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Title: Diseases

  • Chapter 24-26

Myth or Fact
  • A person can get an STD only through sexual
    activity with many people
  • Abstinence from sexual activity is 100
    effective in preventing STDs and the sexual
    transmission of HIV or Hepatitis B
  • All STDs can be cured with antibiotics
  • Anyone with an STD will have symptoms
  • Many cases of HIV/AIDS go unreported

Myth or Fact
  • A person can have only one type of STD at a
  • After a person can have only one type of STD at
    a time
  • After a person has been treated for an STD, he
    or she cant get it again
  • Untreated STDs including HIV/AIDs can be fatal
  • Nationwide, STDs are on the rise among teen.

Disease by type of Pathogen
Viruses Bacteria Fungi
-Common cold -Influenza (Flu) -Viral Hepatitis -AIDS -Viral Meningitis -Chicken Pox -Bacteria foodborne illness -strep throat -Lyme disease -Bacteria Meningitis -Athletes Foot -Ringworm -Yeast Infection
How Communicable Diseases are Transmitted
  • Direct contact-With a infected person or animal
    or with something in the environment.
  • includes touching, biting, kissing, and sexual
  • Sneezing and coughing can spray infections
    droplets if saliva or music onto a nearby
    persons eyes, nose, or mouth.
  • Indirect contact- some communicable diseases can
    be transmitted indirectly, with out being close
    to an infected person.
  • Includes Contaminated Objects, can become
    contaminated with infectious discharges or
    secretions (ex person with a cold sneezes on the
    table, you touch the table then touch your nose
    or eyes. Vectors, an organism, usually a tick,
    that carries and transmits pathogen to humans or
    other animals. Water and Food, contamination of
    the food (salmonella)
  • Airborne Transmission- Pathogens from a sneeze
    or a cough may float in the air for a long time
    and travel long distances.

Common Communicable Disease
  • Respiratory Inflections
  • The most common communicable disease. These
    infections can occur anywhere from the nose to
    the lungs. Could be a viruses or bacterial.
  • Could reduce risk by avoiding close contact with
    people who are infected, washing your hands
    often, keeping your hands away from your eyes and
    nose. Smoking can contribute to illness by
    damaging cilia and irritating respiratory
  • Common Cold
  • A viral inflection that cause inflammation of the
    mucoud membranes that line the nose and throat
  • No cure for the common cold. Treatment is for
    relief of symptoms, most colds clear up in a week
    or so.
  • Influenza
  • Or the flu, is a viral infections of the
    respiratory tract. It is most often spread
    through airborne transmission but also may spread
    through direct or indirect contact. Flu can lead
    to pneumonia.

Common Communicable Disease
  • Pneumonia-
  • an infection of the lungs in which the air sacs
    fill with pus and other liquids.
  • Pneumonia is one of the top ten deaths in the Us.
  • Viral pneumonia is relatively short lived and
    produces symptoms similar to those in influenza.
  • Antiviral drugs are used in some case.
  • Bacterial pneumonia can be treated with
    antibiotics if diagnosed early.
  • When body defenses are weakened in some way, the
    bacterial can get into the lungs and multiply.

Common Communicable Disease
  • Strep Throat
  • is a bacterial infection spread by direct
    contact, often through droplets that are coughed
    or sneezed into the air.
  • Symptoms of step throat include a sore throat,
    fever, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.
  • Untreated, strep throat conlead to serious
    complications, including inflammation of the
    kidneys and rheumatic fever, which can cause
    permanent heart damage.
  • Strep throat can be treated with antibiotics.

Common Communicable Disease
  • Tuberculosis
  • or TB is a bacterial disease that usually
    attacks the lungs.
  • TB is spread through the air when a person with
    the disease coughs or sneezes.
  • Most people who are infected carry the bacteria
    in their lungs but never develop the disease
    because the bodys defenses prevent the bacteria
    from multiplying and spreading to others.
  • People with weakened immune systems are more
    likely to develop the active disease with
    symptoms that include fatigue, coughing, fever,
    night sweats, and weight loss.
  • People with the active disease can spread TB.

Common Communicable Disease
  • Hepatitis is inflammation of the lover and can
    be cause by chemicals, including ATODs. or by
    different pathogens.
  • The hepatitis A,B, and C viruses are some of the
    most common causes of this type of liver damage,
    and there is no cure for them .
  • However, vaccines for hepatitis A and B are

Hepatitis A
  • Is another of the top 10 communicable diseased
    in the US.
  • About 1.5 million people worldwide are newly
    infected each year.
  • The hepatitis A virus is most commonly spread
    through contact with feces of an infected person.
  • Infected people who do not wash their hands
    properly may contaminate objects or food or
    spread the virus through direct contact.
  • Symptoms include
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal pain
  • Jaundice

Hepatitis B
  • Is a more serious disease than hepatitis A.
  • The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is found in most
    bodily fluids of an infected person, especially
  • It is most often transmitted through sexual
  • It also can be transmitted through needles shared
    by infected drug users.
  • Though most people who are infected NEVER
    experience symptoms, the hepatitis B frequently
    cause severe liver damage, including liver
    failure and cirrhosis, or scarring of the liver.
  • More then 2 billion people worldwide have been
    infected with HBV. About 1.25 million people in
    the US have chronic HBV infection.
  • Reduce the risk of Hepatitis B by
  • Practicing abstinence from sexual contact and
    from illegal drug use.
  • Do not share personal items, such as
    toothbrushes, razors, which could have trace
    amounts of saliva or blood.

Hepatitis C
  • Is the most common chronic blood borne infection
    in the US. About 4 million Americans are
  • It is most often transmitted by direct contact
    with infected blood through contaminated needles
    shared by drug users.
  • Hepatitis C can lead to chronic liver disease,
    liver cancer, or liver failure.
  • It is the leading reason for liver transplantrs
    in the US.
  • Up to 90 of those infected with the hepatitis C
    virus (HCV) dont realize they have the disease
    until years later when routine test show liver
  • Reduce the risk of Hepatitis C by
  • Practicing abstinence from illegal drug use.
  • Do not share personal items, such as
    toothbrushes, razors, which could have trace
    amounts of saliva or blood.

Sexually Transmitted diseases
  • Sexually transmitted diseases or Sexually
    transmitted infections are infections diseases
    spread from person to person through sexual
  • A person can have an infection, and pass the
    infection to others, without necessarily having
    the disease
  • Many cases of STD go undiagnosed and untreated.
  • Many people with the STDs are Asymptomatic
    (without symptoms). They do not seek treatment
    because they dont know they are infected. They
    dont get treated therefore continue to transmit
  • Even when STDs are diagnosed, they may not be
    reported to health departments so that contacts
    can be notified and treats.

  • High Risk Behavior and STDs
  • 15 million new cases of STDs each year thats
    more then 10,000 young people infected everyday.
  • Teens who are sexually active are likely to
    engage in one or more of the following high risk
  • Being sexually active
  • Engaging in unprotected sex
  • Selecting highrisk partners
  • Using ATODs

The Consequence STDs
  • Some STDs are incurable
  • The pathogens that cause these STDs cannot be
    eliminated from the body by medical treatment,
    such as antibiotics. The virus that cause
    gential herpes, HIV, AIDs, for example, remain in
    the body for life.
  • Some STDs cause cancer
  • The hepatitis B virus can cause cancer of the
  • The human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cancer
    of the cervix.
  • These STDs also cannot be cured and may last for
    a life time.
  • Some STDs can cause complications that affect
    the ability to reproduce
  • Females can develop pelvic inflammatory disease
    (PID) which damages reproductive organs and cause
  • Some STDs can be passed from an infected female
    to her child before, during, or after birth
  • STDs can damage the bones, nervous system, and
    brain of a fetus. Premature births can result,
    infants infected with STDs at delivery may become
    blind or develop pneumonia and some may die.

Preventing STDs
  • Abstinence is the only way to prevent 100 of
    all STDs
  • Abstinence is the deliberate decision to avoid
    harmful behaviors, including sexual activity
    before marriage and the use of ATOD.
  • Use refusal skills to avoid situations in which
    you may be at risk.

Human Papillomavirus(HPV)
  • Is the most common sexually transmitted
    infection (STI).
  • The virus infects the skin and mucous membranes.
  • There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect
    the genital areas of men and women, including the
    skin of the penis, vulva (area outside the
    vagina), and anus, and the linings of the vagina,
    cervix, and rectum.
  • You cannot see HPV. Most people who become
    infected with HPV do not even know they have it.
  • Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or
    health problems.
  • But sometimes, certain types of HPV can cause
    genital warts in men and women.
  • Other HPV types can cause cervical cancer and
    other less common cancers, such as cancers of the
    vulva, vagina, anus, and penis. The types of HPV
    that can cause genital warts are not the same as
    the types that can cause cancer.

Human Papillomavirus(HPV)
  • HPV types are often referred to as low-risk
    (wart-causing) or high-risk (cancer-causing),
    based on whether they put a person at risk for
  • In 90 of cases, the bodys immune system clears
    the HPV infection naturally within two years.
    This is true of both high-risk and low-risk

Genital Warts
  • Genital warts happen months after infection from
  • Genital warts may be small, flat, flesh-colored
    bumps or tiny, cauliflower-like bumps.
  • In men, genital warts can grow on the penis,
    near the anus, or between the penis and the
  • In women, genital warts may grow on the vulva in
    the vagina and on the cervix. Genital warts vary
    in size and may even be so small that you can't
    see them.
  • They can lead to cancer of the cervix in women
    or cancer of the penis in men.
  • Infants born to females infected with HPV may
    develop warts in their throats, obstructing the
    breathing passages, which can be life

  • Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that affects
    the reproductive organs of both males and
  • Chlamydia is asymptomatic, meaning there are no
    visible symptoms. It often goes undetected until
    seriuos complications occur.
  • In females who re untreated, the infection can
    caise pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and leas
    to chronic pelvic pain or infertility
  • In males is can also lead to infertility
  • When symptoms are presents males experience
    discharge from the penis and burning upon
  • Females may have vaginal discharge, burning upon
    urination, or abdominal pain.
  • Chlamydia is diagnosed by laboratories
    examination of secretions from the cervix in
    females or from the urethra in males.
  • Chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics, but
    no immunity develops, so a person can become
    infected again.

Genital Herpes
  • Genital herpes is an STD caused by the herpes
    simplex virus (HSV). There are two types of HSV.
  • Type 1 usually causes cold sores
  • Type 2 usually causes genital sores
  • Most individuals have no or only minimal signs
    or symptoms.
  • When signs do occur, they typically appear as one
    or more blisters on or around the genitals or
  • The blisters break, leaving tender ulcers (sores)
    that may take two to four weeks to heal the first
    time they occur. Typically, another outbreak can
    appear weeks or months after the first, but it
    almost always is less severe and shorter than the
    first outbreak.  Although the infection can stay
    in the body indefinitely, the number of outbreaks
    tends to decrease over a period of years.
  • Medication can relieve the symptoms, but cannot
    cure herpes infection one contracted, the virus
    remains in the body for LIFE.
  • The herpes virus is potentially fatal for
    infants who contract the virus from their mothers
    ar the time of delivery. The virus may also play
    a major role in the spread of HIV by making
    people who are infected with herpes more capable
    of transmitting or acquiring HIV

  • Gonorrhea is a bacterial STD that usually
    affects mucous membranes. The highest rates of
    gonorrhea infection are found in females from 15
    to 19 years old and in males 20 to 24 years old.
  • Symptoms in males include a discharge from the
    penis and painful urination. Diagnosis in males
    is made by staining and examining the discharge
    under a microscope.
  • 50 of females with gonorrhea have no symptoms.
    Whose woman with symptoms have vaginal discharge
    and pain or burning upon urination.
  • Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics.
  • If not treated it can lead to infertility for
    men or women.

  • is a STD causes by a microscopic protozoan that
    results in infections of the vagina, urethra and
  • Females may have no symptoms, however the
    disease may result is vaginitis.
  • Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina
    characterized by discharge, odor, irritation, and
  • The organism can sometimes be seen in a Pap
  • Males usually have no symptom, when symptoms
    occur, they include mild urethral itching or
    discharge and burning after urination.
  • Usually men dont find out until their partners
    are infected.

  • Syphilis is an STD that attacks many parts of
    the body and is caused by a small bacterium call
    a spirochete.
  • The first sign of infection is a painless
    reddish sore, call a chancre.
  • The sore will heal on it own, but if the
    infection is not treated, it speads through the
    blood to other parts of the body.
  • Eventually, the disease can damage organs,
    including the heart, liver, nervous system, and
  • If untreated the person is at risk of paralysis,
    convulsions, blindness, and heart disease.
  • Syphilis can be transmitted from pregnant female
    to her fetus. An infant infected with syphilis
    may have a damaged nervous system and can die
    from the effects.

Pubic lice
  • Small insects that attach themselves onto your
    pubic hair.
  • Symptom include itching, presence of lice and
    eggs in pubic hair
  • Treatments include medicated soap, washing all
    bedding, towel and clothes.
  • There are no lasting effects

Human immunodeficiency Virus HIV
  • HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system.
  • The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the
    virus that leads to AIDS. HIV belongs to a subset
    of retroviruses called lentiviruses (or slow
    viruses), which means that there is an years
    between the initial infection and the onset of
  • Upon entering the bloodstream through mucous
    membranes or blood to blood contact HIV infects
    the T cells and begins to replicate rapidly.
  • Scientists believe that when the virus enters
    the body, HIV begins to disable the body's immune
    system by using the body's aggressive immune
    responses to the virus to infect, replicate and
    kill immune system cells.
  • Gradual deterioration of immune function and
    eventual destruction of lymphoid and immunologic
    organs is central to triggering the
    immunosuppression that leads to AIDS

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS
  • Acquired means you can get infected with it
  • Immune Deficiency means a weakness in the body's
    system that fights diseases.
  • Syndrome means a group of health problems that
    make up a disease.
  • AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV, the Human
    Immunodeficiency Virus. If you get infected with
    HIV, your body will try to fight the infection.
    It will make "antibodies," special molecules to
    fight HIV.
  • A blood test for HIV looks for these antibodies.
    If you have them in your blood, it means that you
    have HIV infection. People who have the HIV
    antibodies are called "HIV-Positive."
  • Being HIV-positive, or having HIV disease, is not
    the same as having AIDS. Many people are
    HIV-positive but don't get sick for many years.
    As HIV disease continues, it slowly wears down
    the immune system. Viruses, parasites, fungi and
    bacteria that usually don't cause any problems
    can make you very sick if your immune system is

  • You don't actually "get" AIDS. You might get
    infected with HIV, and later you might develop
    AIDS. You can get infected with HIV from anyone
    who's infected, even if they don't look sick and
    even if they haven't tested HIV-positive yet. The
    blood, vaginal fluid, semen, and breast milk of
    people infected with HIV has enough of the virus
    in it to infect other people. Most people get the
    HIV virus by
  • having sex with an infected person
  • sharing a needle (shooting drugs) with someone
    who's infected
  • being born when their mother is infected, or
    drinking the breast milk of an infected woman
  • Getting a transfusion of infected blood used to
    be a way people got AIDS, but now the blood
    supply is screened very carefully and the risk is
    extremely low.
  • There are no documented cases of HIV being
    transmitted by tears or saliva, but it is
    possible to be infected with HIV through oral sex
    or in rare cases through deep kissing, especially
    if you have open sores in your mouth or bleeding

Detecting HIV
  • EIA test a test that screens for the presence of
    HIV antibodies in the blood. The EIA reacts to
    even small numbers of HIV antibodies. However
    the EIA may give inaccurate results such as
  • Developing antibodies takes time- weeks or even
    moths after initial infection.
  • Certain health condition- such as hemophilia,
    hepatitis and pregnancy can cause the EIA to give
    a false positive, reading.
  • Western Blot Test- the most common confirmation
    test for HIV in the US. When done properly, this
    test is 100 accurate.

Cardiovascular Disease
  • Noncommunicable Diseases- is a disease that is
    not transmitted by another person, a vector, or
    the environment.
  • Cardiovascular Disease is a disease that affects
    the heart or blood vessels.
  • 61 million Americans have some form of the
  • Heredity-Children whose parents have CVD are
    more likely to develop CVD themsevles
  • Gender- Men have a greater risk of developing
    CVD earlier in life and a greater risk of having
    a heart attack then woman do.
  • Age- 80 of people who die from CVD are 65 or

Types of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Hypertension- is high blood pressure, pressure
    that is continually about the normal range for a
    particular person. High blood pressure, is
    dangerous because it makes the heart work harder
    to pump blood to the body and it contributes to
    hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis and
    the development of heart failure.
  • Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing
    against blood vessel walls. The heart pumps blood
    into the arteries (blood vessels), which carry
    the blood throughout the body.
  • The exact causes of hypertension are not known.
    Several factors and conditions may play a role in
    its development, including
  • The exact causes of hypertension are not known.
    Several factors and conditions may play a role in
    its development, including
  • Normal Less than 120/80
  • Prehypertension 120-139/80-89
  • Stage 1 hypertension 140-159/90-99
  • Stage 2 hypertension 160 and above/100 and above
  • The exact causes of hypertension are not known.
    Several factors and conditions may play a role in
    its development, including
  • Smoking, Being overweight, Lack of physical
    activity, Too much salt in the diet , Too much
    alcohol consumption (no more than 1 to 2 drinks
    per day) , Stress , Older age, Genetics, Family
    history of high blood pressure, Chronic kidney
    disease, Adrenal and thyroid disorders.

Types of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Atherosclerosis
  • The process in which plaque accumulate on artery
  • It's the name of the process in which deposits
    of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste
    products, calcium and other substances build up
    in the inner lining of an artery. This buildup is
    called plaque. It usually affects large and
    medium-sized arteries.  Some hardening of
    arteries often occurs when people grow older.
  • Plaques can grow large enough to significantly
    reduce the blood's flow through an artery. But
    most of the damage occurs when they become
    fragile and rupture.
  • Plaques that rupture cause blood clots to form
    that can block blood flow or break off and travel
    to another part of the body. If either happens
    and blocks a blood vessel that feeds the heart,
    it causes a heart attack. If it blocks a blood
    vessel that feeds the brain, it causes a stroke.
    And if blood supply to the arms or legs is
    reduced, it can cause difficulty walking and
    eventually lead to gangrene.

Types of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Diseases of the Heart
  • Angina Pectoris- is a chest pain that results
    when the heart does not get enough oxygen.
  • Arrhythmias- are problems that affect the
    electrical system of the heart muscle, producing
    abnormal heart rhythms. They can cause the heart
    to pump less effectively.
  • Heart Attack-A heart attack occurs when blood
    flow to a section of heart muscle becomes
    blocked. If the flow of blood isnt restored
    quickly, the section of heart muscle becomes
    damaged from lack of oxygen and begins to die.
  • Congestive Heart Failure- Congestive heart
    failure (CHF), or heart failure, is a condition
    in which the heart can't pump enough blood to the
    body's other organs.
  • narrowed arteries that supply blood to the heart
    muscle (coronary artery disease )
  • past heart attack, or myocardial infarction, with
    scar tissue that interferes with the heart
    muscle's normal work
  • high blood pressure
  • heart defects present at birth  congenital heart
  • Stroke- arterial blockage interupts the flow of
    blood to the brain a stoke may occur. Stoke can

  • Cancer is the general name for a group of more
    than 100 diseases in which cells in a part of the
    body begin to grow out of control.
  • Although there are many kinds of cancer, they
    all start because abnormal cells grow out of
    control. Untreated cancers can cause serious
    illness and even death.
  • Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an
    orderly fashion. During the early years of a
    person's life, normal cells divide more quickly
    until the person becomes an adult. After that,
    cells in most parts of the body divide only to
    replace worn-out or dying cells and to repair
  • Cancer cells develop because of damage to DNA.
    Most of the time when DNA becomes damaged, either
    the cell dies or is able to repair the DNA. In
    cancer cells, the damaged DNA is not repaired.
    People can inherit damaged DNA, which accounts
    for inherited cancers.
  • Many times though, a persons DNA gets damaged
    by things in the environment, like, chemicals,
    viruses, tobacco smoke or too much sunlight.

  • Tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that has no
    natural role in the body.
  • Some tumors are benign- noncancerous
  • Some tumors are malignant- cancerous, spread
    though neighboring tissues and through the blood
    or lymph to other parts of the body.
  • Metastasis- the spread of cancer from the point
    where it originated to other parts of the body.

Type of Cancer
  • Lymphomas are cancers of the immune system
  • Leukemias are cancers of the blood forming
  • Carcinomas are cancers of the glands and body
    linings, including the skin and the linings of
    the digestive tract and lungs.
  • Sarcomas are cancers of connective tissue,
    including bones ligaments and muscle

Treating Cancer
  • Surgery removes some or all of the cancerous
    masses from the body.
  • Radiation therapy aims rays from radioactive
    substances at cancerous cells. The radiation
    kills the cells and shrinks the cancerous mass.
  • Chemotherapy uses chemicals to destroy cancer
  • Immunotherapy activates a person immune system
    to recognize specific cancers and destroy them.
  • Hormone therapy involves using medicines that
    interfere with the production of hormones. These
    treatments kill cancer cells or slow their growth
  • Remission a period of time when symptoms

Communicable Diseases
  • Allergies-is a specific reaction of the immune
    system to a foreign and frequently harmless
  • Asthma-an inflammatory condition in which the
    small airways in the lungs become narrowed
    causing difficulty in breathing.
  • Monitor the condition
  • Manage the environment
  • Manage stress
  • Take medication

  • Diabetes is a disease in which your blood
    glucose, or sugar, levels are too high. Glucose
    comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a
    hormone that helps the glucose get into your
    cells to give them energy.
  • Type 1, your body does not make insulin. The
    cause of also unclear. Treatment includes taking
    a daily dose of insulin, either through
    injections or through a special pump that is
    attached to the body.
  • Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body
    does not make or use insulin well. Without enough
    insulin, the glucose stays in your blood.
    Treatment of type 2 includes weight management,
    and regular physical activity.

  • Arthritis- is a group of more than 100 different
    diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in
    the joints.
  • Osteoarthritis is a disease of the joints in
    which cartilage breaks down.
  • Several strategies reduce the risk of
  • Controlling weight
  • Preventing sports injures
  • Protecting against Lyme disease- which is spread
    by the bite of infected deer ticks
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis-is a disease characterized
    by the debilitating destruction of the joints due
    to inflammation.

  • The END!!!
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