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Networking for Embedded Systems


Take advantage of application characteristics to optimize the design: ... a demonstration call, President Rutherford Hayes said, 'That's an amazing ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Networking for Embedded Systems

Technological Advances
Embedded system
  • Definition any device that includes a
    programmable computer but is not itself a
    general-purpose computer.
  • Take advantage of application characteristics to
    optimize the design
  • dont need all the general-purpose bells and

  • Personal digital assistant (PDA).
  • Printer.
  • Cell phone.
  • Automobile engine, brakes, dash, etc.
  • Television.
  • Household appliances.
  • PC keyboard (scans keys).

Early history
  • Late 1940s MIT Whirlwind computer was designed
    for real-time operations.
  • Originally designed to control an aircraft
  • First microprocessor was Intel 4004 in early
  • HP-35 calculator used several chips to implement
    a microprocessor in 1972.

Early history, contd.
  • Automobiles used microprocessor-based engine
    controllers starting in 1970s.
  • Control fuel/air mixture, engine timing, etc.
  • Multiple modes of operation warm-up, cruise,
    hill climbing, etc.
  • Provides lower emissions, better fuel efficiency.

Microprocessor varieties
  • Microcontroller includes I/O devices, on-board
  • Digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor
    optimized for digital signal processing.
  • Typical embedded word sizes 8-bit, 16-bit,

Automotive embedded systems
  • Todays high-end automobile may have 100
  • 4-bit microcontroller checks seat belt
  • microcontrollers run dashboard devices
  • 16/32-bit microprocessor controls engine.

Characteristics of embedded systems
  • Sophisticated functionality.
  • Real-time operation.
  • Low manufacturing cost.
  • Low power.
  • Designed to tight deadlines by small teams.

Functional complexity
  • Often have to run sophisticated algorithms or
    multiple algorithms.
  • Cell phone, laser printer.
  • Often provide sophisticated user interfaces.

Real-time operation
  • Must finish operations by deadlines.
  • Hard real time missing deadline causes failure.
  • Soft real time missing deadline results in
    degraded performance.
  • Many systems are multi-rate must handle
    operations at widely varying rates.

Non-functional requirements
  • Many embedded systems are mass-market items that
    must have low manufacturing costs.
  • Limited memory, microprocessor power, etc.
  • Power consumption is critical in battery-powered
  • Excessive power consumption increases system cost
    even in wall-powered devices.

Why use microprocessors?
  • Alternatives field-programmable gate arrays
    (FPGAs), custom logic, etc.
  • Microprocessors are often very efficient can use
    same logic to perform many different functions.
  • Microprocessors simplify the design of families
    of products.

Challenges in embedded system design
  • How much hardware do we need?
  • How big is the CPU? Memory?
  • How do we meet our deadlines?
  • Faster hardware or cleverer software?
  • How do we minimize power?
  • Turn off unnecessary logic? Reduce memory

Design methodologies
  • A procedure for designing a system.
  • Understanding your methodology helps you ensure
    you didnt skip anything.
  • Compilers, software engineering tools,
    computer-aided design (CAD) tools, etc., can be
    used to
  • help automate methodology steps
  • keep track of the methodology itself.

Design goals
  • Performance.
  • Overall speed, deadlines.
  • Functionality and user interface.
  • Manufacturing cost.
  • Power consumption.
  • Other requirements (physical size, etc.)

Code compression is a useful technique for
reducing the silicon costs of systems on a chip.
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  • Embedded computers are all around us.
  • Many systems have complex embedded hardware and
  • Embedded systems pose many design challenges
    design time, deadlines, power, etc.
  • Design methodologies help us manage the design

VLSI design product development
  • Simulation of analog and digital circuits
  • Simulation using CAD tools is the latest
    technology used world wide for Design
    applications ranging from FPGAS and VLSI.
  • VLSI design methodology using VHDL for logic

Intel inside IIT Mumbai
  • Why has Intel, the 7 billion Chip maker, opened
    a VLSI Lab in IIT Mumbai?
  • Because it believes its 0.1 Million investment
    will boost the supply of Engineering talent for
    the chip design industry.
  • The Indian chip design industry has moved to
    designs of higher complexity.
  • TI recently developed a global scale high end
    video processor.
  • Intel is making a Xeon processor (32 bit) it
    has billion transistors you can imagine the

What will have the greatest impact in 2010
The Processor, The Memory or The
My Desktop PC
High-speed Interconnects Past
  • High-speed interconnects only used in medium
    and large-scale parallel computers.
  • The interconnect was not the bottleneck.
  • VLSI and packaging technology improvements
    were enough to scale interconnect performance.

  • Bandwidth demand in Internet doubles every six
  • OC-192 optical links with DWDM increased fiber
    bandwidth by a factor of 160 to 320 with respect
    to OC-48.
  • IP routers have become the main bottleneck in
  • IP routers with thousands of ports will soon
    be needed.

Impact of Advances in VLSI
  • Larger integration scales will aggravate the
    interconnection problem
  • Wire delay (per unit length) increases while
    silicon delay decreases.
  • Most of the power will be used to drive wires.
  • Quantum technology will dramatically increase
    integration scale but interconnects between
    chips (or chips and disks) will not use the
    same technology.

  • Industry is very likely to require high speed
    interconnects in more areas
  • On chip networks
  • As VLSI technology advances, transistors
    become faster but wires become slower.
  • Microprocessors will be designed as several
    subsystems linked through high-speed

Other Developments
Finger print of living person only accepted
  • This invention will make sure that it is not
    possible to obtain access authorization with fake
    fingers or cut-off fingers.
  • The invention is based on the fact that living
    human skin has a characteristic layer structure.
    These layers of the skin have clearly different
    electric conductivities.
  • The method is to read signals that bounce off
    skin when fingers are placed on a surface
    embedded with electric conductors.
  • In the case of a cut-off finger, since the skin
    tissue is dying off, the pattern of signals
    received will be different from that of a live

Composite Molecules store rewritable digital data
  • Ideal storage medium would combine magnetic
    tapes compact 3D data store with a disk drives
    speedy access.
  • UC (around 1990) developed a prototype aimed at
    this ideal.
  • They embedded a transparent matrix with
    photochromes molecules that flip between 2
    stable structures in response to light of the
    right frequency.
  • Sub volumes of the matrixs each containing
    several thousand photochromes, served as the data
  • To write a bit, 2 perpendicular laser beams the
    laser beams are pointed at the corresponding sub
    volumes. Ordinarily, the lights would pass right
    through without absorption. But the combined
    frequency of 2 beams was set at just the right
    value to trigger the molecular shape shift.
  • If the beams are intense enough, a nonlinear 2
    photon absorption process will kick in, and where
    the beams converged, the bit would flip from 0 to

HP reinvents the integrated circuit with
molecular components
  • Hewlett-Packard demonstrated the highest-density
    electronically addressable memory reported to
  • The laboratory demonstration circuit, a 64 bit
    memory using molecules as switches, occupied a
    square micron of space.
  • Thats an area so tiny that more than 1,000
    circuits could fit on the end of a strand of a
    human hair.

HP reinvents the integrated circuit with
molecular components (Contd.)
  • The bit density of the device is more than 10
    times greater than todays silicon memory chips.
  • It combined, for the first time, both memory and
    logic using rewritable, non-volatile
    molecular-switch devices.
  • The lab fabricated the circuits using an advanced
    system of manufacturing called nano-imprint
    lithography, essentially a printing method that
    allows an entire wafer of circuits to be stamped
    out quickly and inexpensively from a master.

Linux invades consumer electronics industry
  • Linux, currently a software system, mostly used
    to power big servers and PCs, is also emerging as
    a small set of computing code to drive devices
    like mobile phones, remote controls and TVs.
  • Low cost and freedom to tweak the software are
    reasons why a number of worlds largest consumer
    electronics majors like Sony, Matsushita and
    others have set up an alliance recently to
    develop and promote Linux for consumer
    electronics products.
  • Linuxs key advantage over other operating
    systems is that the core software is freely
    available and widely embraced.
  • Linuxs core software (Kernel) which drives the
    chips and other basic functions of a device, can
    be as small as one Megabyte if embedded in a
    consumer electronics product.
  • A single high quality digital picture or one
    minute of MP3 music can be store on one Megabyte
    of memory.
  • Motorola has launched Linux mobile phone for the
    Chinese market, while Philips has a remote
    control running on Linux for all the electronic
    devices in a home.

Call Centre Technology (1965)
Now called Contacts Centres Telecom Computers
technology Service Industry enhanced by use
of MM (fax, email, video, etc.)
  • Agent based service related to certain commercial
    activities over phone.
  • Provides speed and accurate information to users.
    The customer makes a call through PSTN. The call
    is processed through an automated call
    distribution system (plus front end software).
  • The call is routed through a PBX to an
    interactive voice response system.
  • Voice recognition technology and language
    translation aspects are integrated with the above
    basic system, thereby accepting the customers
    voice and multi lingual inputs.

Convergence of Technologies
  • Communications has advanced a lot. It is a
    technological movement. Call it an Evolution or
  • Convergence is shaping the world of production,
    communication, health systems, education,
    delivery transportation and more.
  • Change is happening rapidly because of rapid
    diffusion of information.
  • National boundaries are diffusing / getting
    blurred international interests are growing.
  • Convergence is an integrated approach integrated
    communication, information processing and media
  • Convergence provides seamless networks that
    ensure global personal connectivity and enables
    access to broadband wireless multimedia
  • Ex Convergence of hardware technologies to
    enhance use of mobile phones, camera phone, cell
    phone as a scanner, Remote controller, etc.

Nanotechnology advances
  • A list of life altering nanotechnologies that are
  • Two to Five years from now
  • Car tyres that need air only once a year
  • Self-assembly of small electronic parts based on
    artificial DNA
  • New artificial semiconductors based on proteins
  • Instant, error-proof pregnancy tests
  • Complete medical diagnostic laboratories on a
    single computer chip
  • Go-anywhere concentrators that produce drinkable
    water from air.

Nanotechnology advances (Contd.)
  • Five to 10 years
  • Erasable and re-writable paper for programmable
    books, magazines and new papers
  • Powerful computers you can wear or fold into your
  • Bullet proof armour based on nano-bio-mimicry of
  • Light, efficient ceramic car engines
  • Intelligent hearing aids that duplicate the ears
    ability to distinguish speakers
  • Drugs and drug delivery systems that turn AIDS
    and cancer into lower level manageable conditions
  • Smart buildings that self stabilize during
    earthquakes or bombings
  • Pharmaceuticals tailored to the individual

Nanotechnology advances (Contd.)
  • 10 to 15 years
  • True artificial intelligence too sophisticated
    for you to tell if you are communicating with
    human or machine
  • Paint-on computer and entertainment video
  • Guyed structures 20-100 miles high for satellite
    launches and direct communication
  • Instant and automatic heating, cooling and
    materials sorting at zero-energy cost from
    semi-intelligent devices that sort single
  • Elimination of invasive surgery, since bodies can
    be monitored and repaired almost totally from

Nanotechnology advances (Contd.)
  • After 15 years?
  • Beyond present human imagination!

Creative Engineer?
The Creative Engineer Universal characteristics
of creative work
  • Challenging
  • Connecting
  • Visualizing
  • Collaborating
  • Harmonizing
  • Improvising
  • Re-organizing
  • Synthesizing

The Creative Engineer Universal characteristics
of creative work (Contd.)
  • Challenging
  • Ex Base Isolation bearings
  • Seismic base isolation against earthquakes
    consists of layered rubber and steel pads to
    separate buildings from the ground.
  • This approach challenges the customary view that
    a building is stable by fixing it more firmly to
    the earth. This approach of arm wrestling with
    nature is neither clever nor subtle.
  • The new technology breaks from this by allowing a
    building to move within limits.

The Creative Engineer Universal characteristics
of creative work (Contd.)
  • Connecting
  • Ex Tissue Engineering
  • Creates usable human tissues for repairing or
    replacing damaged ones.
  • This is a combination of Medical, Biological,
    Chemical, Materials Science, Mechanical and
    Electrical engg.
  • Cells are grown on bio-degradable structures. Ex
    skin and cartilage.

The Creative Engineer Universal characteristics
of creative work (Contd.)
  • Visualizing
  • Ex Finite Element method (FEM)
  • Pictures have been one of the first human efforts
    for building and making things. Even before the
    pictures on cave walls, slates or blueprints,
    there were images in the creators minds.
  • It is a human characteristic to think visually.
    The FEM allows a designer to build a model in a
    computer, allows the engineer to manipulate the
    model and see instantly the results.

The Creative Engineer Universal characteristics
of creative work (Contd.)
  • Collaborating - Ex Boeing 777
  • Some creations are the product of creative effort
    and could not be imagined from any other source.
  • Collective creativity ( ? Talents Capabilities)
    is more than the sum of their individual efforts.
  • A jet airliner is one of the most complicated
    products designed by modern Engineers contains
    millions of parts working together to meet high
    standards of performance, reliability and safety.
  • Uses pioneering communication methods/computer
    networking bringing together thousands of
    engineers working in different places

The Creative Engineer Universal characteristics
of creative work (Contd.)
Collaborating - Ex Boeing 777
2200 workstations linked trough 8 mainframe
computers - software developed by IBM Computer
Aided 3D interactive application. This led to
a system called Electronic pre-assembly in the
Computer allowing Engineers in different
locations to design and test virtual prototypes
of crucial components of the airplane. Designing
such planes proved the idea of creative
collaboration integrating new technologies and
new organizational techniques.
The Creative Engineer Universal characteristics
of creative work (Contd.)
Harmonizing Ex Hanging Lake viaduct
  • Who thought of the magnificent opening of the
    San Francisco Bay (The Golden Gate)in 1930?
  • Construction of a viaduct to carry the road
    over a narrow curving and very beautiful stretch
    of the Colorado river.
  • Sometimes a structure is not so much for
    reshaping our perceptions of space but also to
    enhance them.
  • Designing a structure that would not only
    harmonize with its environment but also minimize
    the harm to the river and its surroundings.
  • Giant gantry and cranes were used to pre-cast
    concrete box girders of the bridge into place
    from above no of piers supporting the road was

The Creative Engineer Universal characteristics
of creative work (Contd.)
Improvising Ex Voyager 2
Space exploration is highly challenging.
Activities have to be thoroughly planned from
start to finish. The most significant space
engineers improvisation took place in fixing
damaged spacecraft or instrumentation such as the
Hubble Space Telescope and the Apollo 13
craft. The Voyager 2 space probe launched in
1977 for the Jupiter and Saturn was designed to
work for 5 years worked for 12 years,
transmitting pictures of the most distant
planets. For this to happen successfully,
Voyager 2, while in orbit, had to be constantly
re-engineered, repaired, re-programmed and
reconfigured by the earth bound engineers an
extra-ordinary feat.
The Creative Engineer Universal characteristics
of creative work (Contd.)
Reorienting Ex Sunken ship at Vizag port
Proposal to link the major rivers
Sometimes true creativity lies not in new
solutions but new formulation of problems. From
time to time we should look at the world anew,
change / revise our goals / notions of what is
important or not. Accordingly we may have to
simply change our minds.
The Creative Engineer Universal characteristics
of creative work (Contd.)
Synthesizing Ex Roller Coasters
Creative Engineers will not think in just one
mode they apply their imagination and skills in
many different directions at the same time.
Roller coasters are examples of technical
innovations that constantly beckons to the
imagination for fun and safety. (with corkscrew
turns, multiple loops and suspended
coasters) Incorporates modern light weight
materials, electronic controls, FEM designs,
aero-dynamics, structural innovations, expertise
from psychology and physiology.
Todays Business Environment
  • In todays highly competitive business
    environment, the highfliers with their
    preparedness to take risks and attempt seemingly
    impossible tasks will be noted.
  • They will be quick in executing the jobs in their
    hands, many a time ahead of schedules and make
    themselves free to do more. Obviously, they will
    be tipped for higher assignments, whenever
    opportunities come up.
  • There are others who conveniently position
    themselves behind the pillars as they want to
    escape eye contact with the people in charge of
    affairs. They will have a sigh of relief, as they
    could return to their complacent way of working
    of just doing the routine jobs.

Todays Business Environment (Contd.)
  • There is a lot of potential lying dormant and
    un-utilized in most of us. It is even stated
    that, on an average, only 20 of the capabilities
    in human beings are tapped generally. But the
    highfliers exploit them to the maximum extent to
    produce commendable results. It is only natural
    then that they get noticed and pushed up in the

Challenge A case study
The Japanese have always loved fresh fish. But
the waters close to Japan have not held many fish
for decades. So to feed the Japanese population,
fishing boats got bigger and went farther than
ever. The farther the fishermen went, the
longer it took to bring in the fish. If the
return trip took more than a few days, the fish
were not fresh. The Japanese did not like the
taste. To solve this problem, fishing companies
installed freezers on their boats. They would
catch the fish and freeze them at sea. Freezers
allowed the boats to go farther and stay longer.
However, the Japanese could taste the difference
between fresh and frozen and they did not like
frozen fish. The frozen fish brought a lower
Challenge A case study (Contd)
So fishing companies installed fish tanks. They
would catch the fish and stuff them in the tanks,
fin to fin. After a little thrashing around, the
fish stopped moving. They were tired and dull,
but alive.   Unfortunately, the Japanese could
still taste the difference. Because the fish did
not move for days, they lost their fresh-fish
taste. The Japanese preferred the lively taste of
fresh fish, not sluggish fish. So how did
Japanese fishing companies solve this problem?
How do they get fresh-tasting fish to Japan?
  If you were consulting the fish industry, what
would you recommend?
Challenge A case study (Contd)
For the Japanese fish problem, the best solution
is simple. It was observed by L.Ron Hubbard in
the early 1950's.   "Man thrives, oddly enough,
only in the presence of a challenging
environment. The Benefits of a Challenge - The
more intelligent, persistent and competent you
are, the more you enjoy a good problem. So now
How did the Japanese Fish Stay Fresh? To keep
the fish tasting fresh, the Japanese fishing
companies still put the fish in the tanks. But
now they add a small shark to each tank. The
shark eats a few fish, but most of the fish
arrive in a very lively stateThe fish are
challenged. Recommendations Don't create
success and lie in it. Do not thrive on past
glory. You have resources, skills and abilities
to make a difference. Put a shark in your tank
and see how far you can really go!
A winner is not one who never fails, but one who
When Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone
in 1876, it did not ring off the hook with calls
from potential backers. After making a
demonstration call, President Rutherford Hayes
said, "That's an amazing invention, but who would
ever want to see one of them?"
When Thomas Edison invented the light
bulb, he tried over 2000 experiments before he
got it to work. A young reporter asked him how it
felt to fail so many times. He said, "I never
failed once. I invented the light bulb. It just
happened to be a 2000-step process."
A school teacher scolded a boy for
not paying attention to his mathematics and for
not being able to solve simple problems. She told
him that you would not become anybody in life.
The boy went on to become Albert
Man making education
  • The aim of education is not the acquisition of
    information, although important, or acquisition
    of technical skills, though essential in modern
    society, but the development of that bent of
    mind, that attitude of reason, that spirit of
    democracy which will make us responsible
    citizens." The goal is commitment to knowledge
    and advancement of learning.
  • Not only acquiring skills (Taxi driver)
  • Man Spiritual entity Physical body
  • Able to fly or swim does not constitute essence
    of man
  • ? Body, mind and spirituality

A Teacher is one who is genuinely concerned and
loving towards students, but will worry you
like your mom bugging you at home.
Good Luck
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