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Fish Diseases

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... Integrated health management ... check for pathogen Remove dead fish from system Dispose dead fish properly Good sanitation ... Improved production, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fish Diseases


1
PRINCIPLES OF AQUACULTURE(AKU3201)
  • Fish Diseases

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Factors affecting fish health
  • Host Environment
  • - Stocking density - Poor sanitation
  • Handling - Changes in pH, salinity
  • - Transport temperature etc.
  • Chemotherapy
  • Nutrition
  • Behaviour
  • Disease agent
  • Pathogen/ non-pathogen
  • Opportunistic pathogen

Disease agent
Disease
Env
Host
5
1) Host susceptibility
  • Physical barrier (skin, scales, exoskeleton,
    shell, mucous membranes)

6
Behavioral Signs Failure to feed
properly Flashing (turning on their
sides) Rubbing on the bottom Gathering around the
water inflow Reduced vitality Gasping at the
surface
  • Physical Signs
  • Blistered areas
  • Swollen bellies
  • Popped-out eyes
  • Bloody (hemorrhaged) areas on fins
  • Discoloration or erosion of body parts
  • Excessive mucus
  • Growths on the body

7
  • Physiological defences
  • - Immune system, detoxification by liver
  • Nutritional well-being
  • Age (Young more susceptible)
  • Spawners stress due to their reproductive
    functions

8
Sick fish
  • Unusual behaviour
  • Scrap body to wall
  • Coming to surface, gulping for air
  • Erratic swim
  • Loss appetite
  • Physical changes

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Diseases
  • Exophthalmia (Pop-eye)

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  • Extended belly

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  • Haemorrhage

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2) Environment
  • Crucial role in disrupting the balance between
    host pathogen
  • Environmental stress gt pathogen host react
  • disease occur

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  • Stress
  • Anoxia absence of oxygen
  • Fright
  • Anaesthesia
  • Temperature changes
  • Injury
  • Pollution

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  • High stocking density
  • Restricted spaces cages/tanks, raceway
  • Large quantity of concentrated feeds/ fertilizer

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2) Environment
  • Do not exceed carrying capacity stocking
    density
  • Always monitor water quality
  • Maintain proper DO, pH, alkalinity, temperature
  • Check accumulation of organic debris, nitrogenous
    waste (ammonia, nitrite), hydrogen sulfide
  • Remove pond bottom sludge, dry lime

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  • Temperature changes fluctuation day night
  • Poikilothermic
  • Hatchery
  • Closed system
  • If temp. drops, used heater

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3) Disease agent
  • Potential pathogens always present in aquatic
    environment

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Disease agent
  • Parasites (cestodes, nematodes, trematodes
    protozoans)
  • Bacteria (vibriosis, edwardsiellosis,
    furunculosis)
  • Viruses (IPN, lymphocystis)
  • Fungi (saprolegniasis, branchimycosis)

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  • Common entry point
  • 1) Wound in skin
  • Bacteria/viral infections gt fungal infection
  • 2)Gills
  • Pathogen enter body through delicate thin
    epithelium
  • Protozoa establish themselves on them
  • 3) Digestive tract
  • Bacteria penetrate intestinal lining
  • Protozoa

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1) Parasites
  • Most common cause of fish mortalities
  • Especially in larvae fingerling stages
  • Multiply rapidly without intermediate host
  • Attach themselves to the host special organ
    such as suckers

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  • Penetrate host to multiply invade vital organs
  • Invade through ingestion, skin rupture,
    transgression of gill lamellae, penetration to
    the egg membrane

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Protozoan Ichthyopthirius multifiliis
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Copepod Argulus, Lernaea
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Isopod (Sea lice)
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Monogenean parasites
Dactylogyrus
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Gyrodactylus
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Nematode
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2) Bacterial disease
  • Vibriosis
  • - Vibrio harveyi

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  • Vibrio anguillarum
  • Vibrio alginolyticus

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Quorum sensing
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2) Bacterial quorum sensing
  • Monitor the environment alter
    behaviour

Quorum sensing (QS)
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2) Bacterial quorum sensing
  • Signal molecules

AHL
(Found in 70 different G- bacterial species)
Diseases controlled by QS
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  • Aeromonas
  • Aeromonas hydrophila
  • Aeromonas salmonicida

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Furunculosis
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  • Edwardsillosis
  • Edwardsiella tarda
  • Edwardsiella ictaluri

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  • How to identify bacterial isolates

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Cotton swab
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Biochemical test
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Molecular techniques
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Serology
  • ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)

Antigen Antibody Enzyme Sensitive method
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3) Viral disease
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN)

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Lymphocystis
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White spot
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4) Fungal disease
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Case study- Malaysia
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  • Mass mortality June- August

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Spread of disease between country
  • Import- export
  • Exotic disease
  • Stress during transport
  • Fish weak susceptible to disease
  • How to overcome
  • Discourage/ ban import of live fish
  • Quarantine sterilize the fish
  • Purchase from reliable source
  • Seed free from disease

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  • Spread of disease in pond/cages
  • Through water channel
  • Spread pond to pond
  • No barrier
  • Water current
  • Dead fish thrown into open waters
  • Other animals as carrier
  • Equipments

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Solution to fish disease
  • 1) Integrated health management
  • 2) Health inspection disease monitoring
  • 3) Disease treatment
  • 4) Sanitation
  • 5) Immunization
  • 6) Genetic resistance to disease
  • 7) Farm disinfection

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1) Integrated health management
  • Guidelines for prevention, control eradication
  • Correction of disease-causing disease
    spreading conditions
  • Adoption implementation of policies
    regulations by the state need cooperative effort

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2) Health inspection disease monitoring
  • Always monitor record health status, water
    quality etc. corrective measures can be taken
  • One trained person basic facilities to
    undertake regular health environmental
    monitoring
  • - if expensive then twice a year inspection

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3) Disease treatment
  • Chemotherapy temporary, effect on biofiter
  • Antibiotic resistant bacteria
  • Vaccines specific to certain fish

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4) Sanitation
  • Maintain good sanitation
  • Good culture practices
  • Monitor water supply ozonation, UV, chlorination
  • Egg disinfection

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  • Quarantine
  • particularly to prevent the introduction of
    communicable disease
  • - Facilities located away from farm
  • Need to disinfect all facilities chlorination

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5) Immunization
  • Mechanism of antibody production
  • Antibody specific immunoglobulin (modified
    protein) produced in response to reacts
    specifically with an antigen (foreign substance
    that stimulate the formation of antibodies)
  • Vaccines contains antigens that are generally
    attenuated or killed disease agents. When
    administered to a host, they stimulate the
    production of specific antibodies or non-specific
    resistance to that particular disease agent

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  • Vaccination
  • Immersion small fish
  • Spray-shower fish larger than 4g
  • Injection intra-peritoneal
  • Retain immunity 300 days

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6) Genetic resistance to disease
  • Disease resistant strains through genetic
    breeding
  • Select strains with disease resistant
  • High level of genetic diversity hybrid vigour

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7) Farm disinfection
  • Disease outbreak Farmer destroy stock
    disinfect rearing facilities
  • Easier fro small, well-controlled facilities
    e.g., hatcheries, tank, raceways.
  • Earthern pond difficult

77
Special care during transportation
  • During transportation
  • Minimize physical injury use smooth net
  • Avoid sharp edge tank
  • Stop feeding 12-24h to reduce metabolism
    excretion
  • Provide high oxygen level
  • Salt at 0.3-1 to minimize osmotic stress
  • Anesthesia if necessary
  • Put bag into Styrofoam box
  • Acclimatization- bag left floating for 30 minutes

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  • Quarantine new fish check for pathogen
  • Remove dead fish from system
  • Dispose dead fish properly
  • Good sanitation practices

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Ketapang leaves
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Improve water qualityo
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Biosecurity
  • Biosecurity Steps taken to keep disease from a
    farm to prevent the transmission of disease
    within an infected farm to neighboring farm.
  • Consideration on initial facility layout design
  • Breeder gt hatchery gt growout (need to ensure
    biosecurity measures)
  • Need to have SOP
  • Isolation, sanitation control
  • Closed system
  • Open system?

83
Biosecurity
  1. Reduce the risk of disease introductions
  2. Minimise the spread of diseases on-farm or to new
    areas
  3. Promote fish health
  4. Protect economic investment
  5. Protect human health

84
Biosecurity
  • Avoid the introduction of certain pathogens into
    an aquaculture facilities
  • Purchase from a producing selling certified
    specific pathogen-free (SPF) stock
  • SPF special stock of animals that are kept in
    specific pathogen free facilities under rigorious
    monitoring system
  • Problem Only few spp. of SPF e.g. shrimp
  • Shrimp have primitive immune system
  • No workable vaccine

85
  • d) Tilapia Pangasius no SPF but have vaccine
  • e) Vaccinated Pathogen Free seed-stock (VPF)
  • VPF Fish vaccinated when they are healthy
    before exposure to the nature
  • f) Have own in house broodstock/spawning
    facilities
  • g) Have a quarantine/ isolation facilities

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  • 2) Provide a pathogen- free water source
  • Mechanical filtration
  • Chemical treatment
  • UV filtration
  • Ozonation
  • Well- water
  • Biological treatment

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Drum-filter filtration of suspend solids in
closed system
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Protein skimmer remove dissolved organic matter
in water
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  • 3) Disease monitoring
  • Always monitor for clinical signs of disease
  • Regular scheduled health evaluation
  • Sampled for diagnostic health techniques
  • Treat if warranted

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  • 4) Disinfection
  • Strict adherence to cleaning disinfection
    techniques
  • Foot bath hand wash
  • Container with disinfectant for nets etc.
  • Separate equipments (nets, feed bucket)
  • Disinfect vehicles
  • E.g disinfectant Hypochlorite
  • Maintain good husbandry practices

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First chlorine, then thiosulphate to nuetralize
chlorine
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  • Good aquaculture practices (GAP)
  • Improved production, food safety assurance
    preservation of environments
  • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
  • Standard sanitation operating procedures (SSOP)

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SPLAM
  • Malaysian Aquaculture Farm Certification Scheme
  • Sijil Pensijilan Ladang Akuakultur Malaysia
    (SPLAM)
  • Encourage Good Aquaculture Practice emphasize
    implementation of HACCP
  • Aquaculture entrepreneurs need to fulfill
    requirements criteria set by DOF
  • Make application, undergo a review audit final
    approval
  • Valid for two years

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Objective SPLAM
  • Official recognition to aquaculture entrepreneurs
    who have practiced GAP environmental friendly
    concepts

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