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Techniques and Risks involved when working with small animals

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Title: Techniques and Risks involved when working with small animals


1
Techniques and Risks involved when working with
small animals
2
Diseases that may be transmitted from animals are
zoonoses.
p. 111
3
Rabies A viral disease that affects the nervous
system and is contracted from bites and scratches
of infected animals such as dogs and cats.
4
More than 90 of reported cases of rabies were in
wild animals and not pets.
5
Common carriers of Rabies
  • More than 50 of all rabies cases in the United
    States involve Raccoons.
  • Skunks - 22.5
  • Foxes - 6.5
  • Insectivorous Bats - 10
  • Rabies is rarely found in smaller mammals such as
    rabbits, squirrels, rats, and opossums.
  • Domestic animals account for less than 10 of all
    cases in the United States.

6
Immunization is recommended if there is doubt
about whether the animal is infected with rabies.
7
Children 5 9 years of age are the main victims
of animal bites.
8
Most domestic animals are not likely to be
infected with rabies as long as they are
vaccinated on a regular basis.
9
Rabies vaccine
  • Dogs - 1st vaccine at 16 weeks (4 months)
  • Revaccinate every year (or 3 years)
  • Cats 1st vaccine at 16 weeks
  • Revaccinate every year

10
Workers protect themselves against rabies with
3 intradermal pre-exposure injections over a 3
week period and then 2 intramuscular injections
if they become exposed.
11
First-aid procedures for bites and scratches
include thoroughly washing the area with soap and
water and a tetanus shot if one has not been
received within the last 5 years.
12
Tetanus
  • Tetanus is a medical condition that is
    characterized by a prolonged contraction of
    skeletal muscle fibers
  • Infection generally occurs through wound
    contamination, and often involves a cut or deep
    puncture wound
  • As the infection progresses, muscle spasms in the
    jaw develop - stiffness spasms in other parts
    of the body
  • Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination.

13
Tetanus cases reported worldwide (1990-2004).
Ranging from strongly prevalent (in dark red) to
very few cases (in light yellow) (gray, no data).
Lamb suffering from tetanus
Patient suffering from tetanus - 1809
14
Toxoplasmosis disease produced by infection of
Toxoplasma gondii parasite and spread through
contaminated litter or cat feces.
15
Symptoms of the disease in humans may include
fever, headache, swollen lymph glands, cough,
sore throat, nasal congestion, loss of appetite,
and skin rash.
16
Does not show up as long as the human immune
system is working properly. Particularly of
concern for pregnant women, as it may result
in miscarriage, babies born prematurely or blind.
17
Wearing rubber, disposable gloves to daily clean
litter boxes Thoroughly wash hands after
cleaning litter box.
18
Ringworm is a fungal skin disease that shows up
as round, scaly, encrusted lesions on the skin
and a loss of hair where lesions occur.
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22
Spread by direct contact with lesions on infected
animals such as dogs, cats, guinea pigs, rats,
mice, and rabbits.
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24
Also spread indirectly through grooming equipment
and surfaces that have been contaminated by
infected animals.
25
Iodine soap or antifungal drugs may be used to
treat humans.
26
Psittacosis (parrot fever) is a disease
contracted by caged birds such as parrots,
budgerigars, and related birds.
27
Humans are infected through contact with feces or
fecal dust of contaminated birds.
28
Can diagnose in birds by a simple blood test.
29
Parrot fever can be prevented by eliminating lice
and mites by spraying disinfectants on the
feathers of birds.
30
Wearing a dusk mask, gloves or face shields when
cleaning cages is recommended.
31
Humans with parrot fever may endure coughing,
chest pains, fever, chills, weakness, vomiting,
and muscular pain.
32
Antibiotics are used to treat animals and humans.
33
  • Cat-scratch fever is a non-serious disease
    associated with cat bites and scratches that
    results in swelling and soreness around the bite
    or scratch.
  • caused by the intracellular parasite Bartonella

34
  • It is most commonly found in children 1-2 weeks
    following a cat scratch
  • May be treated with antibiotics
  • Affected area may be slow to heal
  • The disease usually resolves spontaneously, with
    or without treatment, within one month

35
Samonellosis is a disease that results from an
infection of Salmonella bacteria and may be
transmitted to humans and animals.
36
Children and elderly are most at risk.
Samonellosis causes inflammation of the
stomach and intestines
and results in abdominal pain, vomiting and
diarrhea that last for 4 to 7 days.
37
Pet turtles and reptiles are a common source of
infection in humans
38
Streptococcal bacteria results in sore throats,
especially in children, is transmitted by dogs
and may be treated with penicillin in both dogs
and humans.
39
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever causes coagulation
(blood forms solid clots) of the blood and
results in fever, headache, nausea, vomiting,
skin rash and death if not treated with proper
antibodies.
40
Caused by bite of American dog tick and six other
tick species. Control ticks in kennels and
surrounding areas and eliminate ticks from pets.
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1 male 2 Female
43
Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted bacterial
disease that results in a rash, distinctive skin
lesions, hives and flu-like symptoms such as
aching muscles, stiff neck, fatigue, fever,
chills, painful joints
44
Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal bacteria
that cause Lyme disease, seen at 400x
magnification.                                  
                                                  
     
45
Fatigue and muscle aches may last for several
months. Without treatment, the bacteria can
spread throughout the body and damage internal
organs.
46
Antibiotics (tetracycline or doxycycline) are
used to treat adults. Antibiotics-phenoxymehtyl
pencillin or amoxicillin is used for children. 2
vaccines have been developed as a preventative.
47
From left to right The deer tick (Ixodes
scapularis) adult female, adult male, nymph, and
larva on a centimeter scale.                    
                                                  
                                                  
                                 
48
Leptospirosis is a disease that humans contract
by water, food, or soil that has been
contaminated by urine from small animals.
49
Leptospirosis symptons in humans
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Muscle Ache
  • Vomiting
  • Rash
  • Abdominal Pain Diarrhea
  • Intense headache.
  • Meningitis
  • liver damage (causing jaundice)
  • renal failure

50
Parasites are organisms that live on or within a
host organism. Parasites gain their substance
from the host organism. Children are most at risk
because they play with dogs and cats and in the
area where animals have been.
PAGE 104
51
Ticks Page 104 7 species carry Rocky
Mountain Spotted Fever.
52
Daily personal hygiene is especially important
for those working with pets to remove small
larvae that may go undetected by visual
inspection.
53
  • Ascarids (roundworms) (Toxocara canis, T. cati)
    and Hookworms (Ancylostoma spp.) are common
    intestinal parasites of dogs and cats
  • May be passed on to humans causing fever,
    headache, cough and poor appetite.

54
Roundworms
  • Most commonly seen parasite in puppies

55
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56
HEAD PHOTO-ASCARID
57
MILKSPOTS ON LIVER
58
Children who play with dogs and cats are most at
risk. De-worming of cats and dogs is the most
effective prevention measure. Keep areas clean
from feces.
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60
  • Tapeworms (Echinococus species) are occasionally
    carried by dogs and cats. 10-15 cm long.
  • May cause AHD (Alveolar Hydatid Disease) which
    can be fatal.CYSTS
  • Get tapeworms from fleas.
  • - Flea eats tapeworm egg.
  • - Dog swallows flea (grooming)
  • - Tapeworm usually does not harm animal
    (exception high performance dogs)

61
Biology of the Tapeworm
  • The adult Dipylidium caninum lives in the small
    intestine of the dog or cat.
  • It hooks onto the intestinal wall
  • The tapeworm has six rows of teeth to grab on
    with.
  • The entire tapeworm is usually 6 inches or more.
  • The tapeworm absorbs nutrients through its skin
    as the food being digested by the host flows past
    it.
  • Segments that drop off are basically just a sac
    of tapeworm eggs.

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66
Tapeworm segments and flea dirt are found
together in Rovers dog bed
1.Tapeworm segment breaks, releasing eggs
2.Eggs are eaten by grazing flea larva
3. Flea larva pupates
67
Avoid hand-to-mouth potential transfer of eggs.
FLEA COMB
68
FECAL FLOAT page 84
Most veterinarians use to detect worm eggs in an
animals feces.
69
A small amount of stool (about ½ teaspoon) is
mixed with a special solution in a small plastic
vial, then a cover slip is placed on top of the
fluid. The solution is allowed to settle for
about 10-20 minutes, during which time any eggs
present in the sample will tend to concentrate on
the top layer of fluid. The cover slip, with
some of this top egg-containing layer adhering to
it, is carefully placed on a microscope slide
then examined under the microscope.
70
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71
FECAL FLOAT EGGS
Pin worm eggs
Whip worm egg
72
HOOKWORM EGGS
Roundworm egg
TAPEWORM EGGS
73
DEMONSTRATING SAFE WORK HABITS WHILE WORKING WITH
ANIMALS
PAGE 105
74
Guidelines for general safety
  • Wear protective clothing to suit the work
  • To prevent contamination, make sure all
    protective clothing is always STERILE
  • After completing a job using any chemical, always
    WASH your hands and face to remove any of the
    chemical residues

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76
  • Leather gloves help protect from bites and
    scratches
  • Coveralls and lab coats offer some additional
    protection from minor bites and scratches

77
  • 4. After completing the job utilizing chemicals,
    take a shower if required to remove any chemical
    residue
  • 5. The location of FIRST AID kits should be known
    by all workers and students, and one kept in each
    work area or instructional area.

78
  • 6. Each person who handles small animals should
    be instructed in the proper methods of handling
  • 7. When leaving a possible contaminated area be
    sure to remove all uniforms, lab coats, and
    coveralls.

79
  • 8. never wash lab coats protective clothing
    with your regular clothes.

80
  • 9. All chemicals and their container should be
    disposed of properly as instructed on their LABEL
  • 10. Label all containers correctly to prevent any
    MIXING of chemicals

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82
  • 11. All consumable food and drink should not be
    stored, eaten, or drank in an area where
    contamination could occur.
  • 12. Do not put hands near your mouth, nose or
    eyes when handling chemicals and animals to
    prevent any contamination.
  • 13. Keep hands clean at all times by washing
    frequently to prevent contamination to other
    species of animals or different areas.

83
Rubber unlined gloves, rubber boots, and face
shield or goggles with anti-fog lenses should be
worn when applying pesticide or handling chemicals
84
  • Respirators should be worn when there is a danger
    of inhaling toxic dust and other substances

85
  • Chemical safety when working with small animals
  • Use chemicals according to label instructions
  • Store chemicals in the original container when
    possible
  • Avoid over mixing and storing chemicals, but if
    chemicals must be stored, make certain they are
    in a locked location and clearly labeled!

86
  • Dispose of all chemicals and their containers
    according to label instructions
  • Frequently wash hands and exposed area after
    using chemicals

87
The Physical Examination
88
Physical Exam
  • 1. General Appearance
  • Awareness
  • Attitude
  • Body Condition
  • Movement
  • Lameness

89
  • 2. Vital Signs
  • Temperature
  • Pulse
  • Respiration
  • Capillary Refill Time
  • Color of mucous membrane
  • Hydration

90
  • 3. Cardiovascular System
  • Heart sounds rhythm
  • Pulses strength regularity
  • Swellings of extremities

91
  • 4. Respiratory System
  • Lungs airways
  • Respiratory difficulty
  • Open mouth breathing
  • Laboring
  • Coughing?

92
  • 5. Digestive System
  • Feces amount, color, odor, consistency
  • Abdominal palpation abnormal masses, pain
  • Rectal examination
  • Mouth examination normal teeth, foreign bodies

93
  • 6. Musculoskeletal System
  • Normal movement of head, neck and legs
  • Evidence of swelling
  • Symmetry between legs
  • 7. Nervous System
  • Awareness
  • Coordination
  • Eyes structure, reflexes
  • Cranial nerves reflexes

94
  • 8. Skin and Hair Coat
  • General Appearance
  • Hair loss
  • Sores
  • Rashes
  • 9. Mammary System
  • Swellings
  • Milk Characteristics

95
  • 10. Lymphatic System
  • Lymph nodes
  • Shape
  • Size
  • Pain
  • Symmetry
  • 11. Urinary System
  • Abdominal Palpation
  • External Structures
  • 12. Reproductive System
  • External Genitalia
  • Rectal Examination

96
RESTRAINT OF SMALL ANIMALS
  • Pages 101b, 102, 103

97
  • 4. Proper handling techniques for small animals
  • A) Learn proper and safe handling techniques to
    prevent injury to animal and you
  • B) Keep a first aid kit available
  • C) Briefly restrain animals when needed for
    examination or treatment

98
  • Restraint bags can be used to restrain cats and
    small dogs. The bags are made of canvas or nylon,
    with a hook or other type of fastener at the neck
    opening and one or more zippers (or strips of
    Velcro) to allow selective exposure of a body
    part. Instead of a restraint bag, a heavy towel
    can be used to wrap the cats body, leaving the
    head exposed but use of a towel is not nearly as
    effective as a bag.

99
Use of a cat restraint bag
100
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101
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102
Stretch Method gab scruff of neck and 2 rear
legsnote the gloves
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104
  • The animal's rear quarters are cradled in the
    handler's arm and the front legs are loosely
    griped with the same hand.
  • The other hand is free to pet and stroke the
    cat's head but can also quickly grab the
    zygomatic arches to control the head if the
    animal attempts to escape.  
  • zygomatic arches "natural cat handles" which
    provide secure restraint

105
Cat's will try to hide when frightened. You can
carry a cat with one hand under the hind quarters
and the other holding the scruff of the neck,
letting the cat hide it's head.
106
This net bag can be opened and used to catch a
small animal in a cage, then closed, trapping the
animal in the net. The animal can be handled
through the netting to give injections or place
catheters
107
Dogs are briefly restrained by placing one arm
under the dogs neck with the forearm holding the
head while the other arm is placed around the
animals body to pull it close to the handler
108
  • Muzzles for dogs prevent biting and can be a
    simple narrow strip of gauze or cloth made by
    making a loop in the material. The loop is
    slipped over the dogs nose and mouth and the
    ends are crossed under the jaw to bring them up
    behind the ears for tying in a bow

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110
The length must be adequate to wrap around the
muzzle at least twice, then tie behind the ears.
111
A large loop is made in the center of the length
of gauze. The loop should be about 3 times the
diameter of the dog's muzzle.
112
The loop is placed around the muzzle and pulled
tight at dorsum of the nose. A single knot is
placed.
113
The ends of the gauze are then tied under the jaw
with a single knot.
114
The long ends of the gauze are brought behind the
ears and tied in either a square knot or a easy
release bow. I prefer to tie a square knot and
have a scissors handy in case the muzzle needs to
be quickly removed.
115
Elbow on head with hand holding leg closest to
table and other arm is draped over abdomen
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117
  • The animal is restrained in sternal recumbancy
    for placement of a cephalic catheter.
  • Notice that the holder is standing on the side
    of the dog opposite the leg that is being
    catheterized.
  • The dog is restrained close to the body of the
    holder.
  • The muzzle is held away from the face of the
    holder and the person placing the catheter.
  • She is reaching over the dog to hold off the
    vein and can apply downward pressure over the
    dog's back, if needed to keep the dog in sternal
    recumbancy.
  • If the animal is not struggling, it is not
    necessary to apply pressure over the animal's
    back. The dog's leg is being held at the elbow to
    prevent her from pulling back her leg

118
RABBITS
119
  • Rabbits can be picked up by grabbing the scruff
    of the neck with one hand and lifting up while
    placing the other hand under the rump for
    support. To hold, simply use the same technique
    but the hand under the rump is moved to support
    the abdomen

SCRUFF
120
NO
YES
121
  • Rabbits seldom bite but many cause injury with
    their hind legs or may be injured if placed on a
    smooth surface.
  • A rabbits foot pads are covered with fur which
    cause a lack of traction if they are placed on a
    smooth or slick surface and may result in
    dislocation of their hip or spine when they try
    to move or hop.

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123
  • Rats and mice that are uses to being handled, can
    be picked up by grasping the tail close to the
    body with one hand and using the other hand to
    grasp loose skin in the neck and shoulder area

124
  • \

125
Guinea Pigs
  • Guinea pigs are curious, easy to handle animals.
  • They are NOT aggressive by nature.
  • Do not grasp the guinea pig by
  • the loose skin
  • Calmly grasp it with one hand under the chest and
    use your other hand to support its hindquarters

126
Hamsters
  • Hamsters handled frequently from a young age
    usually remain docile and seldom bite.
  • A hamster can be picked up gently by cupping it
    in one or both hands and holding it against your
    body.
  • Beware that even docile hamsters may bite if
    surprised or abruptly awakened from sleep

127
Aggressive Hamster?
  • Another method of capture involves coaxing the
    animal into a container (such as a can or tube)
    which can then be removed from the cage
  • Wear gloves
  • A biting hamster can be restrained by grasping a
    large amount of skin at the scruff of the neck.

128
Chinchillas
  • Hold it strongly by the base of its tail with one
    hand while supporting the weight of the
    chinchilla with the other hand
  • Try to carry the animal close to your body
  • Never hold the animal too tight. A Chinchilla
    will give a warning scream and/or bite if it is
    held too tightly
  • Important to earn a Chinchillas trust!! (can be
    difficult)

129
Ferrets
  • Ferrets should be handled gently but firmly
  • Pick your ferret up behind his front legs and
    support his bottom in your other hand.
  • You can also Scruff a ferret
  • Scruffing means taking a firm hold on the loose
    skin of the ferret's nape of the neck, and
    gathering it into a bunch so that the facial skin
    is stretched tightly enough to make the eyes
    squinty
  • Ferrets usually become passive and submissive
    when scruffed. Become limp.

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131
Common Toxins
  • p. 117

132
Trees
  • Cherry Tree
  • Respiratory distress
  • Death
  • Oak Tree
  • Weakness
  • Dehydration
  • Death
  • Apple Tree (seeds)
  • Vomiting
  • Salivation
  • Respiratory distress

133
Plants
  • Daffodil
  • Vomiting
  • Trembling
  • Foxglove
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Mistletoe
  • Irritation of stomach intestines
  • Shock

134
Plants
  • Tomato Plant
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Holly Plant
  • Diarrhea

135
Other Common Toxins
  • Alcohol
  • Depression
  • Coma
  • Death
  • Chocolate
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Seizures
  • Coma

136
Common Toxins
  • Antifreeze
  • Vomiting
  • Siezures
  • Coma
  • Death

137
Common Toxins
  • Over the Counter Anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Renal failure
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