Using the Classroom Observation Instrument for Educational Environments Serving Students with Deaf-Blindness in Order to Assist Low Incidence Classrooms - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Using the Classroom Observation Instrument for Educational Environments Serving Students with Deaf-Blindness in Order to Assist Low Incidence Classrooms

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Title: Using the Classroom Observation Instrument for Educational Environments Serving Students with Deaf-Blindness in Order to Assist Low Incidence Classrooms


1
Using the Classroom Observation Instrument for
Educational Environments Serving Students with
Deaf-Blindness in Order to Assist Low Incidence
Classrooms
  • Ella Taylor, Kat Stremel, Nancy Steele
  • National Technical Assistance Consortium for
    Children and Youth who are Deaf-Blind (NTAC)
  • Teaching Research Institute
  • Western Oregon University

2
Setting the Stage Need
  • Too many children with deaf-blindness and other
    complex impairments are often placed in
    classrooms that demonstrate a collaborative
    process of day care
  • Lack of a comprehensive framework that outlined
    critical quality services and effective practices
    in a user-friendly format
  • Lack of tools to identify Model Classrooms for
    Technical Assistance

3
Uses for Instrument
  • Determination of a potential Model Classroom
  • Determination of potential Practicum sites for
    Personnel Preparation projects
  • Determination of additional Technical Assistance
    needs to bring a classroom to model status
  • Determination of additional TA needs

4
Alignment with Standards
  • Review of CECs Knowledge and Skill Base for All
    Beginning Special Education Teachers of Students
    in
  • Individualized General Curriculums
  • Individualized Independence Curriculums
  • Review of Competencies for Teachers of Learners
    who are Deaf-Blind
  • Review of the Rhode Island Services to Students
    with Dual Sensory Impairments Instrument

5
Alignment Interview
Deaf-Blind Individualized General Curriculum Individualized Independence Curriculum
Deaf-Blindness Foundations Foundations
Personal Identity, Relationships Self-Esteem (PIRSE) Developmental Characteristics Developmental Characteristics
Hearing-Vision Individual Learning Differences Individual Learning Differences
Environment Materials Instructional Planning Instructional Planning
Professional Ethical Practice Professional Ethical Practice
6
Alignment Observation
Instrument Deaf-Blind CEC IGC, IIC
Curriculum Concept Development Communication O M Instructional Strategies (IS), Learning Environments (LE) Social Interactions (SI), Instructional Planning (IP), Collaboration
Data-based Assessment Communication Embedded throughout IS, LE SI, IP, Assessment
Preservation of Dignity PIRSE LE SI, Collaboration
Communication PIRSE, Concept Develop-ment, Communication, Environment Materials Individual Learning Differences, IS, LE SI, Communication
Social PIRSE LE SI
Assistive Technology Comm., H-V, O M, Environment Materials IS, LE SI, Comm., Collaboration
7
Design Phase
  • Items adapted from the three reviewed documents
  • Focus groups
  • Stakeholders rank order items
  • Parents provide input on relative importance of
    items/sections
  • Teachers provide input on format
  • Field testing across multiple classrooms

8
Re-design
  • Identified the most critical elements that could
    be observed
  • Curriculum
  • Data-based assessment
  • Preservation of dignity
  • Communication
  • Social
  • Assistive Technology
  • Development of teacher interview section
  • Refinement of the rubric
  • Achieved, Nearly achieved, Making progress,
    Non-existent, Not applicable

9
Research Phase 2
  • Field testing of the instrument in classroom
    observation with interviews
  • Interview provides the context for the
    observation
  • Interview helps focus everyone
  • Rubric options are more discriminating
  • Protocol is understandable

10
Outside Consultant Review
  • The instrument has value for students beyond a
    strict eligibility of deaf-blind. Students who
    have multiple disabilities and are severely
    sensory impaired would benefit from this
    observational overview. All reviewers urged a
    broader marketing and I suggest that you
    disseminate to programs that serve more than
    students who are deaf-blind.

11
Validation Phase
  • Content validity -- achieved
  • Construct validity
  • Concurrent validity
  • Identify exemplary classrooms and determine if
    the observation instrument aligns with the
    characteristics within the classroom
  • Reliability

12
Identification of Classrooms
  • Requested nominations from directors of state
    deaf-blind projects
  • From the nominations, eight classrooms were
    selected
  • Seven interviews and observations were conducted
    (one dropped out)

13
Findings
  • Teacher interview is critical
  • Review of IEP by observer is not critical
  • Clear alignment in
  • Curriculum
  • Preservation of Dignity
  • Communication
  • Social
  • Assistive Technology
  • Not so clear alignment in
  • Data-based assessment

14
Validation Phase
  • Content validity -- achieved
  • Construct validity -- achieved
  • Concurrent validity
  • Reliability
  • Inter-rater reliability of 0.95

15
Review of the Instrument
  • Teacher Interview
  • Context of the classroom ( of students, or
    assistants, type of classroom, information about
    students)
  • Teachers main goals for student(s)
  • Family involvement
  • Family communication about students needs

16
Review of the Instrument
  • Students areas of strengths and weaknesses
  • How these are used in planning for instruction?
  • Inclusion in general education curriculum
  • Interaction with peers

17
Review of the Instrument
  • IEP Review (usually conducted through teacher
    interview)
  • IEP goals
  • Educational assessments (cognitive, adaptive,
    sensory and motor)
  • How used for planning instruction?
  • Students vision and hearing
  • Curricular and instructional modifications for
    functional vision and hearing

18
Curriculum
  • 8 items
  • Daily schedule
  • Engagement in learning
  • Varied activities
  • O M
  • Classroom management
  • IEP goals addressed
  • Varied participation

19
Data-Based Assessment
  • 2 items
  • Students instructional program demonstrates
    ongoing use of a data system that measures
    student progress on IEP objectives. Data are
    collected on a regular and consistent basis.
  • Data are reviewed frequently to make programmatic
    and instructional changes to meet the students
    needs.

20
Preservation of Dignity
  • 4 items
  • Age-appropriate and respectful
  • Care-giving and personal mgmt routines
  • Self-determination and choice making
  • Frequent opportunities for engagement

21
Communication
  • 8 items
  • Receptive communication cues
  • Receptive communication
  • Access to communication
  • Communication functions
  • Expressive communication
  • Response time
  • Behavior
  • Communication partners

22
Social
  • 3 items
  • Social skills
  • General education curriculum
  • Peer interaction

23
Assistive Technology
  • Description of AT available and AT used
  • AT used for vision, hearing, communication,
    behavior, daily life skills
  • AT aligns with students IEP
  • AT incorporated into students educational
    program as appropriate

24
Overall Impressions
  • What were areas of strength within this
    classroom?
  • What areas need improvement within this
    classroom?
  • What were your overall impressions of this
    classroom for serving the needs of students who
    are deaf-blind?

25
Scoring
  • Each section is equally weighted
  • Item score is based on rubric scale
  • Section score is total points for section divided
    by total items
  • Do not count items with non-applicable

26
Case study
  • South Carolina
  • Staff had varying levels of expertise in
    deaf-blindness (TVI, THI, SLP, O M, EI)
  • Needed a simple tool for identification of TA
    needs within a variety of classrooms
  • Needed clear and concise way to provide
    recommendations to classroom teachers
  • Classroom teachers needed to know what the
    targets were
  • Implemented for one year with success

27
Next Steps
  • Potential revision for transition age and early
    childhood
  • Volunteers for field testing transition
  • Volunteers for field testing early childhood
    (home-based)
  • Volunteers for field testing early childhood
    (educational setting)
  • Using COI to collect data about classrooms
    serving students with deafblindness
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