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FRESHWATER FISH PRODUCTION IN PORTABLE CANVAS TANKS

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Title: FRESHWATER FISH PRODUCTION IN PORTABLE CANVAS TANKS


1
(No Transcript)
2
INTERACTION AND EVALUATION IN DISTANCE
EDUCATION  
  • Rozhan Mohammed Idrus
  • Hanafi Atan
  • School of Distance Education
  • Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • 11800 USM, Penang, MALAYSIA
  • E-mail rozhan_at_usm.my, rozhanidrus_at_yahoo.com
  • ahanafi_at_usm.my, hanafiatan_at_hotmail.com

3
Technological advancement
  • Each major transition in communication media,
    from speech to print to video to electronic
    forms has resulted in changes in our means to
    create, record, store, distribute, access and
    retrieve information
  • Communication transformation upon a
    technological breakthrough in education
    teacher/student interaction and evaluation of
    class work.
  • Doing something not thought possible not just
    doing old things better
  • Technology - just a tool, enabler, enhancer..
  • The tools have change, the job hasnt

4
Transformation?
5
New Learning Environment1
  • Information Communication Technologies (ICT)
  • One great implication of the paradigmatic shift
    for distance learning is a recommitment to
    creating an ideal environment for learning,
    employing both traditional and new technologies
    to address variances from that environment.

6
The tools have change..
7
Information Communication Technologies
  • Satellite Immediacy and international access
  • Cable ISDN Networks cost effective way of
    reaching one another globally
  • Computer mediated activities convergence of
    all forms of communication/instructional
    delivery
  • Printed materials hardcopy with integration
    of technology
  • Wireless application free from physical links

8
New Learning Environment2
  • Nature of Interaction
  • We must now realise that with the diminishing
    boundary for education as well as the forces of
    globalisation have blurred the distinction
    between different types of students such as
    part-time or full-time, internal or external and
    the young and the adult learner.

9
Home learning, anyone?
10
Learning environment.. anytime, anywhere..
11
Learning environment..
12
Learning environment..
13
New Learning Environment3
  • Flexibility to Learning
  • The diversity of cognitive levels will call for a
    high degree of flexibility to facilitate for
    distance learning.
  • Flexible access to courses
  • Flexible content
  • Flexible participation
  • Flexible teaching and learning resources and
  • Flexible assessment and ongoing evaluation

14
Learning environment..
15
New Learning Environment4
  • 4. Learner Support (24-7 Learning Facilitation
    System)
  • The provision of contact between students and
    human support - face-to-face, electronic
    communications
  • The provision of feedback regarding learners
    progress and learning synchronous or
    asynchronous
  • The provision of supplementary learning materials
    The facilitation of contact between students and
  • The provision and access to support structures
    such as library, study area, educational media
    and network.

16
INTERACTION....
17
Deconstruction of Traditional Pedagogy
  •  
  • CLASSROOM ACTIVITY
    Instruction -gt Construction

  • Teacher-Centred -gt
    Student-Centred

  • Didactive .-gt
    Interactive
  • TEACHER ROLE
    Expert -gt Facilitator
  •  
  • STUDENT ROLE
    Passive Listener . -gt Active
    Collaborator
  •  
  • INSTRUCTIONAL EMPHASIS Facts Rote
    Learning .-gt Critical Thinking
  •  
  • KNOWLEDGE
    Accumulation .-gt Transformation

  • Retention of Facts
    of Facts/ Ideas
  •  
  • DEMONSTRATION OF SUCCESS Retention
    ..-gt Assimilation Quality

  • Quality
  •  
  • ASSESSMENT
    Norm Referred -gt Criterion Referred
  •  

18
New Learning Environment5
  • Internet-Based Education
  • Use of the Internet for the delivery of designed,
    structured learning experience
  • WWW provides alternative means of delivering
    course and services with an EXTRAORDINARY range
    of options.

19
ICT-based pedagogy
  • One-alone technique.
  • One-to-one.
  • One-to many.
  • Many-to-many.

20
Pedagogical Model
  • Key Principles
  • Learning situations should be designed for
    flexibility and adaptability
  • Learning situations should involve not only
    acquisition of skills and concepts but also
    opportunities to participate in and contribute to
    a learning community.
  • (Collis, B. Moonen, J. (2001).
  • Flexible learning in a digital worldExperiences
    and challenges,
  • Kogan Page, UK)
  • The primary goal of education at all levels
    should be to engage students in meaningful
    learning which is defined as active,
    constructive, intentional, authentic and
    co-operative.
  • (Jonassen, D.H., Peck, K.L. Wilson, B.G.
    (1999).
  • Learning with technology A constructivist
    perspective,
  • Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ)

21
Learner Control
  •  
  • Degree to which learner can direct his/her own
    learning experience
  • DTW individuals control the path,pace and/or
    contogenciesof instruction
  • Type of learning on the network that allows
    students to control depth of study, range of
    content, number and types of delivery media, and
    time spent learning - Tailor specifically -
    Learning to specific needs.
  • Doherty, P.B. (1998) Learner Control in
    Asynchronous Learning Environment,
  • Asyn Learning Networkk Magazine 2 (2)
    h/w.aln.org/alweb/magazine

22
The Learning Experience
  • To experience a wondeful teachers pedagogy
  • is to be inside his/her mind.
  • Kathleen Gilroy
  • http//www.destinationcrm.com/dcrm_ni_article_prin
    t.asp?id432artmag
  • PEDAGOGY CONTENT COMMUNITY
  • VALUED LEARNING EXPERIENCE

23
e- for.learning?
  • The learning experience now afforded to the
    learners in the digital era now can never be
    matched in the confines of the four walls, should
    now present, and be organized in a manner to
    promote
  • Exploration
  • Experience
  • Engagement
  • Empowerment
  • Effectiveness
  • Ease of use
  • Oblinger, D.G., Barone, C.A. Hawkins, B.L.
    (2001).
  • Distributed Education And Its Challenges An
    Overview.
  • American Council On Education/EDUCAUSE,
    Washington D.C., p. 2.

24
Delivery Technologies in DE Models
  • First Generation The Correspondence Model
  • (Print)
  • Second Generation The Multi-Media Model
  • Third Generation The Telelearning Model
  • Fourth Generation The Flexible Learning
    Model

25
Open University Malaysia (OUM)
  • Presently, electronic learning makes up about
    20 of course offerings delivered via diatence
    learning
  • Besides connecting via lease telephone lines, OUM
    has also opted for microwave lines to address the
    increasing number of student users quickly.
  • In addition to e-learning, OUM is pursuing the
    idea of mobile learning (M-learning) as students
    have access to handphones rather than computers
  • (Computimes, New Straits Times, Malaysia, August
    19, 2002, p. 4)

26
Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNITAR)
  • Own software-VOISS Virtual Online Instruction
    Support System) for interfacing with students,
    instructors and administrators of online courses
  • UNITAR- web-based courses employ maninly
    text-based, enhanced by some illustrations and
    graphics.
  • Students accesss from home or office
  • Supplemented by f2f
  • Task dome in gropus

27
Pew Internet and American Life Project
  • (Washington) (2,054 students in 27 Schools in
    the USA)
  • Nearly 75 of college students say they use the
    Internet more than they use the library to look
    for information 9 said they used the library
    more
  • 72 check their e-mail at least once a day.
  • College students have so integrated the Internet
    into their lives its something that goes
    unnoticed and taken for granted. They dont think
    about using it, just like they dont think about
    using the TV and the telephone
  • Steve Jones, Prof. Head of the Department of
    Communiocation,
  • University of Illinois-Chicago, USA
  • (Computimes, New Straits Times, Malaysia,
    September 19, 2002, p. 24)

28
Fifth Generation The Flexible Learning
Model - 1
  • Automating e-Learning
  • Through the development and implementation of an
    automated courseware production systems,
    automated pedagogical advice systems, and
    automated business systems, the fifth generation
    of distance education has the potential to
    deliver a quantum leap in economies of scale and
    associated cost-effectiveness.
  • The system will provide an essential source of
    e-information in conjunction with an e-content
    management system. The latter system enables
    cross-media publishing from a single document
    source. This means that USQ is able to make
    courseware available to students in a variety of
    delivery modes (print, online, CD, DVD, etc.)
    from a single document source.

29
Fifth Generation The Flexible Learning
Model - 2
  • The fifth generation Intelligent Flexible
    Learning Model has the potential to deliver major
    economies of scale in managing teaching and
    academic support through the exploitation of
    automated response systems.
  • USQ have developed prototypes of what we refer to
    as intelligent object databases, which can be
    searched by pre-specified key words.
  • Using structured, intelligent databases, the
    knowledge generated by solving student
    problems/enquiries is being progressively stored
    and made available so that, wherever possible,
    students with equivalent or similar problems can
    have their enquiries dealt with immediately
    through the self-help, automated response
    capacity of the USQAssist system, thereby
    facilitating effective first point of contact
    resolution.

30
Learning Environment..
  • A buffet of strategies is presented that will
    cater to the various needs and preferences of the
    learner. As an example, this paper highlights a
    buffet format as experimented upon by the Ohio
    State University (OSU, 2001), i.e.,
  • lectures,
  • individual discovery laboratories (in-class and
    Web-based),
  • team/group discovery laboratories,
  • individual and group review (both live and
    remote),
  • small group study sessions,
  • videos,
  • remedial/pre-requisite/procedures training
    modules,
  • contacts for study groups,
  • oral and written presentations, active
    large-group
  • problem-solving,
  • homework assignments (TA graded or self-graded),
    and
  • individual and group projects
  • OSU (2001). http//www.center.rpi.edu/PewGrant/RD3
    20Award/Ohioab.html

31
Reality?
  • Kearsley (1998) also pointed out that the promise
    of providing individualized instruction via
    computers has been met in only the most trivial
    ways and that thousands of drill and practice
    tutorial programmes have been developed and used
    in schools with very little impact. Too much
    instruction is judged by the glitz, glitter, or
    game-like interaction that too often is
    irrelevant to the effectiveness of the
    instruction.

32
Web-based research
  • Short-Term Research Grant
  • Web-based distance education
  • Problem-based learning
  • Constructivistic learning
  • http//161.142.12.132/szbg_3/
  • http//161.142.12.132/mab_3/

33
Association Test
  • Humans can recall some words from the word or
    the something that acts as the stimulus one
  • It can be considered that these response words
    are produced from knowledge, experience, image
    for the stimulus word, strategy and tactics for
    problem solving on the stimulus word - this is
    called the schema
  • By cognitive psychology, the learning is defined
    that the schema of the learner changes and on
    this basis, the content of schema appears out of
    human by association.
  • How schema of learner change in pre- and
    post-class work apply this in the e-learning
    scenario
  • Collaboration with the Faculty of Education,
    Nagasaki University,
  • Workshop in Distance Education, 25th January
    2003, Nagasaki, Japan

34
In emergency
35
  • Shukran
  • Xie-Xie
  • Thank You
  • Terima Kasih
  • Doomo Arigato Guzaimase
  • Merci. And so on

36
(No Transcript)
37
Learning Behaviourism
38
Gagne Instructional Events
  • gt Motivate Learner
  • gt Inform learner of objective(s)
  • gt Direct attention
  • gt Stimulate recall of prerequisite materials
  • gt Provide guidance for learning
  • gt Enhance retention
  • gt Elicit performance
  • gt Assess performance provide feedback
  • gt Promote transfer of learning
  • Convert to electronic asynchronous
  • learning environment
  •  

39
One-alone techniques
  • Online Resource Paradigm
  • On line data
  • Journals
  • Software libraries
  • Online interest groups

40
One-to-many techniques
  • Bulletin Paradigm
  • Lectures
  • Symposiums

41
One-to-one techniques
  • E-mail Paradigm
  • Counseling sessions
  • Learning contracts
  • Correspondence studies
  • Internship

42
Many-to-many techniques
  • Conference Paradigm
  • Debates
  • Case studies
  • Discussion
  • Brainstorming
  • Project group

43
Second Generation The Multi-Media Model
  • Print
  • Audiotape
  • Videotape
  • Computer-based Learning
  • Interactive Video

44
Models of Distance Education
  • Distributed Classroom
  • Independent Learning
  • Open Learning Class

Characteristics
Technologies in class
Technologies out of class
Interaction
45
Third Generation The Telelearning Model
  • Audioteleconferencing
  • Videoconferencing
  • Audiographic Communication
  • Broadcast TV/Radio
  • Audioteleconferencing

46
Fourth Generation The Flexible
Learning Model
  • Interactive multimedia (IMM)
  • Internet-based computer mediated
  • Communication (CMC)
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