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Human health costs of animals diseases

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The relationships of veterinary medicine to human health are multiple and the significant portion of the social costs animal diseases exact which manifest themselves directly and indirectly in human ill-health. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human health costs of animals diseases


1
Human Health Costs of Animal Diseases
2
Human health costs of animal diseases
  • These costs take a number of form, but by far the
    most important is protein-calories malnutrition
    (PCM)
  • Today from this clinical consequence of hunger
    and nutritional imbalance than from any other
    disease
  • WHO estimated among children 5 yrs or less there
    are 100 million w/ clinically moderate to severe
    PCM

3
Human health costs of animal diseases
What then is the magnitude of these total
effects?
4
SOCIALLY AND ECONOMICALLY DISRUPTIVE ANIMAL
DISEASES
5
Rinderpests Invasion of Africa
  • One result was greatest famine in recorded
    Ethiopian history.

A cow dying of rinderpest
6
Rinderpests Invasion of Africa
  • A chief in the agricultural region of Koa had
    lost 56 of his 57 plow oxen.
  • An Ethiopian wrote that because virtually all the
    draft oxen died, the farm lands of the country
    could not be plowed.
  • Between 1889 and 1890, prices of surviving cattle
    skyrocketed and grain prices increased 100 to 200
    times.

7
Rinderpests Invasion of Africa
  • Estimates are that the whole of Ethiopia lost
    one-third of its human population to sequellae of
    the rinderpest epidemic, suffering up to 80
    mortality.
  • Southern Africa, Cape Province infection
    continued to spread into 1.6 million cattle
    (almost 40) died of the disease.
  • Kenya an estimated 90 of buffalo population
    perished.

8
Rinderpests Invasion of Africa
  • To these almost inconceivable social costs in
    human suffering and death of the 1889-1896
    rinderpest pandemic in Africa must also be added
    the devastating effects it had upon the wildlife
    of the continent and how this affected the
    African economy as well as the health of its
    population.
  • Rinderpest which indirectly killed untold numbers
    of people and causes millions of others to suffer
    grave consequences of PCM.

9
Rinderpests Invasion of Africa
Rinderpests most serious depredation
Animal pathogens need not infect people directly
in order to precipitate untold human suffering
and death
Their effect upon human health are multiple ones
often reflecting far more complex problems than
result from losses of meat or milk alone
10
Rinderpests Earlier Tolls in Europe
  • Between 1711 and 1714, rinderpest reportedly
    caused the deaths of about 1.5 million cattle in
    other affected area of Europe
  • Germanys losses to rinderpest during the 18th
    century were an estimated 30 million cattle
  • One-half million British cattle died
  • An economy in which cattle were not only the
    mainstays of agriculture, but were important
    human sources overall of rural transport and of
    power.

11
The current Threat of Rinderpest
  • Reported rinderpest deaths rapidly declined to
    about 5000 per year by 1960, 2500 by 1970 and
    1146 by 1978 (among a total of 2662 known cases)
    in cattle population of about 200 million.

12
Global Eradication of Rinderpest
  • Rinderpest (meaning cattle-plague) is a
    infectious viral disease of cattle, buffalo, yak
    and numerous wildlife species which has caused
    devastating effects throughout history.
  • In the 1890's rinderpest destroyed nearly 90
    percent of all cattle in sub-Saharan Africa and
    millions of wild animals.
  • Major rinderpest outbreaks last approximately 5
    years and result in average of 30 mortalities in
    a population. This poses a massive risk to
    millions of small-scale farmers and pastoralists.

13
Global Eradication of Rinderpest
  • Major outbreaks of rinderpest could destroy more
    than 70 million (or 14 million per year) of the
    220 million cattle in Africa, With an estimated
    value per head of US 120, the cost of such an
    outbreak would be more than 1 billion per year
    and a total of 5 billion for the whole outbreak
    (figures are based on the rinderpest epidemic of
    1979-1983 from FAO).
  • Therefore, eliminating rinderpest could be viewed
    as producing a net annual economic benefit to the
    African region of at least 1 billion.

14
Global Eradication of Rinderpest
  • Today, the world is nearly free from rinderpest
    since the only evidence for surviving disease is
    a small focus in the Somali pastoral ecosystem
    that encompasses north eastern Kenya, southern
    Somalia, and some areas of Ethiopia.
  • The goal of complete freedom from rinderpest from
    the world is within our grasp, and this would
    mark only the second example of a disease to be
    eradicated worldwide, after smallpox.

15
Other High-Mortality Animal Diseases
BOVINE PLEUROPNEUMONIA
  • The effects of four animal disease combined to
    generate sufficient political pressure upon the
    U.S government to establish an American federal
    veterinary service in 1883 then BAI of DA
  • Because of in 1843 Mr. Peter Dunn purchased a cow
    from the captain of the British then his herd
    became infected and spread through out dairy
    farms in NY city and Brooklyn.

16
Other High-Mortality Animal Diseases
BOVINE PLEUROPNEUMONIA
  • During the next 4 years, pleuropneumonia from his
    farm into the dairies of 20 Massachusetts then 2
    areas southward along southern seaboard and quite
    early It entered NJ from NY then Pennsylvania in
    1860, Delaware in 1861 and Maryland, DC and
    Virginia in 1868. In September 1886,
    pleuropneumonia was diagnosed again in diary herd
    through which cattle passed to every part of US.
  • The economic effects of this destructive disease
    was a drop of 10 /head (100,000 live beef
    cattle)annual loss to American industry of 1
    million

17
Other High-Mortality Animal Diseases
NEWCASTLE DISEASE
  • Was first UK 1926 then Korea 1929 then Africa
    1935 and US 1971
  • The total chicken population was then 9.9 million
    plus 160,000 domestic birds of other species (San
    Bernadino County500 flocks, 64 commercial, 394
    backyard chicken flocks)

18
Other High-Mortality Animal Diseases
NEWCASTLE DISEASE
  • January 28, 1972 , the infections progress then
    February 1972 and spread continued until the
    epidemic area include 6 countries with a total
    domestic bird population of 38.4 million
    distributed among 16,460 flocks
  • In 1973, at the cost of US 56 million including
    US 28 million in indemnities paid

19
Other High-Mortality Animal Diseases
NEWCASTLE DISEASE
  • Nearly 113 million doses of vaccine were used,
    110 dozen embryos were used per day for diagnosis
    and 22,548 visits to individual ranches were made
    by veterinary control personnel

20
Other High-Mortality Animal Diseases
AFRICAN HORSESICKNESS
  • In 1719, the horse population of 70,000 and
    killed about 40 of the horse in Cape Colony
  • By mid-1960, the virus had entered southern Iraq
    causing a loss there of about one-half of its
    equine population of 200,000
  • 3 million and over one-third died before the
    spread to Europe

21
Other High-Mortality Animal Diseases
AFRICAN HORSESICKNESS
  • The consequences in lost food production from
    this magnitude of losses of important transport
    and draft species could be estimated

22
Other High-Mortality Animal Diseases
AFRICAN SWINE FEVER
  • Recognized as a disease of domestic swine in
    Kenya in 1909

The overall cost to Spain of African swine fever
between 1957 and 1974 was estimated as US 600
million
The U.S DA estimates that were ASF to enter the
US, its costs for initial year in embargoed
exports, swine deaths, and control efforts would
exceed U.S. 1 billion.
Indirect costs of this mammoth epidemic,
estimated much US million, added to the
eventual depopulation efforts costs of another
much US million, produced a calamitous effect
on the community
23
Assessing a Dramatic Animal Diseases Costs
24
The idea of cost, or decrease in wealth was
associated intimately with death of their
livestock
Lost the animal diseases the key economic
mainstay of its delicate balance for survival
Death or illness of a single work animal may be a
tragedy for a family
25
Foot-and-Mouth Disease
  • They calculated FMD s most direct annual costs
    then still to be
  • (1) Beef cattle meat losses among 23 million
    head690,000 infected cattle w/ average WL of 50
    kg for cattle under 1 year of age, 75 kg for
    cattle 1-2 years of age, and 100 kg for cattle
    over 2 years of age at 52 peso /kgapprox. US
    15.37 million

26
FMD
  • (2) Milk and milk cow losses among 20 million
    head, 20 of which (4 million) were in
    production, of which 120,000 were infected losing
    an average 150L of milk each at 8 peso, plus 4
    of infected cows (4800 head) not going back into
    production, at 30,000 peso each minus 20,000 peso
    beef value (plus the further milk loss from the
    latter cows sold as beef)approx. 714,000

27
FMD
  • (3) cause-specific mortality loss of 0.0012 per
    year at 20,000 peso per animal approx. 350,000
  • (4) Recovery period losses on pasture of 600 peso
    for 1.5 million infected herd approx. 2.6
    million, for a total annual FMD loss in this
    midcontrol period of over 19 million

28
INSIDIOUS MULTICAUSAL DISEASE COMPLEXS
29
U.S
U.K
  • In Britain, the milk losses per cow with mastitis
    was estimated in 1953 at 5-10 with annual toll
    taken by this disease complex alone over 25
    million.
  • In 1980, the annual monetary costs calculated for
    proportions of reproductive and fatal neonatal
    diseases are
  • For beef cattle, 965 million
  • For dairy cattle, 440 million
  • For swine, 293 million
  • For sheep, 8.5 million
  • For poultry egg production, 132 million

30
ZOONOSES
31
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32
Brucellosis
  • India
  • 75 million of female cattle and buffaloes
    affected at any one time by brucellosis, and 1
    million of these to abort (loss of 1 million
    calves annually to brucellosis)
  • 500 million of India people75 live in villages,
    the contact between these human beings and their
    animals is maximum and this population has a
    greater exposure to zoonotic infections like
    brucellosis than has any other population group
  • US
  • Between 1942 and 1951 the milk loss from
    Brucellosis was almost 1 of population
  • In 1960, US brucellosis eradication program
    related food losses by US 62 million per year

33
India
  • It has been estimated that of the people in rural
    areas, 20 are suffering at any one time from
    fevers of various kinds
  • It may be pointed that brucellosis costs India at
    least Rs. 350 million annually in food, animals
    and man-days of labor.

34
Yellow fever
  • In an epidemic in the late 18th century, a viral
    infection of jungle monkeys, killed one-seventh
    of the human population of Philadelphia, US
  • In 1978, Africa and South Africa, yellow fever
    infected an estimated 8400 persons and caused
    1600 deaths

35
  • Rabies
  • Rift Valley fever
  • In European region between 1972 and 1976, over
    100 human rabies deaths per year
  • Americas, over 300 deaths annually
  • In parts of Asia and Africa, between 175,000 and
    200,000
  • In Egypt 1977, estimated 200,000 human infections
    occurred with 598 deaths and about 18,000 known
    clinical cases.

36
Rabies
  • In India, every year over 3 million people to
    take the vaccine injections that estimated
    account for 4 million labor day lost, which would
    amount to at least Rs. 126 million
  • U.S where such livestock losses to rabies are far
    less, only 360 cattle () each year but still
    exacts an enormous economic toll from community
    in tremendous of man-hours lost from work and
    frequently indirect costs.

37
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Veterinarians help prevent and alleviate human
health-related social costs and contribute to
mans better health
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