Classroom Research: Implementing the Scholarship of Teaching by K. Patricia Cross and Mimi Harris St - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 35
About This Presentation

Classroom Research: Implementing the Scholarship of Teaching by K. Patricia Cross and Mimi Harris St


Susan Rogers. Lecturer, English and Foreign Languages Department. Bibliographic Citation ... Mimi Harris Steadman is a research specialist at the National Center for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:307
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 36
Provided by: SusanR54


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Classroom Research: Implementing the Scholarship of Teaching by K. Patricia Cross and Mimi Harris St

Classroom Research Implementing the Scholarship
of Teachingby K. Patricia Cross and Mimi Harris
  • Reviewed by
  • Susan Rogers
  • Lecturer, English and Foreign Languages Department

Bibliographic Citation
  • Publisher
  • San Francisco Jossey-Bass, 1996
  • ISBN
  • 0-7879-0288-8
  • A COLT Class Project
  • WebCT 800
  • August, 2002

Introduction to Authors
  • K. Patricia Cross
  • David Pierpoint Gardner Professor of Higher
    Education at the University of California,
    Berkeley. Author of eight books and over one
    hundred and fifty articles and chapters.
    Co-Author (with T.A.Angelo) of Classroom
    Assessment Techniques A Handbook for
  • Mimi Harris Steadman is a research specialist at
    the National Center for Research in Vocational
    Education at the University of California,

Organization of Contents
  • Classroom Research Implementing the Scholarship
    of Teaching, is divided into two major parts.
  • The first part of the book concerns the extended
    definition of the terms Scholarship of Teaching,
    Classroom Assessment, and Classroom Research.

  • The second part of the book is devoted to four
    Case Studies, demonstrating how one would conduct
    a Scholarship of Teaching project. The case
    studies include
  • Case study written by Jerry Evensky, Associate
    Professor of Economics at Syracuse University.
  • Leslie is a student in an economics class, who is
    considering dropping the class as she does not
    understand the material.

  • The next case is written by Priscilla Laws,
    professor of physics at Dickinson college.
  • In a physics laboratory, a required course for
    premeds, this study concerns the lack of interest
    in physics exhibited by the premed students.

  • The third case study is presented by Pat
    Hutchings, director of the Teaching Initiative at
    the American Association for Higher Education.
    The setting for this case is a history classroom
    at a city college, wherein
  • Teachers record what they are trying to
    accomplish in the classroom, and
  • Observations are recorded of students reactions
    to the teachers efforts

  • The last case study was written by the authors as
    a learning challenge to the readers of this book.
    The reader is asked to identify the learning
    issues in the case, and to integrate their
    experiences as teachers and readers to become
    active participants in the activities suggested
    in this book.

My Goals
  • For the purposes of this book review, I will
    focus on the first part of Cross and Steadmans
    book, and outline the definitions of the terms
    Scholarship of Teaching, Classroom Assessment,
    Classroom Research. I leave the case studies for
    another time, another presentation!

What is Scholarship of Teaching?
  • According to the Carnegie report, Scholarship
    Reconsidered (Boyer, 1990),
  • Good Teachers
  • stimulate active learning
  • Encourage students to be critical, creative
  • Are also learners
  • Will be pushed in creative new directions through
    reading, classroom discussion and questions posed
    by students

Cross and Steadman advocate the use of the term
Classroom Research
  • Teachers implement the Scholarship of Teaching
    when they
  • Use their classrooms as laboratories for the
    study of teaching and learning
  • Observing students in the act of learning
  • Discussing observations and data with colleagues
  • Reading what is already known about learning

Characteristics of Classroom Research
  • Learner-Centered
  • Learner responses to teaching
  • Teaching becomes more effective
  • Students assess and improve their learning

  • Teacher-Directed
  • Teachers as active investigators
  • Engaged in studies of learning in their discipline

  • Collaborative
  • Active engagement of students and teachers
  • Students are partners in the research
  • Students share in analysis and interpretation of
  • Discussion and collaboration with teaching

  • Context-Specific
  • Research conducted for a specific classroom
  • Research conducted for a particular discipline
  • Technical research skills not required

  • Scholarly
  • Builds upon current knowledge base of research on
    teaching and learning
  • Requires
  • Identification of a researchable question
  • Appropriate research design
  • Considerations of the implication of the research
    for practice

  • Practical and Relevant
  • Questions teacher faces in teaching the class
  • Research deepens personal understandings
  • Contribution to the knowledge and practice of the

  • Continual
  • Classroom Research is ongoing
  • New projects continually emerge from past
  • Process of continual evaluation and modification
  • Process rather than product

Classroom Research can be a useful adjunct to
  • The application of educational research to
  • Faculty development
  • Assessment of student learning
  • The Carnegie proposals to broaden the definition
    of scholarship

In what ways ? Classroom Research
  • Assists teachers to
  • Assess quality of learning in the classroom
  • Provide assessment to students as well as teacher
  • To conduct investigations into the nature of
  • Aids in research and development
  • Recognizing and improving teaching and learning

Relationship of Classroom Assessment to Classroom
  • Classroom Assessment
  • Limited scope
  • Addresses what questions
  • What did students learn from the discussion?
  • Classroom Research
  • Concerned with why questions
  • Why did students respond as they did?

Relationship of Classroom Research to Traditional
Educational Research
  • Share common goals
  • Improving education through the systematic study
    of teaching and learning
  • Diverges in dependence of scientific method as
    the only or most valid approach to knowledge
  • Experience and insights of teachers are just as
    important as the scientific objectivity of
    external researchers seeking generalized
    knowledge about learning

  • The classroom researcher
  • Desires relevance over rigor
  • Uses
  • Careful observation
  • Interviews with students
  • Understanding of classroom environment
  • Qualitative, quantitative, or performance
  • Invents own methods of data collection

Applying Classroom Research to the Seven
Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate
Education (Chickering and Gamson,1991)
  • Good Practice Encourages Student-Faculty Contact
  • Teachers learn how to teach effectively when they
  • Learn to know students
  • Monitor student progress in learning

  • Good Practice Encourages Cooperation Among
    Students-- and Colleagues
  • Classroom Research is a highly social activity
  • Faculty share experiences
  • Faculty learn from one another

  • Good Practice Encourages Active Learning
  • Classroom Research requires active involvement in
    learning about teaching
  • Teachers
  • Raise own questions about their teaching
  • Devise appropriate ways to investigate those
  • Self-initiated inquiry most effective for

  • Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback
  • Major function of Classroom Research
  • Feedback about students learning
  • Monitors student learning throughout entire
  • Allows students and teachers to take
    self-corrective action throughout class session

  • Good Practice Communicates High Expectations
  • Assumption is made that both students and
  • Take the business of education seriously
  • Want performance feedback
  • Will work on improvement

  • Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways
    of Learning -- and Teaching
  • Assessment and research methods are highly
    diverse and flexible
  • Teachers can use CATs (Angelo and Cross, 1993)
  • Teachers can devise own methods of assessment

In Conclusion
  • A wonderful opportunity awaits us as we struggle
    to develop our own online classes
  • We should embrace the opportunity to become
    classroom researchers
  • The research we do within our online classrooms
    can (and should) be published

When planning a classroom research project, Cross
and Steadman suggest the following
  • Formulate a question about the learning of
    students in your class that is important to you
    in your teaching
  • Keep your question simple, realistic, and focused
    on your own experience. Follow your hunches
    predict what might happen
  • Inform yourself about what is known about the
    learning issue you have selected. Read with
    focus-not necessarily exhaustively. Form a study
    group to share the load

  • Reformulate your question into a researchable
    question. What do you want to know?
  • Work with other faculty to discuss, design,
    cooperate on, and interpret your Classroom
    Research projects
  • Think through how students will benefit how they
    can be included in the research what issues are
    too sensitive for the student-teacher relationship

  • Decide how you will investigate your question.
    (Avoid the temptation to use an instrument
    because it is there or to collect data that have
    no clear purpose.)
  • Conduct a pilot study, with yourself and
    colleagues as respondents
  • Estimate the time needed for student response and
    for analysis of the data

  • Even if you have no plans to publish, write up
    your results to clarify for yourself what you
    have learned - about doing research, about
    learning, about your teaching.(226)

On That Note
  • Carol Holder has established an office of
    Scholarship of Teaching Projects for CLASS on our
  • Even though Carol will be spending 2002-03 as
    Director of Faculty Development for CSU Channel
    Islands, she has graciously allowed us access to
    her web-site, which contains innumerable items of
    interest to those interested in conducting
    classroom research
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)