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Additionality Myth Buster: The Case for Greene Certified RECs Representing Additional Reductions of


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Title: Additionality Myth Buster: The Case for Greene Certified RECs Representing Additional Reductions of

Additionality Myth BusterThe Case for Green-e
Certified RECs Representing Additional
Reductions of GHG
  • November 6, 2006
  • EMA 10th Annual Fall Conference
  • Marina Del Ray, CA
  • Presented By Gabe Petlin
  • Senior Manager Regulatory Affairs
  • 3 Phases Energy

What does 3 Phases Energy do?
GREEN CERTIFICATES Retail and Wholesale Sales of
Green Certificates
UTILITY PARTNERSHIPS Utility Green Power Program
Design and Management
CARBON OFFSETS Retail and Wholesale Sales of
Verified Emission Reductions
GREEN DIRECT Direct Access 100 Renewable Retail
Electricity Sales
Daylight Savings PPA and Construction
About 3 Phases Energy
  • Company Highlights
  • Offices in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Portland,
    other locations pending
  • Serving 9 of the top 13 U.S. EPA Green Power
    Partners including 27 Fortune 500 Companies
  • Awards
  • 2005 U.S. DOE/EPA Renewable Energy Supplier of
    the Year
  • 2005 EPA/CRS Beacon Award for origination of
    business demand
  • Utility partners include some of the most highly
    rated nationally, achieving 4-15 participation
    in green pricing programs
  • PacifiCorp (4.5)
  • City of Palo Alto Utilities (15.3)
  • Silicon Valley Power (5.5)
  • Roseville Electric (1.5, launched Dec. 05)
  • National average green pricing participation
  • Largest volume REC marketer in United States,
  • Supporting 450 MW of new renewable energy
    capacity representing approximately 15 of
    national voluntary demand.

Selected Corporate Institutional Customers
Cola, HSBC Bank, Toyota, Safeway, Adobe, Baxter,
IBM, Gap, Rockwell Collins, Keystone, Steamboat,
Union of Concerned Scientists, Pepsi, Pitney
Bowes, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US
General Services Administration, Prana, and
Selected Wholesale Customers
Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Sempra
Energy, Roseville Electric, City of Palo Alto
Utilities, Texas Commercial Energy, Silicon
Valley Power, TerraPass, Carbon Fund
3 Phases Energy Supports Development of New
Renewable Generation Across the U.S.
  • Supply-side business supporting 67 renewable
    generators in 21 States including IL, IA, MN, ND,
    SD, KS, NE, OK, IN, MI, KY, WV, PA, NC, MA, CA,
    OR, WA, WY, NM, CO, and Canada.
  • Contracting forms include PPAs, project
    development, advanced commitments to purchase
    renewable energy certificates (capital, forward
    contracts), spot market REC procurement.
  • 3 Phases Energy supports all renewable generation
    resources believing that significant market
    transformation requires a balanced and
    sustainable mix of renewable energy.

Purpose Additionality Myth BusterThe Case for
Green-e Certified RECs RepresentingAdditional
Reductions of GHG
  • Green-e Certification and Verification is both
  • Quality standard for voluntary retail renewable
    energy products
  • Additionality screen enabling buyers to easily
    identify renewable products that offer
    incremental benefits.

  • Supply of RECs equals quantity and type sold
  • Customer communications are accurate and
  • Independent verification audit of all marketers

  • New renewable resources built to serve voluntary
  • Above and beyond mandates or renewables in rate
  • Environmental attributes assigned to buyer
    contractually --no double

Green-es Approach Has Broad Support
  • US EPA Green Power Partnership
  • US EPA Climate Leaders
  • World Resources Institute (WRI) GHG Accounting
  • WRI Green Power Market Development Group
  • California Climate Action Registry
  • Chicago Climate Exchange
  • IETA/Climate Group Draft Voluntary Carbon
  • WWF Climate Savers
  • US Green Building Council LEED Certification
  • Sierra Club
  • Greenpeace
  • Union Of Concerned Scientists

Are we up to the task?
Sources Of Misconceptions About The Additionality
  • Competitive Concerns
  • Lack of Understanding of Green-e Standard
  • No Defined Standard for Voluntary GHG Reduction
  • Fear and Hope of Influencing Government Policy

Misconception 1A REC is supposed to represent
displaced emissions, but we cant say for sure
what is being displaced so any claim is suspect.
  • EPA guidance recommends E-Grid accepted approach
  • Green-e requires substantiation of claims
  • A REC from Kansas displaces more than a REC from
  • Estimating displaced emissions
  • System Average
  • Operating Margin
  • Build Margin
  • All Methods come with trade offs
  • Cost
  • Accuracy
  • Complexity

Misconception 2RECs are an indirect GHG
reduction so it is unclear what property right
you are buying. Any reduction is automatically
claimed by the energy producer making any other
claim double counting.
  • RECs are sold by contract with clear assignment
    of title to associated claims.
  • Established GHG registries recognize the indirect
    reductions of green power.
  • Generator and/or utility signs attestation
    agreeing not market null power as green.
  • Often multiple entities seeking to purchase RECs
    from any given facility.
  • Green-e audits transactions and enforces
    allegations of double claims.

Misconception 3There is way more renewable
energy available than sold as RECs, thus RECs
have little or no impact.
  • Only a subset of RECs eligible for voluntary
  • New Facilities Post 1997
  • New Vintages 6 months back, present year, 3
    months forward
  • Qualifying definition of renewables
  • Additional to RPS
  • Additional to Rate base
  • Not double sold/claimed
  • Green-e Standard
  • Screening tool protecting buyers
  • Removes uncertainty
  • Ensures quality

Misconception 4Renewable energy has become a
business as usual practice and does not represent
additional reductions of GHG
  • What is business as usual in US electricity from
    1997 -2004?
  • What portion is Green-e eligible?
  • What portion of new RE generation is used to
    comply with mandates?
  • Is it common practice to develop new renewables
    in the US that are not used for compliance?
  • New capacity was 95 natural gas. (EIA)
  • 2.33 of new capacity was Green-e eligible
    renewables (5,758 MW), mostly wind. (EIA)
  • 2,300 MW built for compliance mandates. (EIA
  • 2,200 MW built to serve voluntary markets. (NREL
  • Punch Line Voluntary market represents 1-1.5 of
    new capacity and is not business as usual.

Misconception 5RECs are so cheap they couldnt
possibly represent any additional GHG reduction.
  • REC prices range from 50 to
  • Factors are
  • Geography
  • Fuel Type
  • Vintage and Online Date
  • RPS Demand
  • Low cost RECs reflect market efficiency, drive up
    demand for renewables
  • Price of RECs function of supply and demand.
  • Price is not an indication of additionality.
  • RECs effective cost per CO2 ton comparable to CCX
  • Illustration
  • 2.40 REC displacing .6 tons CO2/MWh 4 ton

Misconception 6Not all RECs are created
equally, so buyers don't know what they are
  • That is why we have Green-e, the preeminent
    quality standard for the voluntary renewable
    industry covering
  • REC Markets
  • Utility Green Pricing
  • Restructured Markets
  • Buyers know what they are buying and get what
    they pay for.
  • Marketers must disclose prospectively/
  • Price, terms and conditions incl length of
    commitment and cancellation policies
  • Fuel source, geog origin by state and online date
  • Marketing claims verified and regulated by
  • Supply portfolio audited

Misconception 7RECs and CO2 Offsets are
fundamentally different instruments and should be
kept separate.
  • CO2 offsets represent 1 ton of direct emission
  • RECs represent the displaced emissions of 1 MWh
    of system average power.
  • Each market and GHG trading regime sets its own
    policy on instruments that are accepted.
  • Sensitivity around use of the term offset
  • Offset in formal sense
  • a project-based GHG reduction carried out by a
    non-capped entity.
  • sold to a capped entity
  • Offset in informal sense
  • Basis of voluntary claims
  • We offset our emissions through purchase of RECs
    or other GHG reduction credits.
  • Leads to claims 100 Green Powered or Carbon

Misconception 8Only front loaded RECs paid
forward prior to project construction can be
considered additional.
  • Future REC Model
  • Give your now
  • When we collect enough we will build a wind
  • Buyer claims 30 year stream of GHG reductions now
    before project is built.
  • A different way of financing a wind project.
  • How a project is paid for is separate from the
    question of additionality.
  • Concerns with Future Model
  • Artificially inflated GHG reduction claims
  • Verification occurs decades into future for
    claims made in present
  • Effectiveness
  • Compared to 5.2 million MWh sold as Green-e RECs
    in 2005

Misconception 9There is no quality standard for
RECs and RECs face no additionality test.
  • RECs face a rigorous additionality test through
    the Green-e Standard.
  • Buyer Beware warnings for the REC market are
    completely misplaced
  • The forthcoming VCS recognizes RECs as an
    eligible offset source for issuance of VCUs into
    the voluntary market.
  • A more important question is what is the quality
    standard for retail carbon reduction products
    sold in the voluntary market?
  • To date there is no Green-e for the voluntary
    retail GHG reduction product market.
  • We need one.

Responding To Market Demand Green-e is Developing
a Certification Standard For Retail GHG Reduction
  • Carbon retailers are springing up
  • There is no standard for
  • Accuracy of communication
  • Quality of offsets
  • Assurance of verification
  • Transparency and customer disclosure/education
  • Green-e stakeholder review process in late 2006
  • Certification program expected in early 2007
  • Green-e GHG Standard
  • Supply of GHG Reductions Equals Sales
  • GHG Reduction Types Retired are those Advertised
  • GHG Reductions Originate from Certified GHG

Additionality Myth BusterThe Case for Green-e
Certified RECs Representing Additional
Reductions of GHG
  • Thank you
  • Contact
  • Gabe Petlin
  • 3 Phases Energy
  • (415) 595-1679
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