor – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chemical and Biological Safety Training


1
Chemical and Biological Safety Training
  • Center for Environmental Health and Safety
  • SIUC

2
  • Training is required annually for all people who
    work with chemical or biological agents.
  • There are two regulatory agencies which required
    annual training the Occupational Safety and
    Health Administration, or OSHA, and the
    Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA.

3
OSHA
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a
    Federal agency
  • BUT in Illinois, the OSHA regulations are
    administered by the Illinois Department of Labor
  • So the Illinois Department of Labor is our OSHA
    agency

4
OSHA Standard 1Formaldehyde
  • Regulates the use of formaldehyde, formalin, and
    paraformaldehyde
  • Establishes Permissible Exposure Limit of 0.75
    parts per million in 8 hours
  • Formaldehyde products are known human carcinogens

5
OSHA Standard 2Air Contaminants
  • Lists more than 400 substances
  • Establishes Permissible Exposure Limits, PELs
    legal limits
  • Most PELs are outdated and too high
  • Better numbers are from Recommended Exposure
    Limits, RELs
  • PELs can be enforced by law, but RELs are just
    recommendations

6
OSHA Standard 3Respiratory Protection
  • Requires that respiratory protection be used if
    engineering controls cant remove all the air
    contaminants
  • Must have a medical evaluation and annual fit
    testing
  • Use full-face and half-face respirators
  • Disposable paper masks and surgical masks DO NOT
    protect you against chemicals!

7
OSHA Standard 4Hazard Communication Standard
  • Mainly for industrial use of chemicals , like in
    factories
  • You have the right to know about hazardous
    chemicals!
  • Requires improved chemical safety labeling, with
    9 hazard pictograms
  • Requires improved safety data sheets
  • Requires training

8
OSHA Standards 5Occupational Exposure to
Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories
  • Protects against hazardous chemical exposure in
    laboratories
  • Requires a chemical hygiene plan
  • Requires safety data sheets
  • Requires training for physical and health hazards
  • Requires training records

9
Chemical Hygiene Plan
  • A safety manual for laboratories
  • Distributed in the new Chemical and Biological
    Safety Manual
  • This 3-ring binder is in every lab on campus
  • Lists standard operating procedures
  • Must be reviewed every year

10
Safety Data Sheets
  • Sent by the manufacturer the FIRST time you order
    a chemical
  • Keep them in the lab or always accessible (not
    locked up somewhere)
  • You must have an SDS for every chemical in your
    lab
  • Only one source of safety information other
    sources can be used too

11
Chemical Exposure
  • Routes of exposure inhalation, absorption,
    ingestion, injection (parenteral)
  • Chronic exposure is long-term, usually low-level
  • Acute exposure is short-term, usually high-level
  • Symptoms coughing, burning, itching, rash, eye
    or throat irritation

12
Reduce Chemical Exposure
  • Work with the smallest amount of chemical
    possible
  • Dont leave chemical containers open
  • Work in a fume hood. CEHS measures and certifies
    the hoods at least annually.
  • Wear personal protective equipment lab coat
    (buttoned up), disposable gloves, eye protection

13
Glove Protocol
  • Dont use latex gloves. Choose nitrile or vinyl.
  • Never re-use a disposable glove.
  • Once you put gloves on, you must assume that all
    the surfaces are contaminated. Dont touch the
    light switch, faucet handles, drawer handles.
  • Take your gloves off before you leave the lab!
    Do NOT wear gloves in the halls!

14
Physical Hazard in the Lab
  • These are things that release energy violently.
  • We will discuss the most common ones found in our
    labs.
  • They are the most common source of injuries in
    labs.

15
Physical Hazards
  • Flammable Liquids
  • Handle them in a fume hood!
  • Store them in a flammables cabinet
  • Extreme temperatures
  • Autoclaves, Cryogens, High-Temperature Processes
  • Air- and water-reactive compounds
  • Dont handle them on the bench!
  • Use a glove box!

16
Physical Hazards
  • Corrosives
  • Acids (low pH) and bases (high pH)
  • Handle in a fume hood!
  • Compressed gas cylinders
  • Must be tied up at all times
  • Must have a cap over the valve, unless a
    regulator is attached
  • Separate empty cylinders from full cylinders

17
Physical Hazards
  • Oxidizers Chemicals that promote and support
    fires. Chemicals with per in the name
    (peroxides, permanganates), nitric acid, most
    nitrate salts. Store them AWAY from flammable
    liquids!
  • Peroxidizable compounds Chemicals that become
    shock-sensitive with time, like ether and THF.
    Keep them only for a year!

18
Health Hazards in the Lab
  • Hazard
  • Carcinogens
  • (formaldehyde)
  • Reproductive toxins
  • (chloroform)
  • Allergens
  • (latex)
  • Corrosives
  • (acids, bases)
  • Specific organ toxicity
  • (acrylomide, neurotoxin)
  • Controls for all health hazards
  • Minimize exposure
  • Use fume hoods
  • Wear correct PPE
  • Use smallest amount possible

19
Institutional Oversight, Part 1
  • There are certain things with which you cannot
    work until you have special training, submit a
    protocol form to an institutional committee, and
    get approval.
  • IRB Institutional Review Board for work with
    human subjects
  • IBC Institutional Biosafety Committee for work
    with recombinant DNA and human pathogens

20
Institutional Oversight, Part 2
  • Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee,
    IACUC all vertebrate animals
  • Radiation Safety Committee radioisotopes, sealed
    sources

21
Training Records
  • Each person must have a paper training record
    completely filled out and signed, kept in the lab
    where he/she works
  • Put them in the correct section of the new
    Chemical and Biological Safety Manual

22
Emergency Contingency Plan
  • Required by both OSHA and EPA
  • Fill out, sign, date every year
  • Hang inside lab near door
  • Color-coded each year

23
Commonly-Cited OSHA Noncompliances
  • Cluttered, dirty workspaces

24
Commonly-Cited OSHA Noncompliances
  • Unlabeled or improperly labeled containers

25
Commonly-Cited OSHA Noncompliances
  • Blocked emergency exits and blocked safety
    equipment

26
Chemical Spills
  • You clean it up
  • If its a small spill
  • If you have the correct personal protective
    equipment
  • Clean it up, put it in a plastic bag, label it as
    chemical waste
  • CEHS cleans it up
  • If you are afraid of reactions or offgassing
  • If you dont have the correct PPE
  • If its larger than 5 gallons

27
Biological Safety
  • There arent many laws about biological safety
  • Funding agency, National Institutes of Health
    (NIH) has regulations
  • If anyone on campus receives NIH funding,
    everyone must abide by the NIH regulations
  • Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical
    Laboratories BMBL

28
Hazardous Waste
  • Regulatory agency is the Environmental Protection
    Agency, or EPA
  • There is a Federal agency, and state agencies
  • We have Illinois EPA as our agency
  • The law is called Resource Conservation Recovery
    Act, or RCRA

29
What NOT to Put Down the Drain or In the Trash!
  • Flammable liquids
  • Alcohols, acetone, ethyl acetate, etc.
  • Corrosive liquids
  • acids with a pH less than 2 or bases with a pH
    over 9.5
  • Air- or Water-reactive compounds
  • Toxic compounds
  • Metals, solvents, herbicides, pesticides, toxic
    organic compounds

30
CEHS Disposes Hazardous Waste
  • We will bring you clean, dry, unlabeled bottles
    with screw tops, any size from 100 g to 55
    gallons
  • You collect waste and store it in your Satellite
    Waste Accumulation Area
  • Request a waste pickup online
  • CEHS will come get it, bring it to our Central
    Waste Accumulation Area and send it offsite to a
    contractor
  • THERE IS NO CHARGE FOR ANY OF THIS!
  • If in doubt dont put it down the drain, send
    it to CEHS

31
Chemical Waste Containers
  • Use bottles with screw lids.
  • No stoppers
  • No parafilm
  • No duct tape!

32
Chemical Waste Labeling
  • Completely remove all other labels
  • Use a yellow Hazardous Waste label
  • Do NOT put it on top of another label!

33
Waste Segregation
  • Do NOT pour all chemical waste into one
    container!
  • Separate out waste streams as much as possible.
  • Its more easily recycled, less expensive, less
    likely to react
  • CEHS will give you as many bottles for waste as
    you want, for free

34
Satellite Waste Accumulation Area
  • Choose a place for waste in your lab and hang the
    poster up
  • Get everything else out from the area no good
    reagents, no apparatus, no junk
  • Place the bottles with the yellow labels in it
  • One bottle for each kind of waste
  • When you fill up a bottle, file an electronic
    pickup request form and CEHS will get it

35
Satellite Waste Accumulation Area
  • Area must be inspected every 31 days!
  • Fill the form out, sign and date it, put it in
    the 3-ring binder

36
Common Chemical Waste Noncompliances
  • No yellow label on waste container
  • Multiple labels on a single container

37
Common Chemical Waste Noncompliances
  • Any chemical container in the lab that is
    damaged, leaking, bulging, rusty, or unlabeled is
    DEEMED BY EPA to be hazardous waste.
  • Get rid of them!

38
Biological Waste
  • There are two kinds of biological waste.
  • This kind is heavily regulated. Keep it separate.
    Potentially infectious medical waste
  • Sharps containers
  • Recombinant DNA
  • Chemotherapeutic agents
  • Pathogenic microorganisms
  • Waste soaked in human blood
  • This kind is less heavily regulated. Keep it
    separate. Non-potentially infectious medical
    waste
  • Animal carcasses
  • Petri plates
  • Exam room waste

39
Biological Waste Disposal
  • Put biological waste in a red bag, then in a red
    plastic bin or a specially marked cardboard box
  • Fill out an online pickup request form
  • CEHS collects biological waste on Wednesdays and
    takes it to the incinerator at Physical Plant

40
Waste Minimization
  • Separate different kinds of waste (acids, bases,
    solvents, toxic salts, etc.)
  • Substitution of less hazardous materials
  • Work on semi-micro or micro scale
  • Purchase the smallest amount useable
  • Avoid As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, Ag, CN
  • Dont purchase compressed cylinders order
    refillable ones from Airgas
  • Use digital photography if possible

41
No Mercury!
  • Mercury thermometers and mercury-containing
    equipment are no longer allowed at SIU
  • Mercury is very environmentally persistent
  • Mercury vapor is a potent neurotoxin
  • If you spill mercury, DO NOT try to clean it up!
    Get everyone out of the lab and call CEHS.

42
  • Questions?
  • Contact
  • Center for Environmental Health and Safety
  • www.cehs.siu.edu
  • 453-5187
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